Psychology 111 Study List 3
Psychology 111 Study List 3 PSYCH111-06
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MUSC 80C - 01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Spohr on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH111-06 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Woolley, Fredrich A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Exam 3 Review Chapter 7 4 Schedules of Reinforcement know how to identify 282283 Skinner 1 Fixed Interval Schedules Fl reinforcers represented at xed time periods provided that the appropriate response is made 2 Variable Interval Schedule VI behavior is reinforced based on an average time that as expired since the last reinforcement 3 Fixed Ratio Schedule FR reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses has been made 4 Variable Ratio Schedule VR the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average numb of responses Fixed interval pay by the hour Variable interval going to be paid but don39t know when it is coming Fixed ratiopay by the amount Variable ratiodoing behaviors but don39t know which one will give me a reward dating Behaviorism and Learningstudying what people do watson permanent change in the state of thelearnen Classical Conditioning 265 When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response dogs by pavolov salivate 1 Unconditioned Stimulusst that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism 2 Unconditioned ResponseRe exive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus 3 Conditioned Stimulusstimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism 4 Conditioned ResponseReaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus Delay and Trace conditioningp272 delay conditioning CS is a tone that is followed immediately by the US trace conditioning same thing except brief interval of time after the tone ends and the air puff is delivered Discrimination 269 Capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Extinction 268 the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented ringing the bell and don39t get food they stop responding Generalization 269 CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisitions Habituation 299 general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response learning how to drive for the rst time Law of Effect 277 The principle that behaviors that are followed by a quotsatisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an quotunpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be replaced Operant Conditioning 278Behavior that an organism produces that has one impact on the environment Positive and Negative Reinforcers and Punishments 279reinforcements and punishments punishment decreases behavior Primary and secondary reinforcers 279 primary food comfort shelter warmth secondary effectiveness of the primary reinforcers Secondorder conditioning 268 adding a 2nd neutral stimulus lst gives power to second as the power there lst has Conditioning where the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning Shaping and successive approximation 284285 Shaping learning that results from the reinforcement of successiveness steps to find desired behavior Successive Approximation behavior that gets incrementally closer to the overall desired behavior Spontaneous recovery 269when the learned behavior because extinct and reappears after extinction The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period The quotLittle Albert Study 269270 NSwhich initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention In classical conditioning when used together with an unconditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus Chapter 8 of Basic Emotions 3196 anger disgust fear happiness sadness and surprise Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa 330disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging Characteristics of a Lie 322 liars speak more slowly take longer to respond to questions and respond in less details than do those who are telling the truth Liars are less uent less engaging more uncertain more tense and less pleasant than truth tellers His performance tends to be just a bit too good Speech lacks the little imperfections that are typical of truthful speech Connection between Emotion and Motivation 310 Emotion positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activityMotivationpurpose for or psychological cause of an action Emotion and motivation share a common root that means quotto move Emotion provides information of the world and then are objective towards which people strive Deintensification masking neutralizing intensification321 1ntensification exaggerating the expression of ones emotion as when a person pretends to be more surprised by a gift than she really is 2 Deintesification muting the expression of ones emotion as when the loser of a contest tries to look less distressed than she really is 3 Masking expressing ones emotion while feeling another as when a poker player tries to look distressed rather than delighted as she examines a hand with full aces 4 Neutralizing feeling an emotion but displaying no expression as when a judge tries not to betray his learnings while lawyers are making their arguments Digestion absorption metabolism rumination333 1 Digestionbreakdown of feed particles and converted to a suitable products that cells can use 2 AbsorptionTransfer of nutrients from GIT to the circulating blood or lymph system 3 MetabolismRate at which energy is used 4 RuminationProcess that allows animal to ingest feed rapidly then complete the chewing at a later time Drive body wants to turn to homeostasis 328 homeostasisthe tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state drive internal state caused by psychological needs Organism needs to maintain healthy and properly eating so they have a drive to eat more to turn to homeostasis Hedonic principle 326 the claim that people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain Human motivation According to this principle our emotional experience can be thought of as a gauge that ranges from bad to good and we keep the needle of gauge as close to good as possible Instinct 327 the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends without foresight of the ends and without previous education in the performance Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation 338 Intrinsic motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding eating french fries because it tastes good or exercise because it feels good or listen to music because it sounds good extrinsic motivation to take actions that lead to reward Floss teeth to avoid gum disease or work hard to get more money to pay rent or taking an exam to get a college degree They all don39t bring pleasure but all may lead to pleasure in the long run Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs in order 328329 attempted to organize the lost of human urges Some needs must be satisfied before others A triangle check iPad for picture or this page number Most pervasive eatingrelated problem 330 America s most pervasive eatingrelated problem is obesity Obesity is having a body mass index of 30 or greater Need 328 something necessary for an organism to live list of human urges The sequence of the human sexual response cycle 335 the stages of psychological arousal during sexual activity 4 phases 1 Excitement phase muscle tension and blood flow increase and blood pressure rises Mans penis erect and balls draws upward and vagina lubricated and clitoris swollen erect nipples and sex flush 2 Plateau Phase heart rate and muscle tension increase mans urinary bladder closes and muscles at the base of penis begin stay rhythmic contraction May secrete small lubrication A woman39s clitoris may withdraw becomes more lubricated outer vagina swells and muscle may tighten and reduce opening 3 Orgasm Phase breathing becomes extreme and pelvic muscles begin a series of rhythmic contractions Both men and women experience quick cycles of of muscles contractions in the anus and lower pelvic muscles women experience uterine and vaginal contractions 4 Resolution Phase muscles relax blood pressure drops body returns to its resting state refractory period typically longer for men than women Universality Hypothesis 319emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone Every human being naturally expresses happiness with a smile and people naturally understand that a smile signi es happiness Universal language Which emotions are universal 319anger disgust fear happiness sadness and surprise Why do people mimic facial expressions of others319we can better understand how they are feeling to help others 43 questions
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