Psychology 111 Study List 4
Psychology 111 Study List 4 PSYCH111-06
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MUSC 80C - 01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Spohr on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH111-06 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Woolley, Fredrich A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 11 4 attachment styles p 440 an emotional bond with a primary caregiver Mary Ainsworth quotstrange situation gures out child attachment 1 Secure 60 mom returns baby was distressed when she39s gone calmed by her 2 Avoidant 20 not distressed when mom leaves don39t acknowledge her when return 3 Ambivalent 15 always distressed rebuffs their mom when she returns 4 Disorganized 5 no response when mom leaves or return 6 basic newborn p 428 re exes speci c patterns of motor response that are triggered by speci c patterns of sensory stimulation startle grasping toe curling tendency for infants to turn towards an object that touches cheekrooting suck any object enters mouth stepping Conservation 432 notions that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant doesnt change despite changes in the objects appearance Egocentrism 433 failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers Ex 3 year old asked what the other person sees they think its what they see Imaginary Audience 433 thinks everyone cares but only you notice it individual imagines and believes that multitudes of people are enthusiastically listening to or watching him or her Though this state is often exhibited in young adolescence people of any age may harbor a fantasy Joint attention 437 baby follows your gaze eyes older infant when eyes closed will not follow head but younger infant will follow no matter eyes opened or closed Older ones are trying to see what they think the mom is seeing Kohlberg39s 3 morality stages 444 1 Pre conventional do in fear of consequences being blamed punishment 2 Conventional because its right no spankings no prison sentence approval of others 3 Post conventional believe you should do or don39t do something i do things because hoers areright to life liberty pursuit of happiness woman39s life better than shopkeepers money so stealing medicine is an obligation Object permanence 431just because you cant see it doesn39t mean it doesn39t exist Personal Fable 431 you39re special and it cant happen to you but in reality it can belief held by many adolescents telling them that they are special and unique so much so that none of life39s dif culties or problems will affect them regardless of their behavior Piaget39s stages of cognitive development with age ranges 430 1 Sensorimotors born2 experiences world through movement and senses develops schemas begin to act intentionally shows evidence of understanding object permanence 4 Preoperational 26 acquire motor skills but doesn39t understand conversation of physical properties Starts thinking about egocentrically ends with basic understanding of others mind Concrete operational 611 logically think about physical objects and events and understand conversation of physical properties Conservation Formal operational 11 can think logically about abstract proposition and hypotheticals Social referencing 437 using others reactions as a biased copying emotion ability to use their reaction to something of the world Chapter 12 Cattell s Trait theory 474 narrowed from 18000 potentials to 16 traits Defense Mechanisms 482 unconsious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats tom unacceptable impulsesknow examples of them 1 Rationalization making excuses Ex girl drops class because quotpoor ventilation in classroom made it impossible to study bombing a test and saying it doesn39t matter because I39m dropping it anyways Somebody smokes just cuz their family did it 2 Reaction formation unconsciously replaces threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version oftheir opposites Ex being nice to person you hate being worried of person you want to hurt being cold to person you like Homophobic They say homosexuality is bad but nd out they are one unaccepting of their thoughts and behavior 3 Projection attributing threatening feelings motives impulses to another person or group Ex People who think that they are overly rigid or dishonest may have a tendency to judge other people as having the same qualities Taking your own projections but tells other people that they have it Jackie says ronda is jealous but thats what jackie is 4 Displacement shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative Ex Slamming door throwing something yelling at friends because your mad at your boss 5 Regression ego deals with internal con ict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature stage or earlier stage of development Ex Use of baby talk or whining in a child or adult sucking thumb cuddling teddy bear or watch cartoons in response to something distressing Crying over a breakup throwing a temper tantrum 6 identi cation deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope Ex The parent s bullies child so child grows up to bully 7 sublimation channelling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activitiesEx football rugby contact sports may be construed as culturally sanctioned and valued activities that channel our aggressive drives BYUI is so good at doing Activities on campus everyday and keep busy we wont get busy with sexual relationships Freud39s 3 part personality 481 1id part of mind containing the drives present birth Source of our bodily needs wants desires and impulses particularly our sexual aggressive drive pleasure principle 2ego component of personality developed through contact with the external world that enables us to deal with life s particular demand Reality principle Helps you to resist snatching other peoples food 35uperego mental system that re ects the internalization of cultural rules mainly learned as parents exercise their authority Kind of consciousness that punishes us guilts us or painful feelings just for thinking or doing something bad Freud39s psychosexual stages 484 5 stages 1 Oral 018 months pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth sucking and being fed Depression lack oftrust envy demandingness talkative dependent addictive needy Life centered on emptiness and fullness 2 Anal 23 years Pleasure and frustrations associated with the anus retention and expulsion of feces and urine and toilet training Rigid personality and remain preoccupied with issues of control of others and of themselves and their emotions Preoccupied with their possessions money issues of submission and rebellion and concerns about cleanliness vs messy disorganized orderly 3 Phallic 35 years coping with powerful incestuous feeling of love hate jealousy and con ict Might be interested in touching him or herself and explore masturbation and think of their parents genitals Flirtatious vain competitive seduction 4 Latency 513 years Intellectual creative interpersonal athletic skills May be homosexual 5 Genital adulthood capacity of love work and relate to others mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner Healthy adulthood relationship Oedipus complex and Electra complex 484 development experience in which a child s con icting feelings toward opposite sex parent are usually resolved by identifying with the same sex parent Oedipus killed father married mother age 45 boys must get over that in order to have a partner in the future Personality 468individual39s characteristics style of behaving thinking feeling Rorschach Inkblot 471 series of picture what they see tends to apply to their life a projective personality test in which individuals interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent s inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure The Big Five 475 CANOE 1 Conscientiousness ability to know you got your life in order or not organized careful self discipline Don39t have life together disorganized careless weakwilled 2 Agreeableness how easy are you to get along with soft hearted trusting helpful Cant get along with people ruthless suspicious uncooperative 3 Neuroticism Bipolar and ip your emotions have very little control over them worried insecure selfpitying Can control emotions calm secure selfsatis ed 4 Openness to experience They like to change it up and experience many new things imaginitive variety independent Doesn39t want any new things and don39t want change down toearth routine conforming 5 Extraversion Love being with other people and being around other people social fun loving affectionate Extrovert Having different traits when theres no control of the situation being quiet and an introvert if alone and don39t know anybody around Love being alone retiring sober reserved The pleasure principle 481 the instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain expressed by the id as a basic motivating force that reduces psychic tension The reality principle 781 the ego39s control of the pleasureseeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world Thematic Apperception Test 471 projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives concerns and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous picture of people Trait 472 relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way Ex person who alphabetize books fold clothes neatly marks peoples birthday on calendar is known as orderliness Not a behavior Preexisting or motives William James ideas on personality 475 quotIn most of us by the age of thirty the character has set like plaster and will never soften again Cha ter 13 Altruism 514 Behavior that bene ts another without bene ting oneself Animals mostly don39t know if humans have it Asch study methods and results 529 lines 75 will go along Solomon Asch participants sit in a room with seven people but only one of them was not an actor Three printed lines and had to match to the standard one Conformity 528 going along with the crowd Tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it Asch s experiment Cooperation 510 Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual bene ts Cooperation is sometimes risky game called prisoner dilemma because its hard to trust one Deindividuation 513 when immersion in a group causes people to become less concentrated values you don39t feel valued as an individual but as a whole group The more people there are the groups underperform individuals in a wide variety of tasks The cost of groups go beyond bad decisions because people in groups sometimes do terrible things that none would do alone Diffusion of responsibility 513 individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way being assembled in a group draws our attention to others and away from ourselves when we see lots of people around us we may feel that it is somebody else job Discrimination 511 biased action Positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership Informational in uence 531 if everyone is running and screaming you do so as well A phenomenon that occurs when a persons behavior provides information about what is good or right Mere exposure effect 517 being around something or someone makes you like it more tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking Milgram study methods and results 530 65 62of people would shock and go all the way People would obey no matter what when even it is in this kind of station where the participants can be dead being shocked Predictors of aggression 507508 single best predictors of aggression is gender and highest level testosterone level boys and younger boys aggression is behavior whose purpose is to harm another Crims such as assault battery and murder and done by men Testosterone higher in men than in women in younger men than older men testosterone promotes aggression by making people feel concerned with their status power con dence in their ability to prevail Prejudice 511 biased belief Positive or Negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership Reciprocity 527528 feeling to give something back when something is given Unwritten rule that people should bene t those who have bene ted them Social psychology de ne 505 how the group affects the individual Study of causes and consequences of sociality ages for freud don39t need to know age but need to know order
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