Bio Midterm #1 Study Guide
Bio Midterm #1 Study Guide 2203
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Hansen on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2203 at University of Denver taught by Barbekka Hurtt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Molecules to Humankind I in Biology at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Grace Hansen Molecules to HumankindMidterm 1 Chapter 1 Human Biology Science and Society Biology the study of living organisms and life s processes 11 The Characteristics of Life 1 Criteria as signs of life a Living things have a different molecular composition than nonliving things i They can combine elements in unique ways creating certain molecules combinations of elements b They require energy and raw materials i Metabolism the physical and chemical processes involved in transforming energy and molecules so that life can be maintained c Are composed of cells i Cell the smallest unit that exhibits all the characteristics of life d Maintain homeostasis i Homeostasis the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment e Respond to their external environment f Crow and reproduce g Populations of living things evolve 12 How human fit into the natural world I The categories of the classification system largest to smallest a Domain 3 of them i Domain Bacteria ii Domain Arachaea iii Domain Eukarya Has 4 Kingdoms 1 Kingdom Protista 2 Kingdom Animalia 3 Kingdom Fungi 4 Kingdom Plantae b Kingdom c Phylum d Class e Order f Family g Genus h Species 11 Fundamental Criteria Used for Classification a Is there a nucleus i Domain Bacteria and Archaea do not have a membranebound nucleus ii Domain Eukarya has a membranebound nucleus Grace Hansen b Number of Cells structure i Unicellular ii Multicellular c Type of Metabolism mode of nutrition 111 Domain Eukarya a Protista unicellular and simple multicellular eukaryotic protozoa algae slime molds Plantae multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic Animalia multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophic Fungi molds yeasts mushrooms eukaryotic decomposers lassification of Humans Homo Sapiens Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species sapiens V Vocab a Prokaryotes Cells without nuclei b Eukaryotes cells with nuclei c Photosynthesis process in which plants convert the sunlight into IV rqqrmgnsrsvnpog energy d Chlorophyll green pigment used in photosynthesis VI Living Things are grouped according to characteristics a Smallest unit of classification system is species i One or more populations of organisms 1 Similar physical and functional characteristics 2 Can interbreed and produce fertile offspring ii Second smallest unit is genus iii All living human beings belong to the same genus and species 1 Homo Sapiens VII Defining Features of Humans a Bipedalism able to stand upright and walk on two legs b Opposable thumbs able to grasp objects between thumb and tips of fingers c Large Brain relative to body size d Capacity for language both spoken and written Human Biology can be studied on any level of biological or organization 1 Atom and molecule a Atom smallest unit of an element of matter b Molecule more than one atom in a stable association 11 Cell a Smallest unit of life Grace Hansen III Tissue a An association of cells with the same general structure and function IV Organ a An association of several tissue types that carry out a specific function V Organ system a Two or more organs that work together to carry out a general function such as digestion or movement VI Organism a An individual living being composed of several organs or organ systems VII Population a A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area VIII Community a Several populations of different species who inhabit the same area and interact with each other IX Ecosystem a All of the organisms in a given area plus all of the nonliving matter and energy X Biosphere a All ecosystems combined The portion of earth occupied by living organisms plus those organisms 13 Science is both a body ofknowledge and a process 1 Science is the study of the natural world and the knowledge about the natural world 11 Scientific method the process of science or the way scientific knowledge is acquired a Observe and generalize i Inductive reasoning make generalizations based on observations about the world ii Every winter in the past was colder than the preceding summerquot b Formulate a hypothesis i A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the natural world c Make a testable prediction i Hypotheses should be tested under many different conditions ii Testable predictions 1 Should be based on the hypothesis 2 Should employ deductive reasoning 3 Are often in the from of ifthenquot statements 4 Should be specific in order to be testable d Experiment or observe i Truth or falsehood of prediction is tested by observation and experimentation ii Experiment a carefully planned and executed manipulation of the natural world Grace Hansen 1 In controlled experiments all but one variable are accounted for 2 Experimental group 3 Control group 4 Variables factors that might vary during the course of the experiment 5 Placebo false treatmentquot e Modify the hypothesis as necessary and repeat i If prediction is false the hypothesis must be modified ii If the prediction is true only one small part of the hypothesis has been tested Further testing required iii Hypotheses cannot be proved true only supported or disproved 111 Making findings known a Findings can be disseminated in i Peerreviewedjournals 1 Experts must approve articles before publication 2 Results are assumed to be valid only for conditions under which experiment was done ii Popular press iii Electronic publications 1 Internet is less regulated than print and broadcast media IV Hypothesis Becomes a Theory a For a hypothesis to become a theory it must i Be broad ii Be extensively tested iii Be supported over time iv Explain a broad range of facts v Have a high degree of reliability b Theories may be refuted in the future 14 Sources of scientific information vary in style and quality 15 Learning to be a critical thinker I Become a skeptic a Skepticism questioning attitude II Appreciate the value of Statistics a Data numerical information 111 Learn to read graphs IV Distinguish anecdotes from scientific evidence V Separate facts from conclusions VI Understand the differences between correlation and causation 16 The role of science in society 1 Science improves technology and the human condition a Technology application of technology Grace Hansen 11 Science has limits 111 Science helps us to make informed choices Chapter 2 Chemistry of Living Things 21 All matter consists of elements Chemistry the study of matter Matter 0 Anything that has mass and occupies space 0 Composed of elements 0 Elements 0 Cannot be broken down to a simpler form 0 Periodic table of elements lists all known elements I Atoms are the smallest functional units of an element a Atom the smallest unit of any element that still retains the physical and chemical properties of that element b The nucleus is made of i Protons positively charged particles ii Neutrons neutral particles iii Electrons negatively charged particles 11 Isotopes have a different number of neutrons a Atoms with either more or fewer neutrons than the usual number for that element are called isotopes 22 Atoms combine to form molecules 1 A molecule consists of a stable association between two or more atoms 11 Energy fuels life s activities a Energy is the capacity to do quotworkquot the capacity to cause some change in matter b Stored energy that is not actually performing any work at the moment is called potential energy because it has the potential to make things happen c Energy that is actually doing work that is energy in motion is called kinetic energy 111 Chemical bonds link atoms to form molecules a Atoms are bound to each other by attractive forces by chemical bonds i Covalent bonds involve sharing electrons 1 Covalent bond an electronsharing bond between atoms 2 Strength strong 3 A bond in which the sharing of electrons between atoms results in each atom having a maximally filled outermost shell of electrons ii Ionic bonds occur between oppositely charged ions Grace Hansen 1 An electrically charged atom or molecule is called an lon 2 When two oppositely charged ions come together and ionic bond is formed 3 Strength moderate iii Weak hydrogen bonds form between polar molecules 1 Molecules such as water that are electrically neutral overall but still have partially charged regions or poles are called polar molecules 2 The weak attractive force between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules that contain covalently bonded hydrogen is called a hydrogen bond 23 Life Depends on Water 1 Water is the biological solvent a A solvent is a liquid in which other substances dissolve i Water is the ideal solvent b A solute is any dissolved substance 24 The importance of hydrogen ions 1 Acids donate hydrogen ions bases accept them a An acid is any molecule that can donate give up an H ion i 07 b A base is any molecule that can accept an H ion or alkaline i Decrease hydrogen ion concentration in solutions ii 714 c pH Scale i A measure of hydrogen ion concentration ii A buffer is any substance that tends to minimize the changes in pH that might otherwise occur when an acid or base is added to a solution 1 Help maintain stable pH in body uids 2 Carbonic acid and bicarbonate act as one of the body s most important buffer pairs Slide Notes Life Depends on Water Key Properties of water 0 Water is an excellent solvent 0 Water is liquid at body temperature I Water serves an important transport function in the blood which is 90 water I Water is the main constituent of Intracellular spaces Grace Hansen Extracellular space I 60 ofbody weight is water 0 Water can absorb and hold heat energy Evaporation of water uses up heat energy 0 Water participates in essential chemical reactions I Synthesis of carbohydrates proteins and lipids produces water molecules I Breakdown of carbohydrates proteins and lipids consumes water molecules 0 Water helps regulate body temperature I Water absorbs and holds a large amount of heat energy with only a modest increase in temperature Prevents rapid changes in body temperature I Evaporative cooling enable body to lose excess heat quickly Macromolecules are synthesized and broken down within the cell Dehydration synthesis 0 Removes equivalent of a water molecule to link molecular units 0 Requires energy 0 Builds macromolecules from smaller subunits Hydrolysis o Adds the equivalent of a water molecules to break apart macromolecules o Releases energy Dehydration synthesis is the reverse of hydrolysis Molecules of Life4 major classes of organic molecules Carbohydrates used for energy and structural support 0 General formula CnH20n o Monosaccharaides simple sugars I Glucose I Fructose I Galactose I Ribose RNA I Deoxyribose DNA Lipids insoluble in water 0 Three important classes of lipids I Triglyerides energy storage molecules Also known as fats and oils Composed of glycerol and three fatty acids 0 Fatty acids I Saturated in fatsall single bonds between carbons I Unsaturated in oilsinclude some double bonds between carbons Stored in adipose tissue Energystorage molecules O Grace Hansen I Phospholipids cell membrane structure Structure 0 Glycerol 2 fatty acids and phosphate group 0 One end of molecule phosphate and glycerol is water soluble hydrophilic o Other end of molecule 2 fatty acid tails is water insoluble hydrophobic Function 0 Primary component of cell membrances I Steroids carbonbased ring structures 4 rings Structure 0 Composed of four carbon rings Examples 0 Cholesterol 0 Hormones I Estrogen I Testosterone Proteins complex structures constructed of amino acids 0 Long chains polymers of subunits called amino acids 0 Amino acids I 20 different types I Amino end carboxy end R group 0 Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds which are produced by dehydration synthesis reactions 0 Peptide Bond forms between carboxyl end of one amino acid and amino end of the next amino acid 0 Polypeptide a polymer of 3100 amino acids 0 Protein a polypeptide longer than 100 amino acids that has a complex structure and function 0 Protein function depends on structure I Denaturation Permanent disruption of protein structure 0 Can be damaged by temperature or changes in pH Leads to loss of biological function Nucleic acids store genetic information 0 Nucleic acids are long chains containing subunits known as nucleotides 0 Two types of nucleic acids I DNA Contains instructions for producing RNA I RNA Contains instructions for producing proteins I DNAgtRNAgtProteins 0 Structure of DNA Grace Hansen I Doublestranded I Nucleotides contain I Deoxyribose sugar I Nitrogenous bases Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thyine I Pairing AdenineThymine GuanineCytosine 0 Structure of RNA I Single standed I Nucleotides contain 0 Ribose Nitrogenous bases 0 Adenine o Guanine o Cytosine o Uracil Oligosaccharides more than one monosaccharide linked together Monosaccharaides can be linked together Via dehydration synthesis Disaccharides two monosaccharaides linked together 0 Sucrose glucose fructose o Maltose glucose glucose 0 Lactose glucose galactose Polysaccharides Store Energy Polysaccharides thousands of monosaccharaides joined in linear and or branched chains 0 Starch made in plants stores energy 0 Glycogen made in animals stores energy 0 Cellulose indigestible polysaccharide made in plants for structural support Enzymes Facilitate Biochemical reactions Enzymes o Are proteins 0 Function as biological catalysts I Speed up chemical reactions I Are not altered or consumed by the reaction 0 Without enzymes many biochemical reactions would not proceed quickly enough to sustain life 0 Maintenance of homeostasis is critical in order to maintain the shake and biologic activity of enzymes 0 The functional shape of an enzyme is dependent on I Temperature Grace Hansen I I ion concentration I Presence of inhibitors ATP carries energy Structure and function of adenosine triphosphate ATP 0 Nucleotideadenosine triphosphate 0 Universal energy source 0 Bonds between phosphate groups contain potential energy 0 Breaking the bonds releases energy I ATPgtADP P energy Chapter 3 Cell Function and Structure Key Terms Grace Hansen Cell Smallest unit that has all characteristics of life Cell Theory 1 All living things are composed of cells 2 A single cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all of the characteristics of life 3 All cells come only from preexisting cells Prokaryotic NO nucleus No true organelles Have plasma membrane and cytoplasm Bacteria archaea Eukaryotic Have nucleus Us Have plasma membrane and cytoplasm Many membrane bound organeHes Microscope Must be used to see cells Cell Structure Re ects cell function Smaller size is more efficient Organelles In eukaryotic Membrane bound Plasma Membrane Surrounds cell Delineates cells In Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Creates internal environments that separate from external one Grace Hansen Selectively permeable Permeability based on size charge of substance Enables transfer of info between environment and cell Phospholipid bilayer makes it semipermeable Embedded with proteins allow transport across membrane Cholesterol provides support Carbs provide recognition for cells and organisms Nucleus Contains genetic information DNA Controls ALL activities of cell Cytoplasm Water content Helps regulate cell DNA carries most of genetic instructions used for development functioning and reproduction of living organisms contains instructions for producing RNA DNA RNA PROTEINS Double stranded structure AdenineThymine GuanineCytosine AT GC Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis Free Bound Mitochondria powerhouse Grace Hansen Cellular respiration site Generates ATP energy Surrounded by double membrane of them depends on cells energy requirement inner membrane highly folded Cytoskeleton supports cell supports anchors other cellular structures MicrotubulesMicrofilaments made of proteins Golgi Apparatus Mail Centerquot Refines packages ships Refines synthesized products Package products into vesicles Ships products to other places in cell OR to membrane to export out of cell Vesicles Membrane bound storage and shipping containers SodiumPotassium Pump 32 outin 3 sodium out 2 potassium in balances ions Increased volume in cell when there is more water pumping decreases this allows more sodium into cell balances Decrease volume in cell less water Grace Hansen in cytoplasm pumping increases to get rid of more sodium balances ions Surface areatovolume surface area to volume ratio decreases as cell size increases SO when cell grows past certain limit not enough material can cross the membrane fast enough to accommodate increased volume Cell must divide into smaller cells with better ratios or they stop functioning Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules Diffusion PASSIVE random movement of molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration HIGHER to LOWER DOWN concentration gradient Molecules spread ATP Adenosine Triphosphatequot universal energy source pocket changequot form of energy more immediate ATP is used to do cellular work Active Transport Movement of molecules from Grace Hansen LOWER to HIGHER concentration Requires ATP Requires protein carrier Selectively Permeable Lets some things in blocks others based on size charge Tonicity Relative concentration of solutes in 2 uids solvents Cellular Respiration breakdown glucose make ATP 4 stages glycolysis preparatory step citric acid cycle electron transport chain Aerobic Respiration Uses oxygen Glucose completely broken down End products carbon dioxide and water Relatively large amount of energy released 19 times more energy than anaerobic with same amount of glucose Anaerobic Respiration Energy production without oxygen Uses a respiratory electron transport chain BUT doesn t use oxygen as electron acceptors Lower amount of energy released 2 ATP produced per molecules of glucose Grace Hansen EX happens in muscles during hard exercise glucose lactic acid EX in yeast during brewing and bread making helps bread rise glucose ethanol and C02 Glucose not entirely broken down less energy released Product in Animal Cells lactic acid Product in Plant Cells and Yeast ethanol and carbon dioxide Glucose Provides cell with energy Energy in glucose is used to make ATP 1 glucose can yield 36 ATP Must be cashed inquot for ATP Broken down in cellular respiration Energy The capacity to do work Chapter 3 Learning Objectives Define the term cell in biological context The basic structural functional and biological unit of all known living organisms Grace Hansen The smallest unit of life Can replicate independently Building Blocks of Lifequot Identify major characteristics of the cell theory cell doctrine 1 All living things are composed of cells 2 A single cell is the smallest unit that has all characteristics of life 3 All cells come from preexisting cells Describe the major similarities and Similarities differences between prokaryotic and Plasma membrane eukaryotic cells Cytoplasm DNA They are the two main cell types Differences Nucleus only eukaryotic Organelles only eukaryotic Prokaryotic bacteriaarchaea Eukaryotic animals Explain the structure of the plasma membrane and its importance in cell function The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable membrane surrounding the cell made of a phospholipid bilayer cholesterol and carbohydrates It creates an internal environment that differs from the external one allows for the transfer of information between the cell and its surrounding environment and its selective permeability allows some substances into the cell and blocks others based on size and charge Phospholipid Bilayer creates semi permeable nature Cholesterol support Carbohydrates recognition by cells Define osmosis diffusion facilitated diffusion and active transport Osmosis diffusion of water Diffusion random movement of Grace Hansen molecules from HIGH TO LOW concentration Down a concentration gradient Facilitated DiffusionTransport No energy needed Always high to low concentration Across plasma membrane with a protein carrier Active Transport Energy needed Lower to higher concentration through plasma membrane via protein carrier Explain how substances move across the plasma membrane Ways substances can move across Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated Transport Active Transport Endocytosis Exocytosis How substances move across Flow through semipermeable membrane Dissolve in the water to be filtered though membrane Pass through protein carriers Molecules can attach themselves to a protein carrier and then are transported inside the cell Passive Movement 1 Diffusion high to low always 2 Osmosis diffusion of water Identify the structure and function of CONTROL CENTERquot the nucleus Structure of Nucleus Double layered membrane Nuclear pores Chromosomes chromatin Grace Hansen Nucleolus Chromatin Lower order of DNA organization Unpaired Long thin uncoiled Chromosomes Higher order of DNA organization Paired Compact structure of nucleic acids and proteins Carry genetic info in form of genes Compact thick coiled Seen well in microscope during cell division Describe what is meant by cellular respiration Cells release energy by breaking the chemical bonds of food molecules like glucose then use this energy for processes oflife ALL living cells must carry out cellular respiration Breakdown glucose in presence of oxygen to make ATP Glucose is broken into 2 pyruvate glycolysis THEN oxidation of pyruvate produces carbon dioxide and water Oxygen is final electron acceptor Produces C02 as waste quot the C02 then binds with H20 this forms carbonic acid carbonic acid helps regulate bloods pH Compare and contrast various types of cells and their function Eukaryotic cells are similar but have structural dl erences Grace Hansen Muscle Cells Have many organelles that provide energy for muscle contraction Nerve Cells long and thin quotSo they can carry impulses over distance Discuss why cells are small in size SMALL SIZE EFFICIENT and why this is functionally valuable smaller cells have higher surface to volume ratio quotTHIS is important because cells are able to efficiently pass enough material through membrane to accommodate needs needs are based on volume High Surface to Volume Ratio GOOD efficiency in acquisition of nutrients disposal of wastes as cell size increases ratio decreases Identify 3 major types of microscopy and why we use microscopes NEED microscope to see cells 1 Light Microscope LM up to lOOOx 2 Transmission Electron Microscope TEM Grace Hansen up to 100000x 3 Scannin Electron Microscope SEM 3D View of cell surface up to 100000x
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