PSYC4220 Book notes Exam 2
PSYC4220 Book notes Exam 2 PSYC 4220
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
PSYC4220 EXAM 2 BOOK NOTES 0 Chapter 5 0 Information from lecture on the development of sensation and perception during infancy Chapter 6 0 Information Processing Approaches pg 149156 0 InformationProcessing Approaches to Cognitive Development Informationprocessing approaches identify the way that individuals take in store and use information o The quantitative changes in infant s abilities to organize and manipulate information represent the hallmarks of cognitive development Cognitive development is characterized by increasing sophistication speed and capacity in information processing Focus on types of quotmental programsquot that people use when they seek to solve problems Encoding Storage and Retrieval The Foundations of Information Processing Infopross has 3 basic aspects 0 Encoding storage retrieval 0 Encoding process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory 0 Encode selectively picking and choosing the information we will pay attention to 0 Storage placement of material into memory 0 Retrieval process by which material in memory storage is located brought into awareness and used 0 Computer analogy Encodingkeyboard One inputs information Storage hard drive Where info is stored Retrieval software that accesses info for display on the screen Automization Sometimes encoding storage and retrieval is automatic and sometimes it s deliberate Automization degree to which an activity requires attention Processes that require relatively little attentionautomatic Processes that require large amounts of attentioncontrolled Automatic mental processes help children in their initial encounters with the world by enabling them to easily process info in particular ways Infants and children develop a sense of how often different stimuli are found together simultaneously Permits them to develop an understanding of concepts categorizations of objects events or people that share common properties infants have the ability to learn subtle statistical patterns and relationships 0 infants as young as 5 months are able to calculate the outcome of simple addition and subtraction problems infants have rudimentary math skills that enable them to understand whether or not a quantity is accurate Memory During Infancy They Must Remember This 0 Memory Capabilities in Infancy O 0 Infants have memory capabilities Memory process by which information is initially recorded stored and retrieved Infant memory capabilities increase as they get older Hints can reactivate memories that rst seem lost and the older the infant the more effective such prompting is The more times a memory is retrieved the more enduring the memory becomes 0 The Duration of Memories 0 Older infants can retrieve information more rapidly and they can remember it longer Early research supported notion of infantile amnesia lack of memory for experiences occurring prior to 3 years of age More recent research shows that infants do retain memories Physical trace of a memory in the brain appears to be relatively permanent suggesting that memories even from infancy may be enduring Memories susceptible to interference from other newer information which may displaceblock out older info preventing it to recall Language plays key role in determining way in which memories from early life can be recalled One reason why infants remember less Because of limited vocab at time of initial storage unable to describe event later in life Early memories are susceptible to mis recollection if exposed to related contradictory info following initial formation of memory New material may be incorporated into original memory corrupting accuracy 0 Memories of personal experiences seem to not be accurate before age 1824 months 0 The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory 0 2 separate systems involved with long term memory explicit and implicit memory 0 explicit memory memory that s conscious and can be recalled intentionally ex Names and phone numbers 0 implicit memory consists of memories of which we are not consciously aware but that affect performance and behavior Motor skills habits and activities that can be remembered without e o Ex Riding a bike climbing a stairway o Explicit and implicit emerge at different rates and involve different parts of the brain 0 Earliest memoriesimplicit lnvolve cerebellum and brain stem 0 Explicit Hippocampus True explicit memory doesn t emerge until the 2nCI half of the rst year o Involves increasing number of areas of the cortex of the brain Individual Differences in Intelligence Is One Infant Smarter Than Another 0 What is infant intelligence 0 Several approaches to illuminate individual differences is intelligence during infancy Developmental Scales 0 Arnold Gesell formulated earliest measure of infant development Designed to distinguish between normally developing and atypically developing babies Developmentalquotient Overall development score that relates to performance in 4 domains 0 Motor skills balance and sitting Language use 0 Adaptive behavior 0 alertness and exploration 0 Personalsocial behavior 0 Bayley Scales of Infant Development Evaluate infant development from 242 months Focus on 2 areas 0 Mental senses perception memory learning problem solving and language 0 Motor abilities ne and gross motor skills Informationprocessing Approaches to Individual Differences in Intelligence 0 Speed with which infants process information may correlate most strongly with later intelligence as measured by IQ tests measured in adulthood o Habituation tests 0 Visualrecognition memory measurement Measures of visualrecognition memory memory of and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen Also relate to intelligence More quickly an infant can retrieve a representation of a stimulus from memory the more efficient that infant s processing Relationship between information processing efficiency and cognitive abilities Multimodel approach to perception 0 Ability to identify a stimulus that previously has been experienced through only one sense by using another sense Crossmodel transference 0 Ex Baby who can recognize a screw driver by sight that she has only previously touched a screwdriver 0 Degree of crossmodel transference displayed at age 1 is associated with intelligence Even thought there is an association between early info processing capabilities and later measures of IQ the correlation is only moderate in strength Chapter 7 Degree of environmental stimulation plays a role in adult intelligence intelligence measured by IQ test relates to particular type of intelligenceacademic not artistic or professional success recent infoprocessing approaches suggest cognitive devel occurs in an orderly continuous manner from infancy to later stages in life 0 Assessing Information Processing Approaches Piaget focuses on qualitative changes cognitive growth occurs in fairly sudden spurts focuses on whole puzzle Information processing looks at quantitative changes gradual step by step growth more precise measurements processing speeds and memory recall focuses on individual pieces of puzzle 0 Emotions in infancy pg170174 Infants Sociability with Peers pg182184 Gender pg 187188 Forming the Roots of Sociability o Emotions in Infancy Do Infants Experience Highs and Lows 0 Basic facial expressions are similar across the most diverse cultures Nonverbal encoding nonverbal expression of emotion Fairly consistent among people of all ages We are born with capacity to display basic emotions Maximal Discriminative Facial Movement Coding System MAXfinds that interest distress and disgust are present at birth and other emotions emerge over the next few months lnfants display similar kinds of emotions Degree of emotional expressivity vades Experiencing Emotions Nonverbal expressions of infants represent actual emotional expedences Help regulate emotion As they grow they expand and modify basic expressions and become more adept at controlling nonverbal behavioral expressions Also experience wider array of emotions Limbic system starts to work in tandem with frontal lobes allowing for increased range of emotions o Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety Stranger anxiety caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person Develops second 12 of rst year Brain development and increased cognitive abilities of infants plays a role As memory develops infants can separate people they know from those they don t When something happens they don t expect they experience fear Infants with a lot of experience with strangers show less anxiety Not all strangers invoke same reaction React more positively to strangers who are children size is less intimidating Separation anxiety distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs Universal across cultures Begins at 78 months Stanger and separation anxiety both represent important social progress Re ect cognitive advances and growing emotional and social bonds between infants and caregivers o Smiling Earliest smiles expressed in sleep have little meaning 69 weeks babies begin to smile reliably at sight of stimuli that please them 0 toys mobiles and people rst smiles are indiscriminate as they get older smile more selectively social smile smile in response to another person rather than nonhuman stimuli 18 monthssocial smiling directed more toward mothers and caregivers becomes more frequent than smiling directed toward nonhuman objects by end of second year children are purposefully smiling to communicate positive emotions and they are sensitive to emotional expressions of others 0 Decoding Others Facial and Vocal Expressions Nonverbal decoding abilities infants can interpret others facial and vocal expressions that carry emotional meaning Infants can discriminate vocal expressions of emotion earlier than facial expressions Can discriminate happy and sad vocal expressions at 5 months 68 weeks visual perception is sufficiently limited that they cannot pay much attention to others facial expressions 4 monthsinfants may be able to understand emotions behind facial and vocal expressions helpful in experiencing own emotions and in using others emotions to understand the meaning of ambiguous social s uanns 0 Infants Sociability with Their Peers Infant Infant Interaction 0 From earliest months of life they smile laugh and vocalize while looking at peers 0 Show more interest in peers than inanimate objects 0 Pay greater attention to other infants than mirror image of selves 0 Preference for familiar peers 0 912 months mutually present and accepttoys if they know each other play social games o foundation for future social exchanges in which children will try to elicit responses from others then offer reactions to those responses 0 begin to imitate each other learning by exposure starts early in life imitation may be inborn mirror neurons re not only when individual enacts a particular behavior but also when individual simply observes another organism carrying out same behavior 0 may help infants understand others actions and develop a theory of mind dysfunction of mirror neurons may be related to development of disorders involving children s theory of mind as well as autism implications of learning new behaviors skills and abilities from exposure to other children interactions between children provide more than social bene ts 0 may have impact on future cognitive development 0 infants may bene t from participation in child care centers 0 Gender Why Do Boys Wear Blue and Girls Wear Pink 0 From moment of birth boys and girls are treated differently 0 Parents play with boys and girls differently Fathers interact more with sons Mothers interact more with daughters 0 Male and female infants are exposed to different styles of activity and interaction from their parents 0 Behavior exhibited by girls and boys is interpreted in very different ways by adu s 0 Gender our sense of being male or female Social perceptions of maleness or femaleness 0 Gender roles vary from one culture to another 0 Gender Differences Male infants tend to be more active and fussier Boys sleep tends to be more disturbed Boys grimace more Differences are generally minor There are much larger differences between individual boys and among individual girls than there are between boys and girls 0 Gender Roles By age of 1 infants can distinguish between males and females 0 Girls prefer to play with dollsstuffed animals 0 Boys seek out blocks and trucks Children s toy preferences are reinforced by parents Parents of boys are more apt to be concerned about their child s choices 0 Boys receive more reinforcement for playing with toys that society deems appropriate increases with age Girls who play with masculine toys are less discouraged for their behavior than boys who play with feminine toys By age 2 boys behave more independently and less compliantly Societal encouragement and reinforcement don t completely explain differences in behavior 0 Girls who were exposed to abnormally high levels of androgen male hormone were more likely to play with toys meant for boys Differences between boys and girls begin in infancy and continue throughout childhood and beyond Gender differences have complex causes 0 Combo of innate biologically related factors and environmental factors 0 Play a profound role in social and emotional development of infants 0 Chapter 8 0 Sleep pg 202 Health and Wellness pg 203210 0 Sleep 2030 of preschoolers experience difficulties lasting more than an hour in getting to sleep between 1050 of children age 35 experience nightmares higher in boys nightmares vivid bad dreams usually occurring toward morning night terrors produce intense physiological arousal and cause child to wake up in an intense state of panic 0 after waking aren t easily comforted can t say why they are so disturbed and cannot recall having a bad dream 0 less frequent 15 of children 0 Health and Wellness 0 Common codmost frequent health problem during preschool years 0 Major threats to health and wellness come from injuries due to accidents 0 Nutrition Eating the Right Foods Growth rate during preschool periodsower need less food to maintain growth Obesity a body weight more than 20 above average weight for a person of a given age and height Best strategymake sure there s a variety of foods low in fat and high in nutritional content Foods with high iron content are particularly important 0 Iron de ciency anemia causes chronic fatigue and is one of the prevalent nutritional problems in developed countries 0 Minor Illnesses of Preschoolers Average preschooler gets 710 minor colds and other minor respiratory illnesses each year from age 35 Help children build up immunity to more severe iHnesses Also may provided emotional bene ts Permits children to understand their bodies better 0 Learn coping skills that will help them deal more effectively with future diseases 0 Understand what others who are sick are going through 0 Empathy Majorlllnesses US cultural tradition is that children are the complete responsibility of their parents not the government or other individuals 0 Less than ideal healthcare for children 0 Socioeconomic factors prevent some children from getting good health care 0 members of minority groups which have less disposable income suffer inferior care 0 other cultureschildrearing is regarded as shared collective responsibility 0 Cancer and Aids Most frequent major illness to strike preschoolers is cancer particularly leukemia 0 causes bone marrow to produce excessive amount of white blood cells severe anemia death 0 more than 70 of victims of childhood leukemia survive childhood AIDS may be shunned by others typically contract from mothers prenatally 0 severe disruptions due to parent s death of cases is declining due to increasing use of drugs that reduce prenatal transmission Reactions to Hospitalization Most frequent reaction of 24 year ods is anxiety 0 Separation from parents Slightly older kids interpret hospitalization as desertion or rejection by family Anxiety may lead to new fears 0 Ex Fear of the dark or hospital staff Hospitals deal with anxiety by 0 Allowing parent to stay for lengthy periods of time with childspending the night 0 Assigning children a quotsubstitute motherquot O nursecare provider who is supportive and nurturing Allowing older children to participate in decisions about their care Emotional Illness 0 Injuries Playing it Safe Increasing of children are being treated with drugs for emotional disorders like depression Use of antidepressants and stimulants has increased Pa rents and teachers may be seeking a quick x for behavior problems that may represent normal dif culties 0 Before age 10 preschoolers have 2X the likelihood of dying from an injury than from an illness 0 US 1 in 3 chance of receiving injury that requires medical attention 0 In part a result of high levels of physical activity curiosity and lack ofjudgment 0 Boys take more riskshigher rate of injury 0 Asian Americanssupervised strictly by parentslow accident rate 0 Conditions of povertycontain more hazards2X more likely die of injuries than children living in af uence 0 Injuries come from Falls Burns from stoves and res Drowning in bath tubs Drowning in standing water Suffocation in places like abandoned refrigerators Auto accidents Poisonous substanceshousehold cleaners o Preventing injuries quotchildproofingquot placing covers on outlets child locks on cabinets where poisons are kept child car seats helmets 0 Lead Poisoning Risks Lead is found on painted walls and window frames gasoline ceramics pipes and arti cial turf Areas of substantial air pollution are also at risk Most hazardous health risk for children under the age of 6 poor children are more susceptible and results tend to be worse apt to reside in housing that has peeling and chipping lead paint live near areas with heavy traf c with high levels of air poHqun may be less stable and unable to provide consistent opportunities for intellectual stimulation that might serve to offset some of the cognitive problems caused by the poisoning exposure to lead is linked to lower intelligence problems in verbal and auditory processing hyperactivity and distractibility higher levels of antisocial behavior 0 aggression and deanuency illness and death Reducing the Risk 0 Young children should never be left unattended in the bathtub Children can be taught basic safety rules 0 Concentrate on quotinjury controlquot rather than on preventing accidents which implies a random act in which no one is at fault Child Abuse and Psychological Maltreatment The Grim Side of Family Life 0 Around 3 million children in the US are victims of child abuse physical and psychological maltreatment or neglect of children 0 Physical Abuse Most frequent in families living in stressful environments 0 Poverty 0 Single parenthood o Higherthanaverage marital con ict Stepfathers are more likely to commit abuse against stepchildren History of violence among spouses Abused children are more likely to be Fussy Resistant to control 0 Not readily adaptable to new s uanns Have more 0 Headaches o Stomachaches 0 Experience more bedwetting More anxious 0 May show 0 developmental delays Most parents who abuse their children ater express bewilderment and regret about their own behavior Vague demarcation between impermissible forms of physical punishment 0 Line between spanking and beating is not clear Privacy in which child care is conducted in Western cultures 0 Other people are not available to help out when parent patience is tested Adult s unrealistically high expectations regarding child s abilities to be quiet and compliant Cycle of violence hypothesis abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children Learned violence is an acceptable and appropriate form of discipline Suffering abuse as child is not the full explanation for child abuse in adu s o Psychological maltreatment Psychological maltreatment when parents or other caregivers harm children s behavioral cognitive emotional or physical functioning Abusive parents may frighten belittle or humiliate their children thereby intimidating and harassing them Children may be made to feel like disappointments or failures or they may be constantly reminded that they are burdens Children may be threatened with abandonment or death Older children may be exploited Child neglect parents ignore their children or are emotionally unresponsive to them Children may be given unrealistic responsibilities or may be left to fend for themselves Profound neglect that involves children who are unsupervised or uncared for is the most frequent form of psychological maltreatment Consequences Low selfesteem Lying Misbehavior Underachievement in school Can produce criminal behavior aggression and murder Depression Commit suicide Brains of victims undergo permanent change due to abuse Reductions in size of amygdala and hippocampus Fear and terror can lead to over excitation in the limbic system 0 Leading to antisocial behavior 0 Resilience Overcoming the Odds 0 Resilience the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage such as extremes of poverty prenatal stress or homes that are racked with violence or other forms of social disorder Resilient children tend o to have temperaments that evoke positive responses from a wide variety of caregivers be affectionate easygoing and goodnatured easily soothed as infants able to elicit care from the most nurturing people in any environment programs that have been successful in helping especially vulnerable children have a common thread they provide competent and caring adult models who can teach children problem solving skills and help them to communicate their needs to those who are in a position to help them Quizlet link httpsquizletcom96070667psyc4220exam2 ash ca rdsnew
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