study terms Anth212
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amber Bush on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth212 at Towson University taught by Robert D. Wall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see PALEOANTHROPOLOGY &ARCHAEOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Key Study Terms Exam No 1 Archaeology Physical Anthropology Cultural AnthropologyCulture EvolutionConvergent Evolution Extinction Geographic Isolation boundary around the species It evolves differntl because it can no spread out Biodiversity Biological Diversity the greater diversity the greater chance of survival Most diversit today is rainforest AdaptationPreadaptation process of organisms adjusting to various environmental conditions and changes in habitats over time requiring further adjustments If you can adpapt then the species population will decline Pre adaptation are traits that we just happen to have Natural SelectionSelective Pressure Fitness Adaptive Radiation expansion of species into new habitats resulting in speciation and diversifaction Miocenece apes had a successful adaptive radiation Succession Niche Species Endemic Pioneer Semi a population of organisms that is reproductively isolated in that fertile offspring are produced from within the population but not outside of the group Punctuated and Dynamic Equilibrium Punctuates Dynamic Equilibrium punctuated graudal change of evolution dynamic means thinks are changing from generation to generation Gradualism slow steady change in the evolution of organism PhenotypeGenotype all of the genetic makeup in an organism GenesAlleles a section on the chromosome that contains the alleles which are the basis for traits and specific functions with an organism MutationsMacromutations a physical change Derived Traits Mendel experimented on pea plants Came up with the idea of genes Discounted the idea of blending Acquired CharacteristicsBlending Speciation the process of becoming a new species Genetic Drift changes in the genetic makeup in species or population but particularly through geographic isolation Founder Effect an isolated population that has the general characteristics of a species based on the genetic character of the founding population SuperpositionStratigraphy Radiometric Dating dating methods using rates of decay of radioactive isotopes with a known halflife into more stable isotopes Radiocarbon Dating C14 dating method using the half life of carbon 14 isotype producing in the atmosphere as it decays into nitrogen 14 Carbon 14 is found in organic matter because it is absorbed by plants and animals PotassiumArgon Dating absolute dating method that uses the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium to argon That datable materail is in volcanic rock Absolute DatingRelative Dating UniformitarianismCatastrophism Fossilization Index Fossil Context Paleocene 6558 mya Eocene 5836 mya Oligocene 3623 mya Miocene 2352 mya Pliocene 5217 mya PangeaLaurasiaTethys Sea pangea is before primates exist It allowed animals to cross boundries that we have today Laurasia was Europe and NA connected The tehys Africa from Eurasia it isolated them Anthropoids Simians Suborder Hominoids Superfamily Hominids Family in cladistics terms members of the bipedal homonids including the quadrupedal chimpanzees GenusSpecies Sexual Dimorphism in primates a distinction between males and femals with regard to size usually males are larger In early primates they can be twice as large forms by sex Terrestrial Feeding Posture development of a habitats on the groups instead of trees Thicker enamel Bipedalism the capability to walk on two feet as the usual mode of locomotion Provisioning Foramen Magnum a hole in the base of the skull where the spinal column articulates with the head Latin for great hole for bipeds its direct underneath but for monkeys and apes its towards the back Rift Valley Hadar Region Olduvai mawi or Pakastain to ethopia hadar important fossial produced by apes Primates Order opposeable thumbs better vision largest brain related to body size few offspring offspring stays with parents Archonta Superorderpaleocene were all primates Includes plesiadiforms 6555 mya bats ying lemurs tree shrews Source of all primates Insectivores and rodents primates come from Prosimians Suborder LemursLorises are living prosminians Lemurs are in Madagascar Lorises are in SAbush babies Tarsiers Southeast asia species Are believe to be related to our lineage Insectivores olfactory sense more advanced in prosiminans than anthropoids The sense of smell begins to decrease opposable thumbsorbital convergence we go from lateral vision to 3d vision dental combnails and claws comb like feature in prosiminans comb through fur for bugs Prosimnans have the one grooming claw Post orbital barplate bar like feature over the eye in prosominans partly protects the eye The back of skull is open omnivoreherbivorefrugivore eat fruit Nocturnal eyes are largerdiurnal Plesiadapiformes PaleoceneEocene Euprimates PaleoceneEocene Eosimias 45 mya Omomyidae and Adapidae Eocene Pondaungia and Amphipithecus 44 mya Catopithecus 37 mya Aegyptopithecus 3525 mya Miocene Apes 2352 mya Proconsul African oldest ape species Pierolapithecus Morotopithecus Uganda 20 mya Dryopithecus Eurasia ape Sivapithecus Eurasia ape Miocene ape apdaptive radiation Ouranopithecus Gigantopithecus Prognathism supraorbital toruscharacteristics of late apes crenulated enamel characteristics of late apes wrinkled enamels allows us to grip food Not in proconsul but late species simian shelf characteristics of late apes inside of jaw ridge like feauture that strengthens the jaw Pongids Sahelanthropus tchadensis
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