BSC197 Exam 2 Study Guide
BSC197 Exam 2 Study Guide BSC197
Popular in Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
BSC197 Exam 2 Study Guide Part 1 Vacuoles Mitochondria and Chloroplasts The Structure and Roles for Large Vacuoles in Plants 0 Vacuoles are membranebound spaces within a cell 0 The membrane is called the tonoplast o The central vacuole s role is to store chemicals ions proteins water plays in tissue specific roles such as pigments in plants and toxins for defense and can elongate to take up more or less space in a cell The General Structure and Function of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria 0 Chloroplasts solar power plants 0 Structure composed of a double membrane with stacks of thylakoids surrounded by a thick uid called the stroma 0 Function power provider for the plant cell converts light energy into sugars that can be used by the cells Inner membrane Thylakoid Outer membrane Stroma o Mitochondria coalburning power plant 0 Structure composed of a double membrane the inner membrane folds to create cristae within the cristae is a thick uid called the matrix 0 Function power provider for the cell where M Cquot quotd a Structura39 Featu39es cellular respiration and energy production I occurs Mer ggne The Endosvmbiant Theory 0 Chloroplasts and mitochondria evolved directly from bacteria that were internalized in another prokaryotic cell 0 Mutualistic relationships 0 Mutualism both parties benefit Figure 1 o Commensalism one party benefits With little to no effect on the other 0 Parasitism one party benefits at the expense of the other Part 2 Cytoskeleton The Functions of the Cytoskeleton 0 The cytoskeleton is the internal framework of a cell 0 Has many functions 0 Anchoring cell organelles 0 Provide cell shape 0 Aids in cell motility o Responds to environment signals Microfilaments Microtubules and Intermediate Filaments Including Composition Structure and Roles in Cellular Function 0 Microfilaments 0 Made of two intertwined strands of actin 0 Functions I Maintains cell shape 3rd in durability 3rd in thickness I Changes cell shape I Muscle contraction I Cytoplasmic streaming in plants like amoeboid movement 0 Microtubules largest cytoskeleton filaments o Hollow tubes made of the protein tubulin 0 Functions I Maintenance of cell shape Motility cilia and agella I Movement of organelles through a cell motor molecules I Often originate from the centrosome 0 Intermediate Filaments o Resemble bridge cables in structure fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables 0 Made up of keratin 0 Functions I Maintenance of cell shape I Anchorage of nucleus and other certain organelles I Involved in the formation of nuclear lamina 0 Most durable Centriole Structure Centriole Pair Centrioles and Their Structure and Functions 0 Structure 0 Occur in perpendicular pairs of microtubule triplets 0 Functions Microtubule Triplet Figure 1 o Facilitate microtubule assembly 0 Chromosome separation in some cells Cell Movement via Cilia and Flagella 0 Cell movement happens by use of cilia or agella o Cilia many small appendages that move like a swimmer s arm Cilia Connective tissue 0 Flagella long appendages that promote cell movement sperm cell Plasmid DNA Chromosomal DNA Ribosomes 7 H w Fimbriae n K Cell wall Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Flagella J Part 3 Cell Junctions and Cell Surfaces Whv Cell Surfaces are Biologicallv Important 0 Cell surfaces maintain structure are defense mechanisms are the presentation to the environment and allow communication between cells Plant Cell Walls Lamella and Plasmodesmata 0 Plant cell walls are double membraned o The outer cell wall is exible o The inner cell wall is rigid o The area between cells is filled with middle lamella o A pectin layer that cements two plant cells together 0 Plasmodesmata are the channels between cells that allow cytoplasmic exhange The Extracellular Matrix of Animal Cells Component Molecules and Structure the Roles of ECM Proteoglycan Proteoglycan molecule complex Collagen fiber Polysaccharide 39 molecule Extracellular matrix Intracellular matrix Plasma membrane V CYTOPLASM Integrin Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Copyrith Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings o The extracellular matrix acts as a communication network 0 Fibronectin polysaccharide molecule and integrins are involved in sending and receiving cell signals 0 Roles of the extracellular matrix 0 Gives tissue stability by linking areas of cells together like a net 0 Essential in development I Provide landmarks for extending structures neurons and vascular tissue The Three Types of lntercellular Junctions Animal Cells Junctions lntercellmaf O Junctions that Animal Cells Make and What each is used for o Tightjunctionsf 2 V Wibnb WWW 0 Tight junctions membrane Proteins 3944 3 51mlum 5 0 Connect cells together 39nterIOCk It and block of seepage of 0 Desmosomes quotMarx m y extracellular uids With 22232 Wan 13m ll rubber stoppers intermediate laments 7 WWW Desmosonies sew membranes gymmm all 0 Anchor ad acent cells together Spacebetweerlcells 6mm 39 together structurally 0 Gap junctions maxim W quotmaquot l junCtillms 1 channels align o ow mo ecu es to allowing materials to mmnim z l nlm A pass from cell to cell flow between cells How Emergent Properties Relate to Cells and Tissue 0 An emergent property is a characteristic an entity gains When it becomes part of a bigger system 0 Tissues are made up of multiple cells of the same type that work together to perform a function Part 4 Viruses The Basic Structure of a Virus 0 Viruses are composed of a capsid that contains the genome the genome and the envelope What Genome Types Viruses Can Have 0 Viruses can have a DNA genome or an RNA r genome q A All h l The General Methods of W3 32185 to a senfgmn Rep11catlon for DNA RNA and Cequot quot8 m7 the cell 3533 t C Replica Retroviruses oi the VIrUS remains OUlSlde 39 Nude acid is replicated in 1 Attach to host cell enter host cell cell and uncoat DNA a Can happen by fusions receptor mediated 39 quot endocytosis or genome l o 334133 in coats are synthesized within IHJCC 1011 g the host cell 2 Mature virions are F Release assembled within the cell Cell ruptures releasing mature virus particles 3 mRNA used to transcribe and manufacture capsid proteins 4 Selfassembly of new virus particles and exit the cell a Can exit by exocytosis vesicles or lysis cell explosion How Viruses Differ From Bacteria in Infectious Disease 0 Bacteria o Prokaryotic cells 0 May have similar symptoms 0 Treatable with antibiotics 0 Viruses 0 Not cellbased 0 May have similar symptoms 0 Not treatable with medication How In uenza Virus Infects Humans 0 In uenza is a respiratory infection in humans Part 5 Cell Communication and Energy in Biology The General Mechanisms of Communication via Direct Contact ShortRange and Long Range 0 communications will occur between cells that can physically communicate with each other gap junctions or plasmodesmata o Cellcell recognition organelles on the outside of cells interact with each other 0 in close proximity but not direct contact 0 Paracrine a signaling cell that will secrete signal molecules through vesicles and the vesicles will fuse or run into receptors on a target cell 0 Synaptic neurons have small gaps in between them called synapse one releases a vesicle to diffuse across the synapse to the target cell 0 far and not in direct contact 0 Endocrine hormones used to send a signal across a long distance hormones are secreted into the body and released into the blood stream The General Mechanisms of Reception Transduction and Response 0 a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein causing it to change shape 0 Transduction Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in a cell 0 a signal transduction pathway leads to regulation of one or more cellular activities response may occur in the cytoplasm or may involve action in the nucleus The Role of Ligands and Receptors 0 Ligands bind to receptors or target proteins to alter its chemical conformation 0 Receptor molecules are usually found within the plasma membrane 0 Receive signals and causes a cellulartissue response 0 Receptors will only bind with ligands of a particular structure Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Responses 0 Cytoplasmic and nuclear responses are cell signaling that results in transcription 0 In the nucleus cell signaling turns a gene on or off which affects transcription 0 In the cytoplasm the cell signaling causes transduction in the cytoplasm that then enters the nucleus where a gene can be turn on or off which again affects transcription The Two Main Types of Organisms as Defined by How They Obtain Energy how these organisms interact the role of saprophytes in an ecosystem how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes the input and output of photosynthesis and respiration and how chloroplasts initiate photosynthesis 0 Two main types of organisms o make their own food from sunlight o get their biological energy from others consume other organisms 0 These organisms interact because heterotrophs use autotrophs for energy 0 Saprophytes bacteria and fungi are decomposers that consume dead organisms 0 Photosynthesis and respiration are complementary processes because one relies on the products of the other and they are link biologically o Photosynthesis 0 Input C02 and a source of hydrogen 0 Output glucose and oxygen 0 Respiration 0 Input glucose and oxygen 0 Output C02 water and ATP 0 Chloroplasts initiate photosynthesis by absorbing light to excite electrons and jumpstart the light reactions Part 6 Photosynthesis Where in Cells the Light Reactions Take Place 0 The light reactions take place in the thylakoids in a chloroplast How Chlorophyll Obtains Solar Energy 0 Chlorophyll obtains solar energy by use of pigments o Chlorophyll a chlorophyll b andor carotenoids The Absorption of Light Spectra 0 Absorbed light is used as energy 0 Chlorophyll a and b have slight differences in absorption 0 Carotenoids can absorb light energy in red yellow and orange pigments Electron Excitation 0 When light is absorbed into the chloroplast electrons get excited into a higher energy state 0 Electrons remain at an excited state for very short periods of time 0 When electrons return to ground state a photon of light is given off o This photon may excite an electron on another chlorophyll molecule therefore the process continues The Components and Functions of Photosystems I and II and How They Interact o Photosystem I o Discovered first 0 ACTS SECOND 0 Has P700 chlorophyll at reaction center 0 Photosystem II o Discovered second 0 ACTS FIRST IN THE LIGHT CYCLE 0 Has P680 chlorophyll at reaction center Noncyclic and Cyclic Electron Flow and the Energetic Outcome of Each 0 Noncyclic Electron Flow Primary P 39 acceptor rlmary acceptor A NADP 39 reductase NADP Cytochrome mp39 quot NADPH b t I O 39 O O o o 0 Energy for 392 chemiosmotic Ph t t I 0 synthesis of o osys 939 Photosystem ll o Photosystem II collects photon and activated electron is harvested by primary e acceptor 0 Reaction center chlorophyll requires electron I Enzyme degrades H20 to obtain 2e 2H and O I Electron is transferred to reaction center 0 Electron is transferred through electron transport chain I Energy levels decrease While released energy is used to make ATP I Plastoquinone Pq Cytochrome complex and plastocyanin Pc are the path the electrons travel 0 Newly grounded electron is used to fill void in P700 following electron loss Electron is excited and captured by primary acceptor like a kung fu master 0 Transferred through another electron transport chain I Ferredoxin then NADP reductase o NADP reductase takes 2H produced earlier plus 2 high energy electrons plus NADP and produces NADPH H o NADPH stores activated electrons for later use 0 0 Cyclic Electron Flow 0 Ferredoxin transfers electrons back to the cytochrome complex I Electron is recycled and ATP is produced instead of NADPH 0 Results in more ATP and NADPH The Three Stages of the Calvin Cycle and What is Accomplished in Each Stage 0 Carbon Fixation 0 Carbon from C02 is added to organic acceptor ribulose biphosphate RuBP and can then be used for synthesis 0 Results in a 6carbon molecule that immediately degrades into three carbon molecules 3 phosphoglycerates I Has a carboxyl group that undergoes reduction 0 Reduction 0 ATP is used to phosphorylate 3phosphoglycerate now l3biphosphoglycerate o Electrons from NADPH are used to reduce l3biphosphoglycerate I Results in a carbonyl group I G3P is produced and it is a 3 carbon sugar 0 For every 6 G3P molecules produced 5 are recycled and one can be used for anabolic reactions 0 Regeneration 0 Uses the 5 molecules of G3P to produce 3 molecules of RuBP requires ATP 0 Without regeneration of G3P this would not be a cyclical reaction 0 RuBP is ready to act as a carbon acceptor for the fixation stage The Main Molecules Involved in the Calvin Cycle 0 C02 RuBP G3P How a Plant Obtains C02 0 Plants get C02 from the air via stomata Why Photorespiration is bad and How C4 and CAM Plants Avoid It 0 Photorespiration is bad because it prevents plants from taking in new C02 molecules therefore rubisco uses 02 instead of C02 0 This eventually yields C02 for the Calvin Cycle but it was so much effort that it was a net loss of energy for the plant 0 C4 Plants 0 Has two types of tissue for photosynthesis I Mesophyll cell acts like an antechamber I PEP carboxylase has a higher affinity for C02 than rubisco 0 Adds carbon from C02 onto PEP to form oxaloacetate o Eventually C02 is released into adjacent bundle sheath cells where the Calvin Cycle can take place I Maintains high C02 to 02 ratio I Rubisco can still use C02 0 CAM Plants 0 Use the same way as C4 plants to get around photorespiration o Stomata open during the night to take in C02 I Carbon is stored in an organic acid molecule 0 During daylight organic acids degrade releasing CO2 into the Calvin Cycle Part 7 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation The Input and Output of Respiration and the Derivation of These Molecules 0 Cellular respiration is obtaining energy from the degradation of sugars 0 Input Oxygen 0 Output C02 OxidationReduction Reactions 0 Type of reaction When an electron is transferred form one atom or molecule to another 0 Electron donor is reducing agent 0 Electron acceptor is oxidizing agent 0 The addition of electrons to a molecule or atom is called reduction 0 Energy is released When electrons are transferred to lower energy state molecules 0 Electron transfer chains The Three Stages and Two Transition Steps of Cellular Respiration 1 Glycolysis a Energy Investment Phase b Energy Payoff Phase Transition Krebs Cycle Transition 2 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation 9593 Where In the Cell Each Stage of Respiration Takes Place happens in the cytosol of a cell happens in the matrix of mitochondria happens in the cristae The Overall Concept of What Takes Place in Each Stage of Respiration Along With the Net Energy Gain Achieved in Each Stage 0 Glycolysis 0 Means sugar splitting glucose is split into Pyruvate 0 Net gain of 2 ATP 0 Krebs Cycle 0 Completes the oxidation of organic molecules 0 Net gain of 2 ATP per glucose 0 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation o Transports electrons from NADH to 02 then ATP is synthesized by the enzyme ATP synthase 0 Net gain of 26 ATP The Role of High Energy Electrons H Gradients and ATP Synthase in Respiration 0 High energy electrons are passed along the electron transport chain giving up a little energy as they move along 0 This energy is used to pump H ions across the gradient to one side of the inner mitochondrial membrane 0 When the H gradient reaches equilibrium the H can pass through ATP synthase molecule 0 ATP synthase produces ATP Two Types of Fermentation and Under What Conditions They Happen 0 Alcohol fermentation happens in bacteria and fungi 0 Lactic acid fermentation happens in animals under anaerobic conditions How a Cell Decides Whether to Undergo Respiration or Fermentation o Respiration 02 is available pyruvate enters mitochondrion o Fermentation 02 level is low pyruvate stays in the cytosol and undergoes fermentation How Other Macromolecules Can Be Included in Respiration 0 Macromolecules can be used as a source for respiration and enter the pathway at various points Two Modes of Feedback Regulation of Respiration 0 Feedback inhibition of ATP or citrate can stop early stages of reactions 0 Allows cells to produce ATP when needed
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