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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabriah Brown on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-20651-001 at Kent State University taught by Dr. William Edward Merriman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Exam 2 study guide 1 Interviews 2 Case studies 3 Research design Descriptive studies Correlational studies 0 Examine linear association bw variables 0 Possible ndings 0 Positive correlation both change in same direction 0 Negative correlation both change in opposite direction 0 No correlation unrelated changes 0 Correlation coefficient 0 Statistics express strengths amp direction of correlation o 1 perfect negative correlation 0 1 perfect positive correlation Weakness 0 Cannot infer casual relations Experiments Advantage allows one to infer casual relation Weakness some variables cannot be manipulated Independent variable hypothesized cause manipulated Dependent variable hypothesized effect Ways to measure development 0 4 designs a Crosssectional test more than one age group at one point in time Weakness potential cohert agesample confound cannot track individual change and cannot examine predictors of development b Longitudinal test one age group at more than one point in time Weakness cost sample studied may not be representative of the population potential for selective attritionparticipants drop out c Crosssequential combine a amp b Weakness cannot be used to understand stability of behavior over time or effects of early experience some behavior is in uenced by unique events d Microgenetic special type of longitudal design in which a small group is tested repeatedly over a short period of time Weakness child is or is not able to see from another s perspective Biological context of development Mechanisms of inheritance Chromosomes strands of DNA 23 pairs in nucleus of cell Types of chromosomes Autosomes pairs 122 0 Sex chromosomes23rCI pair XX Female XY Male Types of cell division 0 Mitosis normal cell division Meiosis cell division that produces gametes sperm amp ova What makes gametes unique 0 Disjunction pulling apart of each pair of chromosomes in the nal stage of Meiosis Crossover during meiosis parts of one chromosome exchange placesw parts of another Gene 0 Basic unity of heredity DNA 0 Double helix 0 Genetic info Allele Member of a gene pair for a trait located on different chromosomes in a pair Gregor Mendel Pea plant proposed that genes work in pairs 0 1st Principle Dominance dominant and recessive genes 0 2nOI Principle Segregation 2 alleles of a gene are inherited separate 0 3rd Principle Independent assortment traits inherited independently of each other Codominance Alleles for blood type type A amp B are codominant you can have AB blood type Genomic imprinting Whether or not an Allele is expressed depends on which parent it came from Exception to segregation o In nondisjunction 2 alleles of a gene pair are not inherited separately Exception to independent assortment Traits carried by same chromosome are inherited together not independently Developmental behavior genetics 0 Study of effect of genes on the development of behavior Family Studies 0 Family tree analysis 0 That examines frequency of rare trait in a person39s family tree Kin study 0 determine whether the trait concordance increases with blood relatedness Usefulness of the family study method 0 DNA analysis DNA of effective person is compared to DNA of uneffected person Adoption study 0 Compare adopted child to biological relatives and members of the adoptive family Logic of adoption study 0 If high correlation with biological relatives heredity If high correlation with adopted family member shared environment 0 If neither correlation is high nonshared environment Direction of calls 0 Parent to child hostility Child to parent hostility Twin study MonozygoticMZ identical twins hare 100 of genes DizygoticDZ fraternal twins share 50 of genes rMZ gt rDZ l heredity rDZ gt 50 l shared environment rMZ gt 50 l nonshared environment Gene environment interaction 0 Limit setting model Gottesman 0 Some genotypes have a narrow reaction range 0 I did you know facts have abroad reaction range Niche picking model the dead that roles passive evocative and active Passive Child plays no role in creating the gene environment correlation Parents pass on jeans that promote a certain development EvocaUve Example child has gene for scienti c curiosity so parents respond by encouraging science education Active 0 Example child has seen for physical aggression child select or construct environment in which aggression is encouraged Developmental progression Overtime adopt a child tend to become more similar to biological relatives and less similar to members of the adoptive family Genetic Disorders 0 Single gene problems 0 Autosomal Dominant caused by a single dominant gene on one of the autosomes A Huntington s chorea B Neuro bromatosis o Autosomal recessive A Sickle cell anemia B PKU o Xlinked recessive gene on x chromosome A Color blindness B Hemophilia C Duchene muscular dystrophy D More common in boys Chromosomalabnormalities o Caused by nondisjunction o Autosomal down syndrome Sex chromosome abnormalities Turners syndrome 0 A single X chromosome 0 Early loss of ovarian function 0 Kleinfelters syndrome XXY 0 Male w extra X chromosome 0 Small penis and testicles o Sterile o XYY o Taller Fragile X syndrome 0 Tip of X chromosome is damaged 0 Retardation hyperactivity social withdrawal arm apping amp hand biting 0 Boys get it more often and more severe than girls Genetic counseling 0 Identify and counsel carriers of genetic disorders Pathways to parenthood ART assisted reproductive technologies gt Risks higher risk for preterm birth low birth weight multiple births Infertile couples1 in 10 couples 0 In Vitro fertilizationIVF ab fertilization 29 success rate 0 Donor insemination 0 Egg donation rare 0 Surrogacy Psychologicalconsequences o Controlling for birth status 0 Some IVF parents are warmer than regular parents
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