Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 3513 - 0020
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Mann on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3513 - 0020 at Ohio State University taught by Andrew Leber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Psych 3513 Cognitive Neuroscience Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 What is cognition The process of knowing what arises from awareness perception and reasoning What is neuroscience The study of the nervous system Biological investigations of the brain What is cognitive neuroscience The study of how the brain enables the mind how the functions of the physical brain can yield the thoughts and ideas of an intangible mind What is dualism Rene Descartes A philosophical approach to describing consciousness which holds that the mind and brain are two separate phenomena Variations include popular property dualism epiphenomenalism and interactionist property dualism Phrenology The study of the physical shape of the human had based on the belief that variations in the skull s surface can reveal specific intellectual and personality traits Not accurate or valid Localization vs Antilocalizationalist equipotentiality mass action Localization the belief that individual behaviors and perceptions are controlled by distinct regions of the brain Antilocalization Results of leanPierre Flourens Flourens removed localized portions of cortex on birds and noticed their effects on behavior First to show that indeed certain parts of the brain were responsible for certain functions He discovered the aggregate field theory one mass action in the brain Big Debate localizations versus equipotentiality skull palpators versus birdbrain ablators When Flourens removed cerebral hemispheres the animal no longer had perceptions motor ability and judgment acksonian seizures Supports a less extreme type of localization localization of symptoms not functions interconnectedness of brain areas This phenomenon led Jackson to propose a topographic organization in the cerebral cortex a map of the body was represented across a particular cortical area where one part would represent the foot another the lower leg and so on John Jackson studied seizures and noted that patients with epileptic seizures moved in such characteristic ways that the seizure appeared to be stimulating a set map of the body in the brain progressed in an orderly way from one body part to another These are further known as Iacksonian seizures and originate in the motor cortex Neuron doctrine States that neurons are the basic functional units of the brain brain functions are carried out through the synchronized activity of independent neurons he nervous system is composed of billions of these units neurons connected to process information Brodmann and cytoarchitecture Cytoarchitecture cellular architecture How cells differ between brain regions Brodmann used Nissl staining to view the different cell types in different regions that led him to this discovery Consistent with localizationism different cytoarchitecture corresponds to different function After the logic that regions performed different functions it followed that they ought to look different at the cellular level German neuroanatomists began to analyze the brain by using microscopic methods to view the cell types in different brain regions Most famous Korbinian Brodmann analyzed the cellular organization of the cortex and characterized 52 distinct regions He published his cortical maps in 1909 Marr s 3 levels 1 Computational level the goal Purpose of behavior 2 Algorithmic level the method What are the processes steps 3 Implementation level the substrate What runs the algorithm Basics about Phineas Gage and HM Gage Prefrontal cortex damage from railroad accident cognitive ability remained the same but his personality drastically changed became mean HM Henry Molaison Was severely epileptic had brain surgery removing his medial temporal lobe bilaterally temporal lobectomy in his 20s About half of his hippocampus was removed His epilepsy improved greatly and a normal IQ remained but he lost the ability to form new longterm memories Chapter 2 Know anatomical location terminology rostral caudal etc Rostral front also known as anterior Mnemonic device nostril Caudal back also known as posterior Mnemonic device cuddle little spoon Dorsal top also known as superior Mnemonic device dorsal fin on shark Ventral bottom also known as inferior Mnemonic device vent blowing air up from oor Know slice orientations transverse sagittal coronal Transverse axial Coronal Sagittal image credit httpwwwpsychstanfordedukalinaBB Know brain viewpoints lateral medial etc Dorsal view looking from above Lateral view from the side Medial view toward the midline Ventral view looking from below Layers of the brain skull dura gray matter Dura mater tough motherquot top layer Tracts bundles of axons Gray matter cell bodies of neurons and glia nerve gluequot White matter myelinated axons insulation Skull outer protective shield for brain Gyrus vs sulcus Gyri top of brain bumps closer to the surface Crowns of the folded tissue that one observes when viewing the service Sulci underneath gyri grooves Central sulcus divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe The infoldings of the cortical sheet are called the sulci the crevices Purpose of folded cortex Takes up less space more convenient Makes for easier communication from one side of the brain to the other while using less wire in a more quickly manner Increases surface area and reduces axonal distance Cortexbark Names of cortical lobes and where they re located Frontal lobe front of brain Temporal lobe bottom of brain Parietal lobe middle of brain Occipital lobe back of brain What the ventricles are for Contains CSF helps brain fit in skull properly fills in space Makes accommodations after getting hit or falling like a shock absorber Motor and Somatosensory homunculi Somatosensory cortex parietal lobe Sensory of touch pain temperature limb proprioceptum Motor cortex frontal lobe most posterior part of it Primary Motor Cortex M1 some axons originating in M1 form the majority of the corticospinal tract others project to cortical and subcortical regions involved in motor control Posterior partietal cortex spatial attention Betz cell longest neurons we have Controls muscles go down through spine In prefrontal cortex Association cortices Multiple sensory modalities Integrate sensory and motor Allocating attention Chapter 3 What is cognitive psychology Construction and reconstruction of biologically relevant aspects of the external world Not always isomorphic relationship with world perception Study of mental activity as information processing problem Internal mental representations Cognitive psychologists study the vast set of mental operations associated with such things as perception attention memory language and problem solving Chronometrics Measure reaction time how they reconstruct the outside world in their own mind Finer analysis of internal representations handle on mental events which are rapid and efficient Mental Operations 1 Encode form an internal representation 2 Identify recognize 3 Compare to stored representation of all items 4 Resond produce correct response What is serial vs parallel processing Serial Process one after another Parallel word superiority effect Brief exposure duration see rapidly and process simultaneously Stroop effect Interference from word Reduction if response is manual not verbal Reduce interference with dual task or with practice Basic uses of eye tracking Use eye movements gaze patterns to tap into mental processes Eyetracking camera infrared Noninvasive Infrared light source camera computer software Pupil and cornea re ect IR light Use this to get precise gaze direction Calibrate for each subject then track Purpose of computer modeling Computers represent and transform info good model for studying human cognition Artificial intelligence AI can simulate complex human behavior using neuronlike units Can vary in level of explanation and can lesion a network and retrain it Limitations of computer modeling Simplification due to being so complex miss out on subtleties Not quite neuron like nonlinear activations but not really biological Small in scale narrow problems in range of human behavior Intracellular vs extracellular recording Extracellular more common Action potentials spikes electrode that doesn t break the cell body Intracellular very difficult Graded membrane potentials measuring from inside the cell body Relevance of a neuron s baseline activity Neurons are constantly active measure changes to experimental manipulation Receptive field Eyes are fixated on one spot Portion in which cell is receptive to Limitations of singlecell recording Poor spatial coverage meaning only one neuron can be looked at hence single cell A single neuron is not an accurate representation of a whole region Used on animals not humans so not an exact portrayal of brain Animal lesions Lesions impair performance on a task by damaging the neural structure that contributes to that task The animal may learn to compensate for the deficit What techniques can be used Aspirate tissue destroy the brain structure Via suction Electrolytic lesion destroy the brain structure using electrical charge Neurochemical lesion designed to damage specific cell types only Reversible lesion Cooling and pharmacological Genetic manipulations Genome mapped this idea is not completely understood yet The goal is to find a genetic basis for brain disorders using the approach of producing genetic alterations in animals What is CT Computed Tomography Like XRay but in all directions possible like a 3D Scan Intervening tissue absorb radiation Uses radiation and the bone absorbs a lot of radiation meaning that lots of bone and little blood are shown on the scan MRI just know properties of hydrogen spin are measured Magnetic Resonance Imaging Relies on creating a powerful magnetic field No radiation No known health risks Protons of hydrogen atoms are spinning weak field random orientation In scanner all protons are aligned Perturb with radio waves absorb energy and spin Measure relaxation different tissues different relaxation rates EEG recorded from scalp electrodes Electroencephalography Electrodes on scalp record electrical signals DTI Diffusion Tensor Imaging A neuroimaging technique employed using an MRI scanner that allow white matter pathways in the brain to be imaged Why quotdiffusionquot is relevant Determines boundaries that restrict water movement throughout the brain What DTI is used to estimatemeasure Measures the density and motion of the water contained in the axons Types of brain disease Vascular disorders Tumors Gliomas abnormal reproduction of glial cells Meningiomas originate in the meninges and can produce abnormal pressure Metastic tumors originate in a noncerebral structure containing malignant tissue that invades the bloodstream and is eventually carried to the brain Degenerative and Infectious Alzheimer s Parkinson s Huntington s Pick s Multiple sclerosis AIDS dementia Herpes Korsakoff s syndrome Trauma Epilepsy What is ERP keep it basic EventRelated Potential A change in electrical activity that is timelocked to specific events such as the presentation of a stimulus or the onset of a response When the events are repeated many times averaging the EEG signals reveals the relatively small changes in neural activity triggered by these events In this manner the background uctuations in the EEG signal are removed revealing the eventrelated signal with great temporal resolution fMRI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging A neuroimaging method that utilizes MRI to track blood ow changed in the brain that are thought to be correlated with local changes in neuronal activity How does it differ from standard MRI Imaging is focused on the magnetic properties of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the bloodstream Basic steps in how neural activity produces the BOLD response BOLD response Blood Oxygenation LevelDependent Magnetic detectors in a MRI measure changes in the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated blood When neural regions are active this ratio increases as the blood supply to the active tissue increases Block design vs eventrelated design Block design localize functional areas Great at determining which voxels are activated but have a poor ability to determine the time course of the response EventRelated design BOLD effect is timelocked to specific events to allow a picture of the time course of neural activity What is a Voxel The smallest unit of 3D data that can be represented with an MRI Basic steps of preprocessing alignment spatial smoothing temporal filtering Alignment Motion correction Superimpose functional images onto the anatomical images Align subjects to common space Spatial Smoothing Temporal Filtering Subtraction logic basic idea Brain activation levels must always be considered relative to another condition Many contributing variables to signal strength inherent metabolic rate location with respect to the coil etc Thus the absolute level of signal is relatively meaningless on its own Consequence Neuroimaging experiments rely on subtraction What is TMS keep it basic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Noninvasive Stimulates the cerebral cortex and motor neurons Electrical current is rapidly generated in a coil placed over the targeted region which generates a magnetic field that causes the neurons in the underlying region to discharge Used to evaluate motor function by direct stimulation of the motor cortex as well as to disrupt neural processing which would create brief reversible lesions Single vs double dissociation Methods used to develop functional models of mental and or neural processes Requires a minimum of two groups and two tasks Single Dissociation Present when the groups differ in their performance on one task but not the other Provide weak evidence of functional specialization since it is possible that the two tasks differ in terms of their sensitivity to detect group differences Double Dissociation In neuropsychological research a double dissociation is present when one group is impaired on one task and the other group is impaired on the other task In imaging research a double dissociation is present when one experimental manipulation produces changes in activation in one neural region and a different manipulation produces changes in activation in a different neural region Double dissociations provide a strong argument that the observed differences in performances re ect functional differences between the groups rather than unequal sensitivity of the two tasks Chapter 6 Object Recognition quotWherequot Pathway Superior Longitudinal Fasciculous amp Posterior Parietal Cortex Dorsal Stream Parietal Lobe Large receptive fields Good at detecting peripheral stimuli Responds to array of sizes though greater response to larger stimuli What Pathway Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculous amp Inferior Temporal Cortex Ventral Stream Temporal Lobe Encompass fovea Information on right or left field Visual Agnosia Without knowledgequot Inability to recognize Different types of Agnosia Apperceptive More posterior lesions earlier in visual processing stream Right lateralized people with right damage Failures in basic perceptual processing trouble making out objects Associative Left hemisphere more anterior lesions High level processing failures Common objects Integrative Right Left hemisphere more anterior lesions Category Specificity Implications Asymmetric loss of animate objects but not inanimate no double dissociations found We interact more with inanimate things possible additional action representation perhaps in motor system Left Premotor becomes active when viewing tools Visual areas are segregated by living vs inanimate objects Two main explanations Motor system engaged when viewing inanimate objects helping agnosics to identify these objects better than animate objects Ventral visual system is segregated by animate vs inanimate largescale regions Based on vasculature regions representing animate objects may be more prone to damage due to encephalitis or stroke Facial Recognition Tanaka and Farah 1993 Concluded that faces are represented holistically parts not represented on their own only in context or whole face Holistic Effect Faces are hard to perceive upside down the holistic effect disappears Prosopagnosia Selective inability to recognize faces Face blindness No acquired brain damage typically congenital though lesions do produce prosopagnosia Typically temporal or occipital lesions Rarely parietal Prosopagnosics can tell that a face is a face just not whose face it is Dorsal vs ventral streams Ventral stream aka occipitotemporal Extends from the occipital lobe into inferior and middle temporal lobe Important in the recognition of objects and faces Dorsal stream aka occipitoparietal Extends from the occipital lobe into the superior temporal and parietal lobes Important for the representation of spatial information and guiding visually directed actions Perception action distinctions in patients The parietal cortex is central to spatial attention lesions of this lobe can produce severe disturbances in the ability to represent the world s spatial layout and the spatial relations of objects in it The what system is essential for determining the identity of an object The where system is essential for determining the locations of different objects and guiding interactions with these objects Grandmother cells There may be Gnostic units that become excited only when one s grandmother comes into view Gnostic unit the type of neuron that can recognize a complex object Cells signal the presence of a known stimulus Limitations of the grandmother cell hypothesis assumes that the final percept of an object is coded by a single cell cannot account for the fact that we perceive novel objects does not account for how the cell would have to adapt as the grandmother changed over time And don t forget to study the WWL points from the McCabe and Kanwisher readings
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