Exam 2 Study Guide - Bio 313
Exam 2 Study Guide - Bio 313 Bio 313
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Erickson on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 313 at Ball State University taught by Metzler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 495 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
EXAM 2 Study Guide Chapter 12 Microbial Evolution and Systematics Origin of Life 0 Likely occurred at hydrothermal vents on the sea oor O Lipid bilayers eventually replaced mineral compartments in these vents 0 Environment was originally anoxic cells likely used CO2 and H2 to power metabolism Sulfur would have been produced as a byproduct C First cells were simple 0 RNA was likely the first selfreplicating systems and would have been available when the first forms of life originated Metabolic Diversification O Oxygenic Photosynthesis evolved in cyanobacteria approx 35 BYA 0 Lead to Great Oxidation Event I Increased Oxygen content in atmosphere I Created Ozone 8 made Earth habitable 0 Many other methods of Metabolism evolved between first cells and photosynthetic cells will be discussed more in Chapter 13 Origin of Eukaryotes O Endosymbiotic Hypothesis 0 Larger cell engulfed a smaller cell this cell was the ancestor of mitochondriachloroplasts 0 Hydrogen Hypothesis 0 Larger cell engulfed a smaller H2 producing cell that eventually formed a nucleus Phylogenetic Trees ROOTED UNROOTED Chapter 13 Metabolic Diversity of Microorganisms Main Types of Metabolism Phototrophy Chemolithotrophy Fermentations Anaerobic Respiration and Hydrocarbon Metabolism 1 Photosynthesis O Converts light energy into chemical energy 0 Phototrophs organisms that do photosynthesis 0 Can be autotrophs as well capable of using CO2 as their sole C source photoautotrophy O Requires 1 ATP production 2 CO2 reduction to cell material 0 Can also use organic carbon as source photoheterotrophy A39 uxyganic ayenic Edu i g Power Eamon Engrgw HE wil ini i PHWEF SimDH Enemy HES noE as so AP hai quot EEK quot SUE EllIEDJH MP in inE EHEDJH mu 2 Chemolithotrophy O Conserve energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds 0 Can be autotrophs capable of using CO2 as sole C source 0 Can be mixotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds but organic compounds are C source 0 Types include 0 H2 Oxidation 0 Reduced Sulfur Oxidation O Fe2 Oxidation O Nitrification 8 Anammox 3 Fermentation 0 Organic compounds are catabolized by fermentation when anoxic environments don39t have SO4392 N03 and Fe3 0 Uses substratelevel phosphorylation to make ATP 0 Substrate is both the e39 donor and acceptor Ull ll kE EHEFEHDH 0 Includes 0 Lactic Acid and MixedAcid Fermentations O Stickland Rxn 4 Anaerobic Respiration O ETC with use of final e39 acceptor other than 02 there are many options 0 Includes 0 Sulfate Reduction 0 Acetogenesis O Methanogenesis 5 Hydrocarbon Metabolism O Hydrocarbons widely used as e39 donors 0 Can be aerobic or anaerobic Basic Rxn Hydrocarbon gt Alcohol gt Aldehyde gt Acid Other noteworthy stuff 0 Bioremediation use of microorganisms to remove detoxify harmful chemicals in an environment 0 Waste product of one organism can be Substrate of another SUMMARY Photosynthesis generates ATP from light then is consumed in reduction of C02 In Oxygenic photosynthesis O2 is produced while in Anoxygenic it is not Chlorophylls 8 bacteriophylls reside in membranes where light rxns are carried out Antenna chlorophylls transfer light energy to rxn centers Autotrophy is usually done by the Calvin cycle which utilizes the RubisCO enzyme Carboxysomes store RubisCO and CO2 Reverse citric acid and hydroxypropionate cycles are autotrophic pathways in green sulfur and green nonsulfur bacteria Chemolithotrophs conserve energy by oxidizing inorganic electron donors generate proton motive force can usually grow autotrophically Chapter 14 Functional Diversity of Bacteria Phototrophic Bacteria All phototrophic bacteria have chlorophylllike pigments 8 accessory pigments to collect light energy and transfer it to a membranebound rxn center use this energy to drive 6 transfer rxns gt produces ATP Many phototrophic bacteria also pair light energy and carbon fixation through various methods Cyanobacteria Purple Sulfur Purple Green Sulfur Green Nonsulfur Nonsulfur B or C Chlorophyll Bacteriophyll Bacteriophyll Bacteriophyll Bacteriophyll Oxygen Oxygenic Anoxygenic Anoxygenic Anoxygenic Anoxygenic Other Nitrogen Fixation Use Hydrogen Many other Metabolism Sulfide pathways ie Nfixation Movement Gas Vesicles Nonmotile Gliding Gliding Motility Motility Phototaxis Yes No Live in Oceans Lakes Mud Low light Low light Freshwater Marine Lake water intensities intensities and some sediments Sewage Big groups Terrestrial Sulfur springs Features Thylakoids Carotenoids Carotenoids Chlorosomes Chlorosomes Phycobilins Filamentous Hormongonia structure Akinetes Heterocysts Hormongonia only found in filamentous bacteria similar to spore but not dormant capable of moving Akinete Resting structure thick cell wall Also similar to spore becomes dormant Heterocysts do nitrogen fixation protects Nitrogenases from O2 Carotenoids pigment that helps bacteriochlorophyll absorb more light Sulfur Bacteria Sulfur metabolism is main pathway Dissimilative do not use byproducts HZS is not needed Reducing use H2 or organic compounds as e39 donors 804392 or S0 gt HZS Oxidizing chemolithotrophs that oxidize reduced S compounds as e39 donors HZS gt S0 gt 803392 gt SO4392 Very diverse group Live in marine sediments sulfur springs hydrothermal systems and some terrestrial habitats Nitrogen Bacteria Nitrogen Fixers Diazotrophs turn N2 into NH3 that is then assimilated as a Nitrogen source for the cell Often live symbiotically Carbohydrate N2 Amino Acids gt NH3 C02 LUCA probably used this version of metabolism Nitrifying Organisms done by a pairing of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers Basically does the opposite of Nitrogen Fixers Denitrifiers grow by anaerobic respiration of N0339 or N0239 to NO N20 and N2 remove nitrogen from fertilizers 8 generate greenhouse gases Dissimilative IronReducing and IronOxidizing Bacteria Iron Reducers 8 Iron Oxidizers note complications arise since e39 acceptor is an insoluble solid material IronReducing Bacteria couple oxidation of H2 or organic compounds to the reduction of Fe3 or Mn6 Hydrogen Metabolizing Bacteria H2 is a great e39 donor since it39s so electronegative Many bacteria use H2 as donor and 02 as acceptor Use hydrogenases to bind H2 H2 12o2 a H20 Methanotrophs grow using organic compounds lacking CC bonds as e39 donors 8 C sources Are often obligate aerobes but can be anaerobic as well Predatory Bacteria Consume other bacteria via several different methods Can attach to surface of prey 8 acquire nutrients from cytoplasmperiplasm Can invade and replicate within periplasm of prey Can be social predatorsquot that swarm to find prey then lyse 8 feed on them Bdellovibrio one type of periplasmic predator works like a leech Obligate aerobes highly motile Myxococcus a kind of social predator has a very complex life cycle forms multicellular fruiting bodies Magnetic Bacteria Contain magnetosomes found near anoxicoxic interface in sediments and lakes microaerophilic or anaerobic Bioluminescent Bacteria emit light live in marine environments sometimes colonize light organs of certain fish and squid can be symbiotic or saprophytically or parasitic requires luciferase gene 8 oxygen triggered by quorum sensing Morphological Diversity Spirochetes Spirochetes are G motile exible tightly coiled and thin Contain endo agella Often confused with Spirilla helically curved rodshaped cells move by polar agella Bacterial Cell Division Not necessarily equal division Budding bacteria divide as a result of unequal cell growth Binary fission forms two equivalent cells Tl a Equal F ruducts Unequal Pmducts at Simple Buddin l1 Bundling fr m Hairme 33 EEII divi il Df Si lhE urgan sm r9 EL P39wl r gimwth
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