Study Guide for Midterm
Study Guide for Midterm CLAS 1010
Popular in Rise of Rome
Popular in Classical Studies
This 46 page Study Guide was uploaded by Willa Sharpe on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 1010 at Tulane University taught by Chrisopther Caterine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Rise of Rome in Classical Studies at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome August 26 2015 Italy and the Mediterranean Preliminaries Dealing with 3300 BCE 600 BCE Area stretches from India to Ireland and UK All power and prestige centered near Mesopotamia and Egypt at the beginning of Romans Reason 0 Access to silk road Spice trade become important as hell Italy in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea 0 Cuts Mediterranean Sea in half 0 Any government that controls Italy and Sicily are TOP GUN Geology of Italy 0 Various tectonic plates I Steep mountains from sea Little at land I Mountains made of stuff 0 Tufa Fireproof in Italy 0 Marble in Greece 0 Granite in Egypt Land doesn t connect people it actually diVides them I Sea connects people I Mountains do not allow easy passage 0 Alps are a major diViding feature that cuts Italy off from the rest of Europe 0 Apennines run north to south on the Italian Peninsula curve from the west coast to the east coast then back to the west coast cities on west coast I Sicily is a continuation of the Apennines O Rivers I Po River within the valley between the Alps and the Apennines 0 Airable land good for farming 0 Northern section of Italy in the Po Valley are generally richer and more economic than the Rome area I Tiber River 0 Middle of Apennines to West coast 0 Rome founded on a bend in this river 0 Easiest way to find the mouth is to look for the three lakes in the Apennines 0 River diVides Western coast into two sections the north being Etruria and the South being Latium I Campania the country place is good for growing and is located towards the Naples Bay 0 Climate I 3 distinct seasons 0 Hot dry summers I Cool wet winters 0 Cool rains from September to February PreHistory Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Rome occasionally gets snow area to the north of Rome gets snow the area south does not 0 Mild Springs 0 Season when crops grow 0 Plant at the end of the summer let the crops get drenched during the winter the crops grow during spring 0 Evidence for transalpine movement Otzi the Iceman c3300 BCE 0 Found by hikers 0 People were moving 0 Life is O Wore animal skins 0 Has stone tools and copper ax most valuable item 0 Tattoos I Help with arthritis 0 Long bow yew and arrows 2nd most valuable item 0 At unleavened bread and meat 0 Italian Food and agriculture NO SUGAR used honey to sweeten things kept bees No tomatoes peanuts pecans corn cocoa or tobacco Limited Grains 0 Grown in Po Valley Campania 0 Plain or Contantia Sicily Fishing and Livestock 0 Chicken later 0 Pork mostly 0 Cows used for plowing fields Small Livestock mountains 0 Sheep and goats O Goats don t fall and die eat ANYTHING I Apennines Small vegetable gardens 0 Persists per family Hunting foraging 0 Poor people usually 0 Early period Grapes and Olives 0 Important in 900 BCE and on Gradual Advancements 0 Early and Middle Bronze Age 1800 1300 BCE Specialists in this area traveled to make items sell them and then leave Limited people Few wealthy 0 Would die and be buried with their wealth O 1300 900 BCE Dark Ages not much information Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Iron Age 900 725 BCE I Places starting to look like city 0 About 100 people in a city Villanovan Culture 0 Etruria and Campania 0 Similar pottery and housing I Latial Latin Culture in the center c 1000 BCE I Smaller scale 0 Area around Rome less organized and worse off I Social distinction in burial 0 Men buried with weapon I See trade between Greeks and Phoenicians on coast c 1000 BCE 0 Phoenicians Jews and Arabs O Carthage I Greeks 775 BCE 0 Send colonies O S Italy Sicily Marseille France I Romans and Italians not leaving People coming to trade with them 0 Importing Amber from Germany by sea pottery military intelligence writing 0 Lots of Greek and Athenian Pottery I Buried with pottery O Greeks used Phoenician alphabet I Greeks added vowels O Learned military warfare I Formations 0 Exporting raw materials metal wine olives salt 0 Rich in metal ores 0 Wine lasts longer than grapes but you still get the calories 0 Salt is important to preserving food also important to the start of Rome I Southern mouth of Tiber have salt deposits salt can be harvested I Po Valley needs salt 0 Orientalizing 725 580 BCE I Proto cities 0 Distinct social order religion and customs 0 Elites 0 Individuals who are leaders and live nicer O Jockeying for position 0 Community Identity 0 Monumental architecture I 1St with houses 2rld with temples 0 Archaic 580 480 BCE I Warfare Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 More organized formations O Picked up from the Greeks O Burial signifying soldiers O Standardization of weapons I More power and property 0 Elites advertise their social success 0 Wealth distributed more evenly I Defensive walls 0 Indication of thieves I Writing increase and increase of crops used as cash crops such as olives and grapes The Tiber Latium and Rome 0 Rome founded at bend in Tiber river where it was easy to cross I This area was also a key point in the salt road 0 Safe from coastal raids because of the distance up the Tiber river I Still navigable I Similar to the position of Athens 0 Alban Mount I Important site for Latins O Tiber Island I Middle of the Tiber river which divides the current essential for easy crossing O 7 hills of Rome I Surround a central swamp I Will become the forum 0 Campus Martius I In bend in river meeting place for battle I Not developed until late 0 Earliest finds on Palatine Hill I Other hills later 0 Swamp was first for burial I Drained in the 7th or 6th century BCE I Becomes a common meeting place after draining I Becomings of Rome 0 Forum Bonium I Place of trade I Temple of Hercules August 28 2015 Romans and the Latins Etruscans 0 Highly in uential on the Italians Greeks very settled in S Italy and Sicily Very few Romans Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome From beginning Romans are on Latin side Ostia 0 City at the mouth of the Tiber River to the Mediterranean Sea 0 Romans control What unites the Latins O Latins emerged from latial culture 0 Regional affinity 0 Common language Latin Other communities had other dialects of Latin but everyone was generally understood 0 Religion IndoEuropean family Stye God controlled thunder and lightning Zeus Thor Jupiter Roman Shared Cult sites Latiar Alban Mount 0 Leaders of the Latin community offered sacrifice to the Stye God Jupiter once a year Temple of Dianna at Orisha 0 Place of challenging the previous head priest O Dianna is the goddess of the hunt 13 Monumental alters at somewhere sacrifices happen here 0 Latin League Unofficial confederacy that share a defensive line Latin states that band together to fight non Latin states Temporary Think Greeks and Persians 0 Legal Privileges Latin Rights All freemen entitiled to Not only in birth state but in all states Conubium 0 Right to contract a legal marriage I Child s rights are respected by both states of both spouses 0 Dual citizenship Commercium 0 Contract recognized in other cities 0 Offending party can be tried in other states 0 All communities in Latium 0 Applies to property as well as ownership Ius Magrandi 0 You can change citizenship within other states 0 Highly unusual 0 Social Structure Familia household Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 All people free and enslaved belonging to the family 0 Basis of society I Groups of people with similar lineage I Gens follows male lineage 0 Kinda like your cousins family 0 Digression of Roman Names I 2 or 3 names I Nomen follows gens gentile name lineage name last name I Prenomen first name usually abbreviated Check Slide for 1st names I Cognomen extra name allows you to differ between cousins 0 Happens later in life generally a nickname I Can be more than one depending on the importance of you family members I Females 0 Given female version of nomen and then were numbered based on the amount of daughters 0 More important father equals more important name Family Structure 0 Pater familias I Oldest freeman father of the household 0 He has Patria Potestas I Absolute paternal power I Responsible for everyone and everything in the household I If he doesn t recognize a child as his own then that child is left to die I Sons only gain power when their father dies I Power holds until death I Can kill anyone at will 0 Rarer used 0 Uxor mulier wife I You can only have one wife I Their job is to make babies I Very important in the household I You want your wife to be virginal when you marry her I Oversee household I Makes wool I Makes sure everyone is clothed O Filius filii sons I Cannot own property as long as his father is alive I Peculium 0 An allowance given by a son s father that allows him financial freedom 0 Money still actually belongs to the father I Cannot marry without approval from father I Started a house hold in the late 20s to early 30s 0 Filia Filiae Daughters 0000 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Arranged marriages can legally say no but wouldn t Early teens if elite then early at the first signs of puberty Either stays under her father so she can divorce or can enter the patria potesta of husband Very few made it to adulthood with their father still alive High Infant mortality rate If you made it past five you were probably going to live a long happy life Servus slaves Captured in battle sold into slavery indebted into slavery a foundling illegitimate child or child of a slave Debt slavery abolished early on Legal property of pater familias No legal ancestors If freed you took on owners name pr N n slave name Can have peculium Can buy own freedom Any child born after a slave is freed has full roman rights as a citizen NOT RACIAL Different from American Slaves If freed slaves become clientes O Clientes client Roman house Poor seeks aid of rich or in uential person All slaves become clientes of their former owners patronus Provide military and political support for money or food 0 Buy a vote or provide a lawyer Patronage cornerstone of social life 0 Domus building free family and slaves property all or a combination of 0 Physical design Atrium center of the building not private public or semi public doors or house were usually open war spoils on outside new owner kept these spoils 0 Meeting place for clientes to ask patron what to do 0 Held imagines masks of past fathers made of wax to tell stories Out front shops run by clientes Elite Competition 0 One social ideal to maximize in uence 000000 No need to love thy neighbor Competition is king Not individuals but families mob mentality Dignitas kinda like a point system social standing as generally perceived Auctoritas personal ability to sway others Competition would occur at all levels Retinues of clientes and slaves House structures and decoration Use of cognomia Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome August 31 2015 Early Rome through Roman Eyes Sources from the ground 0 Stuff dug up I reliable because unmediated I difficult to interpret and date I decoration may have been because they liked it or it had religious in uence or it was a family seal 0 Archeology I Graves 0 Beliefs 0 Paintings may have been afterlife family s thoughts what painter could do I Monumental buildings 0 Important to community leaders I What about the nonelite O Smaller finds O Coins pottery earrings 0 Flying penis I Religious significance aka bullshit and they don t know I Inscriptions I Grouped with archeology 0 Literary sources 0 Social relics I Linguistic fossils 0 EX Briefcase may be called that because it started out with lawyers bringing important briefs but is now a more general term 0 Sources of this in latin 0 Aka king of sacrifice I Cultural fossils 0 Traditional fossils I Literature itself 0 Livy s 0 Written histories I Not always fact 0 Just had to be plausiable Livy 59 BCE AD 17 0 Ab Urbe Condita in 142 books I Took most of his life I We have 110 2145 I Earliest extensive history of the regal period Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Pros of Livy s writings He was socially conservative traditionalist view of society showed us how elite members thought of their forefathers How Romans saw themselves Reports upon myth Sometimes get his opinion Rarely sites sources Writing and imaginativerhetorical history His goal is moral instruction 0 May simplify things and do not pay as much attention to things that do not support his theory For the writing figure out good evidence list more than a paper 0 Livy can only be as good as his sources Earlier histories 0 None before 200 BCE Family records 0 Biased and made to make family look good exaggerated 0 History gets white washed Official documents 0 Religious or senate documents 0 Rarely consults Inscriptions 0 Who held what offices when 0 Livy doesn t do this Oral history 0 Ever play telephone 0 Everyone knows it but it may not necessarily be true Outline of Livy O Aeneas Trojan prince who escapes Trojan war and wanders to Italy and merges with the latins 0 Established lavinium l3 monumental alters 0 Site is interesting because it is built on a cult sire 0 Lavinium Aeneas ancestor of the Roman people Son founds escannes found Abolonge on the Alban Mount 0 Romulus first king of Rome Son of Rhea Sylvia and God of war Mars Important because he founds Rome with his twin Remus They go to the hills to look for a sign from the Gods in the form of birds 0 Augurium this tradition 0 Extremely important 0 Watch birds Romulus kills Remus and establishes Rome Established a core institution Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Senate council of Elder 0 Asylum place of refuge 0 Anyone can claim citizenship I Great Military leader I Makes sense because God of war was his dad I After death deemed a God and called Quinnus I Probably didn t exist 0 Numa Pompilius second king I Came after an interregnum or a time between kings I Not a Roman but a Sabine I Religious Leader 0 Established the Lunar calendar 0 Established a priesthood I Supposedly married a nymph 0 Spring named Egeria 0 Maybe he just liked to chill at this spring 0 Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius Numa I Grandsons of the first two kings I Virtual Doublets of them I Made up details I Names may be real September 2 2015 Rome and the Etruscans Etruscans have very fertile land Known comes from tombs because no literature References to them from other authors Family burials Began with tumulus little hill Later chamber tombs Men and women were buried together 0 May indicate that women have a more important role 0 Lots of elaborate graves and grave goods I Pottery greek 0 Especially red and black I Jewelry and weapons I Why buried with this Language and cultures 0 Language unrelated to their neighbors I Language is a mystery I Perhaps from the near east 0 Strong military culture I Supported by walls and burial with weapon I Also supported by Greek Histories Religion O O Polytheistic Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Emphasis on discerning divine will Tages and Vagoia I God s spoke to them directly Revealed religion I God tells someone to spread the message Integrated IndoEuropean Goes I Assimilated deities to those of others Hera Zeus Social life 0 Defining attributes I Family life I Art Prominence of women 0 Sometimes women buried with weapons Social life 0 Women could attend parties and hangout with men as equals When find men buried they aren t only identified by father and grandfather but also mother Spent lots of money on their tombs I PARTIES Light skin in paintings are women Music and lots of it Etruscans at Rome according to Livy O Lucumo L Tarquinius Priscus I Father from Corinth I Wants to succeed but can t in Rome because he has no rights I Moved to Rome from Tarquinii I Befriends Ancus Marcuis then became king I 1St to canvas for election and gets Ancus Marcius kids out of the way I Public works Circus Maximus O Chariot racing most popular sport of the time 0 By palatine hill Drains the swamp and develops forum into a public space Increases size of the military Plans defensive wall Capitaline hill temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus O Servius Tullius I First to seize power no interregnum I Not the one who killed Lucumo I Strong military leader Extends the pomerium sacred line of the city 0 Important to power I Builds the servian wall Encloses all seven hills Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Makes Rome a city I Building program 0 Temple of Dianna on the Aventine Hill Open to all Latins I Social and military reform 0 Census division of citizens into classes based on wealth 0 Century military and voting unit I The census and centuriate system 0 Citizens organize according to wealth 0 Military purpose 0 O The wealthier you were the better arms you had Wealthiest citizens at the front line 0 Voting procedure 0 O O Richest to poorest All votes within a century require a simple majority 183 Result military and political decision is controlled by the wealth 0 The Centuriate System 0 O O O O Equites knights I 18 Centuries compromised of the wealthiest First Class I 80 Centuries All wealth 100000 a Second I 20 c 75000 a Third I 20 c 50000 a Fourth I 20 c 25000 a Fifth I 30 c 11000 a Proletani I 1 c No wealth Qualification 0 L Tarquinius Superbus I Takes kingship by force I Competent General I Extensive Public works I Cloaca Maximus 0 system of forum 0 Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus I Acts like a tyrant 0 Eventually deposed but not replaces as king END OF KINGSHIP Reading thru Livy O Etruscan in uence was real I Divination 0 Au gurium Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Bird watching I Haruspicy 0 Looking at the entails of animals 0 Brontology 0 Study of lightning bolts I Marks of social rank 0 Toga mark of citizenship I Fasces and Lictor I Fasces are sticks surrounding an ax 0 Lictors carry fasces I Pronomia I Technology I Cloaca Maxima I Civil concepts 0 Imperium describes power I Pomerium 0 Separate war zone from civil life I Sanding armies cannot enter 0 NO WEAPONS I Monuments and architecture 0 Clear front I 3 rooms I Limits of Etruscan In uences 0 Latin was never something 0 Rome maintains the Latin League I Etruscans stay independent September 4 2015 5th and 6th BCE O Decline of Kingship 0 Mountain dwellers raid plains and run back to the mountains I Mountains are very protected 0 Plain dwellers hand together I Local village leaders become important because immediate aid to the raids 0 Result equals diffusion of power I Look for closest for help 0 Suodales of Poplios Valesios I Joint sacrifice to Mars 0 God of War and Fertility I Beginnings of Patronage 0 Fall of Kings according to Livy I L Tarquinius Superbus 0 Bad Qualities 0 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Coup Body Guard I What s wrong with that I Not Roman norm I Why would you need a body guard in your home unless you ve done something wrong Lots of execution on elites as well as criminals Smaller senate I Senators refused to participate I BIG SENATE good I Small senate bad Weaker senate Alliances with people outside the community I Trying to gain clientes I If Rome turns on him then he will have an outside army to defeat Rome Took throne by deceit I UNROMAN 0 Good qualities 0 O Fall of the Kings 0 Not anything Tarquinius Superbus did 0 Rape of Lucretia Stayed up all night making wool Good because she didn t party Sextus Excellent General to build public worksactive building program I Romans thought that free citizens should not build sewers I Goes back to Lucretia and rapes her I Hot and bothered about her wool making Lucretia doesn t want Roman woman to use her as an example for cheating on their husbands so she offs herself even though she did nothing wrong 0 Leads to res publica common wealth O Leaders of revolution L Junius Brutus L Tarquinius Collatinus Consuls Problems with Livy s story 0 Suspicious details Tyranicall qualities 0 Coup bodyguard ect Similar to Greek Tyrants Good qualities 0 Counterbalance Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Also the qualities of tyrants in Greek histories 0 More suspicious details Doublet story later Book 3 Probability 0 How often is there really a revolt because of the rape of a free woman 0 Value of the story Important because of patria protestas 0 Sextus betrays that shit 0 Do not want that shit to be challenged Explains the hatred of Kings 0 Killed and driven out if you re thought to be looking at kingship Constitutional Crisis 0 Regal power is absolute Imperium Use of augury and haruspicy Vows on behalf of plebs Binding legal judgements Special marks of office 0 Problem concept of power is fixed 0 Solution divide the power 0 2 consuls Hold executive power of kings Elected in pairs split the power of the king Serve for just one year Can veto one another BUT 0 Receive half the fasces of a king 0 Wear a different toga 0 Rex Sarcorum Takes on religious powers of the king Only king in regard of sacrifice Position held for life Reoccurring themes in Livy 0 Social Harmony Senate restored to 300 Plebs plunder Tarquin s land Rewards to defenders of the state Plebs and elite respect one another 0 Taxes adjusted and cap on goods 0 Binds them together Kingship is still a fear L Tarquinius Collatinus is expelled because of his nomen P Valerius publicola 0 Accused at aiming at regnum Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Builds a house on a hill at the high point then moves it lower to show he isn t aiming at regnum 0 Does not replace other leader immediately I You can religiously kill someone if they are aiming at regnum with no remorse A model of republicanism 0 Political in uence exists in a free market 0 Competition hedges against kingship 0 Rules develop over time I Good valor in war political and religious office help I Bad assassinate rivals retain office with FEAR armed body guard diminish of belittle the senate If you limit in uence you lower their attempt at kingship If you do good ways no one can say you re aiming at regnum Concordia desire Fights with another citizen are only criticized if they disrupt the harmony OOOO September 7 2015 Con icts of Orders Systematic Issues 0 Problems for Rome s subsistence farmers 0 Military engagements at outside territories I Subsistence farms effect by this I Long campaigns lead to debt I Can t plant Fields Die I Because of this a lot of people were in debt 0 Lots of people sold into slavery I Raids effect more than others 0 Ousting kings is only a partial solution I Oligarchies are more prone to con ict 0 Oligarchy when more than one person runs a country I Rich families try to monopolize consulship 0 New question facing states I To what extent are magistrates accountable I Do you act absolutely I Can you punish I What limits exist on power held for just one year 0 If held jointly and the population elects you what power really exists 0 Class Dispute I Social class not economic class I Patricians I Oldest families Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 They think they should hold all of the power 0 Claim magistracies I Only these people can hold priesthood 0 Imperium is tied to them 0 When a consul is given imperium by a courii vote 0 It reverts to these people during interregnum 0 Plebians 0 Everyone else 0 How does con ict play out I Series of successions 0 Plebians ask for stuff from patricians 0 Denied so they leave the city and will not fight on Rome s behalf 0 Lots of this because of debt bondage I 1St Succession 0 Plebians refuse military service 0 Rome is nearly destroyed I Resolution 0 Tribunes of the Plebs created 0 Protectors of plebians O Recognized by the patricians 0 Beginning of selfgovemance Plebian Government 0 Concilium plebis council of the plebs I Organized by tribe with patricians excluded I Resolutions binding on plebians only I Elects tributes of the plebs 0 Tribune of the plebs 10 I Elected for a year I Elected in concilium plebis I Possess sacrosanctity I If you assault a tribune you can die legally and religiously I Plebs are the only ones who can be tribunes I Protect rights of people with veto 0 Physically stand between I Can call concilium plebis to order 0 2 tribunes can veto one another 0 A consul cannot veto the concilium plebis O Aediles of Plebs 2 I Elected at concilium plebis I Assistant to tribunes I Tend to plebian shrines A government divided 0 Rome now has two governments I Main system consuls Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Dominated by patricians I Governs the entire populous 0 More plutocratic ruled by wealthcomitia centuriara is core I Plebian system 0 Managed by plebs 0 Binding only on plebs I More democratic concilium plebis is core I Belong to two tribes Romulus driven ones and Servius Tullius The second was more important Continued disputes 0 Twelve Tables 451 449 BCE I First written law code I Prevents the situation of magistrates making up laws I Attempt to protect those with less power I Most concerns with faming animals fruit trees veggies I Strict penalties formulate procedures I Written in verse poetry probably to make it so the illiterate people could read I Becomes basis of Napoleonic code 0 Lex law canuleia 445 I Changed law or intermarriage between patricians and plebs from illegal to legal 0 Lex Genucia 342 I One consul must be a pleb I Barred magistrates from holding two offices at one time I Cannot hold the same office again within ten years 0 Lex Hortensia I Any law passed in the concilium plebis applies to ALL romans I Patricians cannot hold office in concilium plebis I Concilium plebis is the main way to make laws Is this an example of a Marxist success story No not between rich and poor 0 Support I Steady advancement of nonpatrician did occur 0 Counter evidence I Lives of poor people never really improve I Legislative power still concentrated with the rich 0 Other explanation I Change social landscape I Some plebians get rich I Some patricians lose money Laws in con ict re ect phases in social life of Rome Re ecting con icts of first century on past 0 Until Lex Hortensia you probably couldn t have passed plebian law without rich plebians September 11 2015 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Expansion and a Setback Mountain dwellers raid the plains Kingship is abandoned 0 Competition between the elite The Republican experiment 0 Benefit of Consuls I Elected in pairs 0 Rome can now field two Armies Problems with Consuls O The vetoes or disagreements are paralyzing 0 Rome often faced more than two enemies Crisis demands exibility Experiment with many types of leaders 0 Tribuni militum consulari potestaes I Tribunes of the soldiers with consular power I Spreads imperium more widely I Helps limit power 0 Dictator I Created intimes of emergency I Appointed not elected by a consul cannot be vetoed I Chooses an assistant magister equitum I Not really powerful I If dictators dies or retires then they re not replaced I Has all the power of the old king 24 fasces I Plebians cannot veto I Six month term or until crisis ends I Do not want to be known for having this office 0 Results I Romans survive crisis though many neighbors do not I Repopulation of old cities as coloniae independent state and renounce Roman citizenship if you move there I Automatically allies of Rome I Basically clientes of Rome Sack of Veii 396 BCE A Case Study 0 Rome s first major victory 0 City 10 miles from Rome 0 Dealt with differently eliminates Veii as an independent state I People killed or enslaved if they did not go to Rome and become citizens I Romans more to Veii stay Roman citizens I Punishment as eliminating Veii as an independent state I Softens blow by allowing citizen of Veii to be citizen of Rome 0 Rome now stretches into Etruria Gallic Sack of Rome 4 and 3rd c BCE 0 IndoEuropean Central European 0 No city no agriculture nomadic O 0 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Cross the Alps in the early 4th century I End up in Po Valley Next push is across the Apennines I Overrun Etruscan Battle of Allia Gallic Sack of Rome 387 BCE I Romans pay for protection Camillus comes and saves the city How bad was it really I No evidence that the city was burnt down I Rome s status not effected I Probably actually paid the Guals Less tangible effects I City planning I Roman Trauma I Scared of Guals I Ethnic makeup of Italy Insight into Roman Identity I Children and Women went to Veii I Young men were sent to the Capital line I Elderly men stay put unprotected in Rome 0 Put on Regalia of highest office they held sat in atrium I Guals didn t understand and thought they were statues so one of them tugged on the beard of one of the elderly men and the old Roman bopped him on the head 0 Better to be dead than a hindrance 0 Confidence 0 Value Politics 0 DO NOT TOUCH ME 0 Elite Romans tried to look like Statues 0 Look larger than life O O O 0 September 14 2015 Roman Expansion 4th 3rd c BC Most campaigns are single season 46 weeks 3 months was super long Fight while grain is growing Steal movable goals July and August brutally dry and hot September high tail it back and get crops Very ritual Citizen armies are normal at roman O No mercenaries like Greeks Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Draft selects starts at 16 or 17 46 Tributa finance longer campaigns 0 Leeved on rich 0 Help pay for war Veii as significant turning points 0 Deditio entidem Handing over into the trust of Handover everything to Rome 0 Temples people houses Useful because it increases the number of potential soldiers Poor people get plots of land and now qualify as soldiers Absorption rather than conquest Rome s new neighbors O Campanians Bay of naples have points poking out 0 Samnites Live in Apinine Mountains Long local tradition of confederacy 0 1st Samnite War 343 341 BCE Romans agreed to help Capula against Samnites Come to a treat 0 The Latin War 341 338 BCE Fed up with Rome Get help from Campaigna Samnites help Rome Roman Victory ends Latin Independence 0 Cannot make treaties on their own without permission from Rome Municipia pl a satalite to the city of Rome 0 2 types 0 With suffragium full roman citizenship can vote close to Rome 0 Without suffragium limited number of latin rights Socii nominis latini 0 Special relationship with Rome 0 Nominal independence 0 Allies of the latin name 0 Coloniea still independent 0 No right to vote 0 Still have original latin rights but can only exercise with Rome 0 Romans unwilling to give up things that made sense 0 Applies to cities that gave in quickly 0 If not brutally eliminated 0 As a result Rome controls most of Latium 0 Benefits of this system No buereaucracy Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Send military help otherwise do not get rights I Soldiers 0 Obligated to send people to fight in summer 0 Loyalty 0 Giving different communities varying degrees of rights 0 Rome encourages communities to fight to get rights 2nd Samnite War 326 304 BC 0 Attack Naples 0 910 months are normal 0 Only fight 46 weeks 0 Battle of Caudine Fork s I Lots of Romans catured alive I Pass under yoke as an example to say they are less than the Samnites I Embarrasment I At pass at beneventum O Samnites drive into Latium I Rome drives them out 0 Major Development in 312 BC I Appius Claudius Caecus serves as a censor 0 Controls large public works 0 Makes road from Rome down coast and across the country 0 Via Appia 0 Used as a military road 0 Established coloniea O 53 colonies established 0 Aqua Appia O Aquaduc that runs from mountains to Rome 0 Says we are too big to support 3rd Samnite War 298 290 BC 0 Unite Etruscans Guals Umbrines O Surround Rome 0 Everyone is concerned 0 Battle of Sentinum 295 BC I Happens on WE coast of Italy I Roman win I Decisive battle The Roman Manipular Army 0 Start 300 BC certain formation 0 Type of fighting style was learned by Samnites O CoC I 2 Consuls over see two legions 0 Normal total or 4 legions per year 0 Must have fought for ten years before you can run for office I 6 military tribunes manage each legion 24 I 5 years experience 0 First 24 are elected 0 Camp 0 Pay Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Elected position 0 4 legions tribunes selected by consuls Infantry is divided into thirty maniples 0 Two centurians selected per maniples 0 Select two standard bearers Infantry divisions 4200 men at arms 0 Velites 1200 Like hockey goalies 0 G0 first throw spears and rocks 0 Do helmets however they want 0 Hastati 1200 1st line 0 Heavy armor O 2 throwing spears 1 sword 0 Principes 1200 0 Main fighting force 0 Lots of experience 0 Armed same as hastate 0 Triarii 600 O Oldest people 0 Reserve force 0 Only with thrusting spear 0 Calvary division 300 0 Five squads of 30 on each wing 0 Tight in waves 0 Group force 0 1St velites poke holes Layout is identical Consul is center Everyone else is easy access Camp home away from home Severe discipline 0 Lots of punishment by death 0 Run gauntlet pelt with sticks and stones 0 If you live you lose Roman rights Helps encourage sound sleep Some pay by 2 c 0 Supplies deducted 0 Booty is crucial Oak crown is given to someone who saves someone else in battle 0 Now obligated to call the guy who saved him father Golden crown is awarded to the first to pass the line Spear is awarded to those with exceptional valor one on one fight usually velites O Romans were driven to show valor in war September 16 2015 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Memorable Stories Sabine Women 0 Phase 1 Romans snatch women I Romulus organize festival of Neptune I Women assured they will be wives 0 Phase 2 Women prevent war between father and husbands 0 What role do women play in Roman society I Form peaceful relations between men I Roman women are courageous special I Loyalty with father and husband because it determines social rights 0 Romans are denied a reasonable request of conubium and they don t like that so they use force Horiatti Roman amp Curiattii Albans 0 Phase one Triplets fight on behalf of their cities 0 Horatius kills his sister I Every woman should be happy because Rome war 0 Horatius goes to trial I Loses first time then appeals king urges I Second time pass under lender yoke 0 Why is murder forgiven I King favors the guy I Father says he needed to kill him then he would have 0 Challenges patria potestaes I Father is old and wouldn t have any more kids if Horatius is killed I No bloodline is a bad deal 0 Why tried for treason I Goes against the patria potestaes of his father which is committing treason on his father Horatius Cocles not related to previous 0 Phase 1 Horatius holds a bridge by self or with friends 0 Phase 2 Once it is destroyed he swims to safety 0 According to Polybius Horatius Cocles dies 0 Why does Livy tell this I Shows Rome is not an individual society 0 Why does he die in one and not the other I Livy rewards his heroism C Mucius Scaevola 0 Phase 1 C Mucius tries to kill Lars Porsena 0 Phase 2 the king frees him after a gruesome display throws his right arm in the fire 0 Phase 3 C Mucius reveals his conspiracy 0 Was there a plan to kill the king I No C Mucius has to ask permission 0 What should we admire I Clever brave the deceit because it benefits Rome Cloelia 0 Phase 1 Cloelia helps hostages escape Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Gets sent back to Etruscans 0 Phase 2 Lars Porsena frees her 0 Is this consistent I Not really Lars Porsena takes hostages when he s asking for peace L Quinctius Cincinnatus Phase 1 Romans face a military crisis Phase 2 Cincinnatus named dictator Phase 3 He resolves the crisis and resigns What does this teach us about Roman attitudes to political office I Romans love farmers in political office and military A Cornelius Cossus 0 Phase 1 Cossus kills an Etruscan king in battle 0 Phase 2 He dedicates the spolia opima Exemplary History 0 Stories are called exempla I Short and rumor I Furnish models of behavior 0 Key Roman virtues I Virtus manliness I Fides trustworthiness I Pietas duty to God country and family I Gravitas seriousness or weight I Severitas sternness I These all re ect mos maiorium custom and ancestors 0000 0 Add to dignitas and auctoritas September 18 2015 Rome s civic Institution A mixed government 0 Power divided between different groups I Magistrates senate people 0 General principles at Magistrates I All offices elected I All offices are collegial has a colleague I Strict term limit I Provinciae sphere of in uence very clear I Consuls 0 Commander in chief 0 Religious obligations 0 Powers 0 Possess imperium O Possess auspicium I The right to take the auspices ask the gods a question 0 Can summon the senate 0 Can summon assemblies of the people O O O O Praetor O O 0 Power 0 O O O o O O O o I o o O O Quaestors Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Laws and legal cases Visible symbols of power Toga Pretexta 12 lictors Inside of pomerium the fasces ax portion removed Sella curulis I Ivory folding chair Lex LicinaSextia 367 BCE I Fixes consulship as highest power Number increases over time Main job is to stand in for the consul when they re on campaign Possess imperium I More judicial Possess auspicium Can summon senate Can summon assemblies Symbols of power Toga Praetexta 2 lictors I Imperium is less than that of a consul Sella Curulis Most associated with courts Curule Aediles 2 from 366 BC on Oversee public works Powers Up keep of the roads temples and sewers Oversee annual games Treasurers Few always stay in Rome and generals take a quaestor to go on a campaign 0 O O 0 Plebian Magistrates Tribune of the O O 0 Powers Oversee the treasury Oversee the general abroad Can stand up to consul in monetary matters Plebs 10 Powers Can summon concilium plebis Summon senate Veto acts of regular assembly magistrates I Result of sacrosanctity Plebian Aediles Powers 0 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Assist the tribunes of the plebs O Oversee plebian temples and games Extraordinary Magistrates I Censors 2 elected every 5 years for 18 mos 0 Conduct the census 0 Powers 0 Assign citizens to centuries 0 Manage roll of senate I Evaluate moral failings I Blackball senators 0 Major public works I Can start new huge projects I Dictator I temporary king 0 Not elected 0 Term 6 mos or at the end of the crisis 0 24 lictors 0 Absolute power even inside the pomerium 0 Tribunes of the Plebs cannot veto when dictator is in office 0 Names magister equium as proxy Roman Assemblies 0 00000 O 0 All meetings are open air meetings Only convene when certain people call them to order Vote calls the law No quorum number of people voting is never the same No absentee ballot Comitia Curiata I Division of patricians into 30 curiae I Lictors as reps in historical period I Powers 0 Legally confer imperium 0 Legally confer auspicium 0 Legally confirm a priest I Ratifies adoption and wills I Summoned by patrician magistratea pontifex I During interregnum these people rule Comitia Centuriata I Division of citizens into 193 centuries I Powers 0 Elect consul praetors and censors I Vote on major bills warpeace etc I Hears appeals of capital charge I Summoned by magistrates with imperium I Must meet outside of the pomerium Comitia Tributa Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Division of the citizens into 35 tribes Each tribe has an equal vote Powers 0 Elect curule aediles quaestors military tribunes 0 Sometimes allowed to pass laws 0 Passes judgement in trial Summoned by magistrate with imperium O Concilium Plebis Same as comitia tributa but without the Patricians Power 0 Elect the tribune of the pleb 0 Pass law after 287 BCE 0 Passes judgement in trials after 287 BCE Summoned by Tribune of the Plebs Can meet anywhere in or around Rome 0 The Senate Advisory board Old fucks Starting in 318 the censors start to manage the senate 0 Must have been in a major elected office to be on the senate MEMBERSHIP IS NOT HEREDITARY Gives advice to office holders NO INDEPENDENT LEGAL AUTHORITY Power 0 Advise consul praetors or tribunes Summoned by consul praetors or tribunes Most be in a space consecrated to the gods 0 Any temple Closed forum Princeps Senatus speak first 0 Elected by consul 0 Highest dignitas Recommendations are not made by vote 0 Made by consensus 0 In uence based on accumulated dignitas of its membership Roman Religion 0 Preliminaries State religion not private Guiding principle practice not belief PaX dueorum Peace of Gods No separation of church and state 0 Key concepts of Priesthood Most are collegial Not elected but chosen by fellow priests Held for life Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Few are full time I Pontifex eventually 15 people I Headed by pontifex maximus I Oversees most sacrifice and the calendar 0 College gives advice on legal matters I Augus eventually 15 0 Divining the will of the gods through augury 0 Advises the magistrates exercising auspicium 0 Inaugurate sacred spaces I Vestal Virgins 6 women 0 Dedicated to Vesta I 30 year term Special Privileges 0 Freed from patria potesta O Sacrosanctity 0 Married after terms ends Distinguished mark 0 Wears toga but keeps haircut of a women 0 Special seats at festivals Protected through severe punishment September 21 2015 Meanwhile in the Greek East Background 0 Phillip II of Macedon I Unites scattered village I Macedon is highly behind the Greeks I Does it extremely quickly I Military innovation 0 Sarissa and new Phalanx O 18 ft spear 0 First strike capability 0 Hard to aim used to lock people in place 0 Use cavalry after I Strikes back and sides I Able to position Macedonia as a central power North of the Balkans I Turns south and gets the Greeks I Assassinated 336 BCE 0 Alexander the Great 356 323 BC I Defeats Atruns at age 18 I Takes throne on Phillip s death Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Greeks rise up again and ATG Alexander the Great smashes the Greeks 336 BCE I The ethos of Macedonia are closer to the Iliad I Slept with two things dagger and the Iliad I Wants to be a Homeric hero 0 Become new Achilles I Plans to invade Persia I Wants to be best and Persia is the best 0 Historical because Persians tried to invade Greece and tailed the Greeks may want to invade Persians to get back at them I Wants to unite Greeks happened only 2 times before Persians and Troy I Series of victories in East I Battle of Granicus Important 0 Frees city states along west coast then turns North to Gordion to cut a know that prophesized that whoever untied it would be king of the world I Battle of Issus win 0 Governor of Persia goes and rallies troops 0 Alexander captures Queen and Princess 0 Heads south towards Egypt 0 Break off economic strength I Siwa Oasis O Zeus Amon oracle O Wants to ask questions I ATG doesn t give a fuck and does what he wants I Guagamela 0 Derious is defeated but escapes I A palace cue and the slave murders Derious and claims kingship Bessus I ATG is unstoppable I Alexander pursues Bessus to get vengeance I Bessus is killed I Hydaspes 0 Indian battle ATG wins 0 Makes poms into an ally I Mutiny forces him back 0 Been on campaign for 10 year 0 Ready to go home 0 What kind of a king I Views himself as new king I Greek and Persian Army I ATG marries Persian women so do important people in the army I Macedonians can marry more than one person I Adopts Persian traditions and clothing Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 A tiara 0 Trousers feminine I ATG requests a deep bow crest pronasis 0 Macedonians are pissed I No human should bow down to another human being like that I ATG viewed himself as a God 0 2 others Hercules and Dionisus 0 Both started as men and now worshipped as Gods I Little interest in Bureaucracy 0 Leaves stuff in place but pay ATG I On way back kills leader who rose up against them and puts a Macedonian in charge I ATG dies intestate in Babylon 323 BC 0 Body gave up I Who takes place 0 Constitutional crisis I Alexander s son is a youth I His brother is incapable I Generals have no way to take kingship back son I Rank and file say that the brother is in charge no Bueno I General split I Disputes to undo Greek gains 0 Generals compete for power 0 End up with 4 kingdoms dominated by sons of generals O Cassander Macedon I Takes control of Greece and Mainland 0 Lysimachus Thrace I Transport 0 Ptolemy I Soter Egypt I Low rank general little legitimacy I Steal body of ATG and build temple worships as God 0 Antigonos Monophthalmos Asia Minor 0 Seleucus Mesopotamia 0 Begins Hellenistic period of Greece I Derogatory term 0 Antigonid Macedonia I Original power base of Phillip II and ATG I Gate way to Greece 0 Ptolemaic Egypt I Claims a pharoh and lets Egyptians practice their religion I Strong country because good defense 0 Desert Ocean and Nile river ood I Huge amount of grain O Selecuid Asia I Extremely diverse and most Persian dynasty I Rich but diverse Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Attalid P 0 Achaen League I Greeks O Aetolian League I Athens and Sparta September 25 2015 Rome Encounters the mainland Greeks Pyrrhus Rome push south Greek cities are fiercely independent and have need to prove it War between Greek cities is common 0 Might team up if they are losing 0 Has been going on for years 285 BC Thurii asks for Roman Protection 0 At war with Samnites 0 Rome establish first garrison in Thurii I Station people here 282 BC Tarentum tries to check Roman power Sink Roman ships March on Thurii Throw Roman Garrison out Thurii thinks Romans won t care I WRONG Consul dispatched to punish Tarentum O Tarentum seeks help of Pyrrhus of Epirus 319 272 BC I Rich and can build an army I Charismatic I Stories 0 Top teeth not diVided just bone 0 Big toe on left foot is magical O Cures ailment of the spleen I Not too important on mainland Greece 0 Helps Tarentum 0 280 BC Pyrrhus assembles his army at Tarentum O 20 war elephants 0 Anticipating war the Roman army winters 0 Battle of Heraclea 280 BC 0 15000 Romans die 0 Romans love 0 Pyrrhus goes North within 50 miles of Rome 0 Turns back 0 Tries to make treaty with Rome 0000 O Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Wants alliance with Rome 0 Apiles says you know didn t give up against Guals why give up against Greeks 0 Battle of Ausculum 279 BC I Rome lost 80000 I Pyrrhus lost just as many I Romans didn t give up I Romans field 70000 more men I Pyrrhus decides to go to Sicily 0 Helps Syracuse vs Carthage I Carthage trying to take Sicily 0 Successful I Returns to Italy 0 Battle of Beneventum 275 O Romans win 0 Pyrrhus goes back to Greece 0 275 BC Rome won and now Romans punish territories I Greek cities take land I Those who didn t defect got more Latin rights I Municipiums that defected lost Latin rights I Rome now known by the Hellenistic states to kick ass I Rome no longer has enemies on Italian Penninsula O 275 BC Dominant Power Social Changes 0 3rd C patricians no longer hold power 0 Emergence of the nobiles I Status is not hereditary I Public honors hold offices I Serve state and prove you will be successful I Public displays increase 0 Temples and monuments I Games and religious rights become more elaborate I Triumph military parade approved by senate only time an army can assemble in pomerium I Goes through forum up to capital I Sacrifice to Jupiter Optimus Maximus I Kills hostages 0 Families promote their own I My grandfather and father did shit what do you think I will do 0 More permeable than before 0 Novi Homines I New men I Not barred from office but have a hard time I No one in their family was in an important office 0 View of Roman society outline hardens I Obsession with Gloria and laus Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Dignitas chie y from these areas I Rich still in uence things I Obsess about making the money in the right ways 0 Farming and through war I Not through business I Plebian government folded into the main system 0 Lex Hortensia 287 BC 0 Tribunate becomes less radical I More rules of competition I Keeps one family from monopolizing I No iteration I Curus nononem O Racetrack of officers I Low quaestors 20 I Aediletribune not needed I Praetor 8 I High Consul 2 0 Rome ran by Ancturs I Senate gain prominence I Consul wants to keep senate happy 0 Social change and military success I If you re always fighting you re always losing soldiers I Extend citizenship I In Greece if a general fails they re exiled I 90 major battles lost September 28 2015 The First Punic War 264 241 BC The Phoenicians Puni Roman 0 In charge of Carthage 0 Naval Power 0 All over map Carthage 0 Biggest city in the West Super powerful Basis of power is the navy Built on natural harbor Controls the water way south of Sicily 0 Rome originally doesn t care about Carthage and isn t concerned with Sicily Romans liked to fight on land and close to home Beginning of Con ict 0 Syracuse vs Carthage O O O O 0000 Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Syracuse hires mercenaries to go to Messana Mercenaries defect and want to rule Messana Mamerites Syracuse sends people to fight the Mamerites Mamerites look for help look to Rome I Send 2 embassies one to Rome and one to Carthage I Rome says no I Carthage says yes I Sends garrison to Messana 0 Makes Rome skittish and sent contingent to drive Carthage out 0 Rome makes allies with Syracuse 0 Rome uses Messana as a foothold Sizing up Rome s contenders O War at sea I Carthage is a power house I Can bring men to Sicily 0 Navy is virtually invincible I Rome has no ships 264 BC 0 Rely on allies completely dependent O War on land I Carthage has a weak army 0 Mostly mercenaries 0 Mercenaries tend to rebel I Rome is dominant 0 Army of citizens and allies 0 Military valor results in an infantry battle 0 Highly effective structure 0 HUGE ARMY O Carthage unmatched at sea Rome unmatched on land Which one will win First decade of the War 0 Rome holds North and Southeast 0 Rome sacs Agrigentum O Carthage is at Lilybaem 0 Rome captures Carthage ships 120 0 Try to fight with the ships the same way they fight on land and fail horribly 0 Standard naval tactic I Sail around and pierce side with a long bronze stick 0 In order to get around this Rome leverages its strength I The corvus 0 A gang plank with a nail at the end send marines on boat to kill people then go back on their ship 0 Battle of Mylae 260 BC I Rome wins I Consul awarded triumph first triumph of a naval battle I Rostra think of this battle 0 Send people to Carthage and they fail horribly I Thing switch Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Battle of Drepana 249 BC I Town above Lilybaem I Romans defeated I Roman general disobeys tradition and gets exiled O War of Attrition I Roman blood or Punic coin I 2 J ulys in a row Rome loses a eet of 200 ships in storms I Corvus causes the ship to fall over I Undo Roman advantage I Fighting becomes fiercer I Sicily is devastated I Rome loses 17 of their male population I Carthage racks up HUGE DEBT I Dying on behalf of the state is super ingrained in Rome s Brain End of War 0 Rome abandons the corvus and teach the traditional naval fighting style I Who are the rowers 0 Proletarii 0 Let s the Proletarii do it because no one person can claim victory 0 Doesn t let them gain dignitas 0 Rome tries to control small islands around Sicily by Lilybaem 0 Battle of Agates Island 241 BC I Rome successful in gaining islands I Carthage ships coming in are weighted with supplies and new recruits easy to sink 0 Rome adjusts ships to take out some of the supports for the bronze stabbing beam Carthage surrenders 241 BC 0 O O O O 0 Give up all claim to Sicily Pays a massive indemnity Carthage can t pay mercenaries I Mercenaries revolt some take Sardinia by force I Carthage loses hold on North Africa 236 BC Carthage retakes North Africa Mercenaries ask Rome for help on Sardinia Rome establishes a presence on Sardinia Carthage loses hold in Mediterranean Rome takes Corsica too OOOOOO Tries to manage same way as Italy Corsica and Sardinia don t like this 227 BCE Rome elects praetors to oversee Sicily and Sardinia Corsica is a provinciae take or an area of control Praetors governors These annual areas of purview are Rome s first commitments outside of Italy Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Rome has huge naval power Proletarii now involved in war and want an equal say Military science is no longer envisioned as a brute force but more tactical Rome s soldiers are fighting way longer than they used to After Punic war Rome mints coins to pay soldiers September 30 2015 The Second Punic War Carthage gives up its navy focuses on African and Spain Hamilcar Barca leader in Carthage dies in battle in Spain in 229 BC Rapid advancement 237 229 BC 0 Spanish are fierce O A lot like Romans 0 Hamilcar can mint new coins I Carthage mints new coins O Replaced by Hasdrubal I Summons Hannibal to Spain Advancement worries Rome 0 Ebro river treaty I Can t go past this I Acts as a buffer I Seems to indicate that Romans are okay with Carthaginians expanding Hasdrubal dies 0 Not replaced by senate s choice 0 Replaced by Hannibal I Assigned by soldiers Hannibal 0 Very very fierce 0 Could endure cold and heat and go without food 0 Only around 18 when he takes control Beginning of a new con ict 0 Siege of Saguntum 219 I Rome says Saguntum was protected I Rome tells Carthage to send Hannibal to them in chains 0 Carthage says no I Rome declares war 0 P Cornelius Scipio sent to help 0 In France meets Hannibal at Massilia I Rome defeated but it is only a small victory O P Scipio returns to Rome I Cn Scipio the consul s brother proxy sent on to Spain 0 Hannibal crosses the Alps in the winter I Unsuccessful because they lose a lot of people and all but one elephant Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Gauls make it hard I Hannibal becomes blind in one eye 0 Halian Gauls join Hannibal 0 Want to check Rome s power Sizing up contenders 0 Hannibal has few advantages I Limited forces weakened by the march across the Alps I Probably 20000 foot soldiers and 6000 horse I Operating in enemy territory 0 But will the Roman allies defect I Can t get resupplied 0 Rome should have the upper hand I Huge number of troops I Control the sea I Know territory well C Scipio says this is serious Battle of Trebia Dec 2018 BCE 0 Loss for Rome 0 Almost 25000 soldiers lost 0 How Battle of Lake Trasimene North most lake 217 BCE 0 Loss for Rome 0 15000 troops lost 15000 troops captured 0 How I Hannibal has awesome tactics Roman Allies remain loyal O Rome s management style of their allies is effective Romans decide to nominate a dictator 0 Not chosen by a consul O No consul is in the city 0 Haven t had to do this in a long time since 367 O Q Fabius Maximus I Consul twice I Avoids direct approach I This works I Blocks Rome and doesn t engage I Called a cunctator 0 The guy who waits to fight I Master of Horse causes trouble I Tries to cause mutiny I Convinces people to name him codictator O Undermines dictatorship 0 Keeps armies separate 0 Fails gives up office Battle of Cannae 216 BC 0 Consuls divided on tactics OOOOO Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I One wants to wear Hannibal down I The other wants direct fight Combine army and switch days Varro eventually seeks a pitched battle Rome fields 90000 men Hannibal out maneuvers Rome s vastly superior army 5070000 romans murdered including the consul that didn t want the direct fight Fallout of Cannae O Hannibal doesn t attack Rome I Why No one knows O Rome s allies start to defect I Samnite and Greek cities to the south 0 Rome accepts Fabian tactics O LeX Opia 215 BC I Woman can t buy clothing or jewelry 0 Rome starts fighting in Illyria I Scared that Carthaginians will call on Macedonia 0 Hannibal takes Tarentum 212 BCE I Romans still control the port 0 Romans retake Tarentum 209 BCE O Hannibal contained in Apulia I Last hope is reinforcements from Spain War in Spain 0 The Scipiones slowly liberate Carthaginian stronghold I 211 BC both Scipios die in battle 0 P Cornelius Scipio son of former General is put in charge same type of thing as Hannibal I Keen mind for battle tactics I He is a privatus cum imperio 0 Private citizen with imperium O Hasdrubal driven out tries to reinforce Hannibal Battle of Metaurus River 207 BCE 0 Roman victory O Hasdrubal can t reinforce Hannibal no hope P Cornelius Scipio is elected consul 205 BC 0 Takes war to Carthage O Scipio invades Africa 0 Wants Hannibal to withdrawl I Carthage calls him back I Army is abandoned in Apulia Battle of Zama 202 BC 0 Scipio reroutes calvary O Drives mercenaries and citizens out 0 Romans regroup 0 Roman Victory 0 Scipio given triumph and given triumphant honorary cognomen Africanus Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Can t be inherited Aftermath 0 Terms severe I Carthage gives up all its sea and land holding I Must pay huge indemnities I Can t declare war or peace without permission from Rome 0 Further I Masinissa a king of Numidia is made a Roman ally I Rome now dominates the W Mediterranian 0 Cost of victory I 33 of Rome s adult male population is dead How does Rome pull this off 0 Immense respect for fighting 0 Death for state an honor 0 Total disdain for cowardice O POWs lose citizenship October 2 2015 Roman Expansion West and South Background 0 Number of praetors and consuls were insufficient 0 3rd c wars are far ung I Spain Africa Illyria I Annual officials not feasible 0 Strategies were inconsistent I Lottery system determines who goes where 0 Not a good system 0 Causes losses 0 Hard to allot credit where it was deserved Experimental Magistrates O Praetors increased to 6 or 4 depending on the year I Stop increase because Romans are afraid that if there are too many praetors it will water down the office 0 Prorogation I The extension of someone s imperium beyond their year in office I Stay in some place until replaced I Imperium disappears when you get back to Rome I Proconsul and Propaetor I Who determines the extension 0 The senate because they have the most experience with foreign diplomat O P Cornelius Scipio Africanus as first privatus cum imperio Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 All officials given provinciae O Prorogued official holds less imperium than the new official 0 Never have an overlap of imperium Governed Provinciae 0 Official with Imperium on top Governor 0 People below the Governor I Quaestor in charge of money I Legati serve as proxies when governors are in the field need approval from the senate for these people I Amini group of unofficial advisors chosen by the governor I Support lictor or scribe 0 Goal is to maintain peace I Prevent invasion I Check in on people and communities I Settle dispute capital cases 0 NonItalian cities are taxed I Grain rather than money I Bids for tax contracts at Rome Want to be a tax collector Pay money they bid up front Publican act as legal agents Huge oversee from these people 0 Money ships horses local tax collectors Profit between what they pay upfront and what they make in country Corruption is rampant Creates a tax bubble Limited attempts to stay abuse Quaestio de repetundis 149 BCE 0 Sue only the governor 0 Special court 0 Senate oversee Rome involvement in Africa 0 Fairly limited after 201 BC I Numidia propped up as the rival I Masinissa key ally from 204 BCE 0 Rome uses diplomatic in uence I Always favors Numidia I M Porcius Cato cens 184 BCE dies 149 BCE Third Punic war Visits Carthage in 157 BCE Childhood and young adulthood during the 2rld Punic war Sees Carthage doing well and doesn t like it Wants Rome to destroy Carthage O Carthage resists Numidia O Carthage gives up land to Numidia to make Rome happy Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome Then gives up their arms Rome opens hostilities Presses Carthage to fight P Cornelius Aemilianus elected as consul for 147 BC I Adopted grandson of P Cornelius Africanus I Blood grandson of L Aemilius Pallus Macedonicus I Sacks Carthage in 146 BCE 0 Fall out I Carthage is gone I Scipio Aemilianus is given the cognomen Africanus I Africa is made a provinciae Roman action in Spain 0 Involvement in 218 BC I Wars are fought continually O P Cornelius Scipio from 211 BC I Scipio is recalled in 205 BC 0 Est Italica first 0 For veterans 0000 I Defensive population 0 Rome imagines two Spains I 2 provinciae 0 Near Spain 0 Further Spain I From 198 BC there are always allotted provinciae I Campaigning and governing O Policies vary radically I Greatly vexed locals 0 Causes them to fight 0 Ti Sempronius Gracehus pr 180 BCE I Fixed the obligations I Locals liked that Why Spain 0 Lumber for ships 0 Metal deposits gold silver copper tin I Governed by publican staffed by slaves I Getting assigned to the mines was the worst thing for slaves 0 Dead within 3 months 0 Military glory I Spaniards valued military valor I Fighting never wiped out the cities I Just enough to get a triumph I Spanish triumph factory Changing landscape after 150 BC 0 Plunder greatly reduced I Not enough booty to justify loss of farms 0 Battles become harder fought Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Romans start to lose BADLY O Lusitania is conquered first I 139 BC Viviathus assassinated O Celtiberians resist fiercely I Stronghold at Numantia I Romans repeatedly defeated I Senate rejects generals treaties Ending Spanish war 0 P Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus con 11 134 BC I Besiege Numatians 133 BC I Manages to take the city 0 Lasting impact I Roman colonies I Baetis River area is slowly Romanized October 5 2015 First Macedonian War 215 205 BCE O Prevents Phillip V of Macedonia from reinforcing Hannibal 0 Rome aided by Aetolian league and Pergamum I Attack Macedonia on three fronts I Not hard fought by Rome 0 Aetolian league and Pergamum check on Macedonia s power 0 End with no decisive victory I Everyone keeps what they have at the end of the war I Rome doesn t try to group Phillip Second Macedonian War 200 196 BC 0 War of retribution I Punitive action for 215 205 BCE O T Quinctius Flaminius consul I 198 BC is dispatched I Given Macedon as provinciae I No office held before I Spent no time in Rome I Super successful so he is prorogued 0 Battle of Cynoschephalae 197 BC I Defeat Macedonian phalanx for first time on Macedonian soil I Broke up united front I Phillip V gives up eet indemnity foreign hold 0 Flaminius doesn t leave right away I Invited to Greek games I Oversees the Isthmian games Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I Does something unexpected I Freedom for the Greeks Isthmian Games 196 BC I Shows he was keenly aware of the Grecian culture 0 Goes home to Rome Syrian War 192 188 BC 0 War of seleucids 0 Pergamum checks on seleucids I Asks Rome for help 0 Hannibal is in Seleucid O L Cornelius Scipio is cos I Elects brother Scipio Africanus as proxy 0 Battle of Magnesia 190 BC I Scipio V Hannibal rematch I Romans win Pack up and go home Third Macedonian War 171 167 BC 0 Perseus renews Macedon son of Phillip V I Marries daughter of Seleucid King 0 Romans wait for Pergamum to ask for help 0 L Aemilius Pallus cos 168 BC I Dispatched also consul in 182 BC 0 Battle of Pynda 168 BC I Romans win I Deal with Macedon more permanently 0 Macedon is fractured 0 the regions I Perseus sent to Rome as POW for triumph I Rome seizes the kings land 0 Property of Roman people 0 GOLD I Greece is punished for siding with Macedon Paullus called Macedonicus Fourth Macedonian War 0 Someone who claims to be king Andriscus 0 Andriscus reunited Macedon O Q Caecilius Metellus pr 148 I Dispatched I Andriscus is crushed 0 From now on Macedon is a provinciae C Mummius sacks Corinth pr 146 BC 0 Burned it to the ground 0 Corinth tried to rise up and gain power I Remains uninhabited for 100 years I Taken as a defensive action Effects of Rome s wars in Greece 0 Money I War spoils Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome I So right there will no longer be a tributa war tax on Roman citizens I Expenditure on public displays increases I Games I Private wealth increases I Money creeps in on politics 0 Voter bribery O Hellenization of Rome I Become more Greek like I Impressed by Greek architecture I Import Greek art histories and literature I Philosophy comes in at this point 0 End of Greek Autonomy I Aechean area is made into a provinciae Why is Greece special 0 Refuses to annex Greece for 50 years 0 In foreign relations Romans can rely on maiestas I Roman state dignitas O Provinciae are considered slaves in this analogy 0 Wanted to make Greece more like a clientes I Rome respects the Greeks their culture and their history I Can t gain respect from a nonfree state I Greeks have no patronage system in their culture I Give up on getting respect from the Greeks Effects of Rome s wars abroad 0 O O The heyday or the Roman senate Nobile families gain in prominence I Monopolize officers as much as possible Limits on office holding Set age minimum I Prestige for holding office at youngest age possible I Make for young inexperiences magistrates I Want a de facto aristocracy of birth I Novi hominus are scorned 0 Romans like familiar names Power of senate grows with the nobiles Nobiles control offices thus they control the senate I Amateur officers contribute to the auctoritas Results I Senate claims new perogatives 0 Auditing magistrates at end of term 0 What s worth of a triumph I Recommending whether to accept treaties 0 Receiving embassies 0 Select provinciae to be allotted 0 Determining how to respond to prodigies Study Guide Oct 9 Test Rise of Rome 0 Serving as jurrors in the quaestiones perpetuae 39 Senatus consulta are Virtually binding I Power of the senate is at its apex
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