sociology exam 1 study guide
sociology exam 1 study guide SOC200
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Ferrier on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC200 at Marshall University taught by Hughes, Jami in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology (CT) in Sociology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Exam 1 study guide 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sociology a Scientific study of connection between individual and social structure b Examines underlying patterns in human behavior relationships with one another Sociological imagination a C Wright Mills b Application of imaginative thought to the asking and answering of sociological questions c Someone using sociological imagination quotthinks himself away form the familiar routines of daily life d Need to overcome limited perspective Social structure a The underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave and in their relationships with one another b Connecting individual experience up with a conception of something larger i College admissions Social constructions a Idea or practice that a group of people agree exists b Maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted c What people think and do are products and culture and history d Everyday experiences with sex and gender Hypothesis a Idea or guess about a given state of affairs put forward as bases for empirical testing Survey a Method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to the population being studied b Less detailed information but can be generalized to the population as a whole c Can be superficial lead to inaccurate results Why do sociologists engage in historical analysis a Comparative research i Enables researchers to document whether social behavior varies across time place and according to one s own social group membership b To produce theory of origins and nature c Provides powerful explanation Ethical dilemmas in research a Does the research pose a risk to subjects that is greater than the risk those subjects face in their everyday lives b Are social scientists benefiting at their subjects expense i Exploitation Random sampling a Sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included b Ensures that a sample is representative 10 Culture a Values f i Abstract ideals Norms i Standards Material goods Languages and symbols Ways of life of individual members or groups within a society Most distinctive properties of human social association 11 Cultural universities a b Values or modes of behavior shared by all human cultures Common features of human behavior i Grammatically complex language ii Family system marriage 1 What constitutes a marriage can vary from culture to culture 12 Characteristics of premodern societies a b c 0 Hunting and gathering i Oldest close to disappearing ii 3040 people iii Few material possessions iv Equality and cooperation 1 Gender Pastoral and agrarian i Pastoral domesticated animals ii Agrarian crops iii Some accumulation of material possessions iv Inequality competition concentration of power Traditional i Disappeared in 1800s ii Cities great inequalities of wealth and power ruled by kingsemperors Industrialized i Destroyed forms of societies ii Machine production based on use of inanimate power resources iii Mostly urban iv More developed political systems v Varying degrees of inequality 13 Values a b Ideas held by individuals or groups about what is desirable proper good and bad What individuals value is strongly influenced by the specific culture in which they happen to live 14 Linguistic relativity hypothesis a Hypothesis based on the theories of Sapir and Whorf that perceptions are relative to language i Language influences our perceptions of the world 1 More likely to be aware of things if we have words for them 15 Social reproduction a Process of perpetuating values norms and social practices through socialization which leads to structural continuity over time b Passage of norms values and social practices from one generation to another 16 Social roles a Socially defined expectations of behaviors of an individual in a given status or social position b Unchanging parts of society 17 Gender socialization a Learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling the media and family b Reactions of parents and adults i Motherinfant interaction 18 Socialization a Social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self b Particularly significant in infancy and childhood i Continue to some degree throughout life c No individuals are immune to the reactions of others around them which influence and modify their behavior at all phases of the life course 19 Childhood as a life stage a Long period b Societies now are more childcentered than traditional ones c Physical sexual abuse is common d Children have rights labor is morally repugnant e Sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational 20 Deborah Carr research about women s lives a Women in the workforce i Gender roles are changing 1 60 of women now work outside the home 2 Women are also delaying marriage living longer graduating college and having fewer children b quotnew midlife i Women feel empowered to exit stale marriages start their own businesses learn from their daughters and start new hobbies 21 Expressions given vs quotgiven off i Expressions people quotgivequot 1 Words facial expressions produce certain impressions on others ii Expressions people quotgive off 1 Cues that others may spot to check sincerity or truthfulness 22 Audience segregation a Endeavor individually to preserve their own dignity autonomy and respect b Act somewhat differently in each of their roles try to keep what they do in each role distinct from what they do in their other roles i Gays lesbians showing a different face to different people 23 Hall s zones of personal space a Intimate lt15 feet i Lovers parents and children b Personal 154 feet i Friends close acquaintances c Social 412 feet i Formal settings such as interviews d Public gt12 feet 24 Nonverbal communication a Communication between individuals based on facial expression or bodily gesture rather than on language b Body language 25 Sometimes a person will smile but an observer notes that the person s eyes look sad Erving Goffman would say the sad eyes are part of the expression the person a Gives off 26 Response cries a oops and duh b Seemingly involuntary exclamations and individuals make when for example they are taken by surprise drop something inadvertently or want to express pleasure 27 Secondary group vs primary group a Secondary group groups characterized by large size and by impersonal fleeting relationships i Businesses schools work groups athletic clubs governmental bodies b Primary group groups that are characterized by intense emotional ties facetoface interaction intimacy and a strong enduring sense of commitment i Families friendships 28 Solomon Asch experiment a Conformity to group pressure b People are willing to discount their own perceptions rather than buck group consensus 29 ngroup vs reference group a ngroups groups toward which one feels particular loyalty and respect i Groups to which quotwequot belong b Outgroups groups toward which one feels antagonism and contempt i quotthose people c Reference group group that provides a standard forjudging one s attitudes or behaviors i Family peer groups coworkers ii Primary or secondary iii Advertising creates set of imaginary reference groups that will influence consumer s buying habits to be a part of the quotingroup 30 Social group a Collection of people who regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior and who share a sense of common identity b Not a social category not a social aggregate c Expect each other to conform to certain ways of thinking and acting d Recognize boundaries that separate them from other groups or people e Primary and secondary 31 Social aggregate a Simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but do not specifically interact or identify with one another i People milling around in crowds ii Waiting for the bus iii Strolling on a beach 32 Social category a People who share a common characteristic such as gender or occupation but do not necessarily interact or identify with one another Essay questions 1 Jean Piaget 2 i Stages in childhood 1 Sensorimotor stage birth to age 2 a Stage of human cognitive development in which the child s awareness of its environment is dominated by perception and touch 2 Preoperational stage age 27 a Stage of cognitive development in which the child has advances sufficiently to master basic modes of logical thought 3 Concrete operational stage age 711 a Stage of cognitive development in which the child s thinking is based primarily on physical perception of the world b Child is not yet capable of dealing with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations 4 Formal operational stage age 1115 a Stage of cognitive development at which the growing child becomes capable of handling abstract concepts and hypothetical situations a Functionalism b i ii iii Durkheim Macro Set of interacting parts iv Consensus of shared values and beliefs v Social order vi Understanding of social structure and social ability vii Ineffective in dealing with social change Conflict i Marx ii Macro iii iv v vi Set of competing interest groups Conflict coercion and power Social conflict and social change Uncovers historical processes that lead to social change vii A weak understanding of social consensus and social stability Symbolic interactionism i ii Mead Micro 3 4 a b d a b iii Social reality that is created and recreated in social interaction iv Shared meanings v Dynamic interplay between the individual and society vi Understanding of human beings as active agents in social life vii Difficulty dealing with social structure Hunting and gathering i Oldest close to disappearing ii 3040 people iii Few material possessions iv Equality and cooperation 1 Gender Pastoral and agrarian i Pastoral domesticated animals ii Agrarian crops iii Some accumulation of material possessions iv Inequality competition concentration of power Traditional i Disappeared in 1800s ii Cities great inequalities of wealth and power ruled by kingsemperors Industrialized i Destroyed forms of societies ii Machine production based on use of inanimate power resources iii Mostly urban iv More developed political systems v Varying degrees of inequality Ethnography i Usually generates richer and more indepth information than other methods ii Provides a broader understanding of social processes iii Can be used to study only relatively small groups or communities iv Findings might apply only to groups or communities studied not easy to generalize on the basis of a single fieldwork study Surveys i Make possible the efficient collection of data on large numbers of individuals ii Allow for precise comparisons to be made among the answers of respondents iii Material gathered may be superficial if questionnaire is highly standardized important differences among respondents viewpoints may be glossed over iv Responses may be what people profess to believe rather than what they actually believe Experiments i Influence of specific variables can be controlled by the investigator ii Are usually easier for subsequent researchers to repeat iii Many aspects of social life cannot be brought into the laboratory iv Responses to those studies may be affected by the experimental situation 5
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