Study Guide for Pre Modern Japan
Study Guide for Pre Modern Japan His 104A02
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to His 104A02 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Kennedy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see History of East Asia in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Premodern Japan Study Guide PreConfucian Japan J omon Culture rope pattern pottery slow development nomadic followed food little need for change since outside forces did not come and try to change them die from natural causes developing social hierarchy some are buried better than others with objects Amaterasusun goddess artifacts curved women with big eyes ourished in south central Honshu and northern Kyushu lived in circular huts mostly vegetarian discovered through refuse piles shellfish mounds pottery worn tools Gods traveled with them Yayoi Era became integrated with the J omon some J omon pushed out Yayoi is dominant no writing immigration and technology came from Korea could have been political refugees escaping brought culture religion technology political with them wet rice agriculture growing in patties permanent buildings settle down and farm also brought metal mirrors bells coins pottery horses mountain warrior samurai social structureruling class emerged dominant families who controlled natural resources ad was supported by farmers feel need to protect themselvesstockades moats metal tools weapons remains show evidence of violent deaths arrow injury head cut off injurycuts variation in tombs what buried with elite more elaborate tombs and buried with better stuff Queen Himiko Pimiko late ruler had connections to China and important to political legitimacy came from southeast Asia and southeast Chinese who ed from Han armies created sophisticated system of crop irrigation worshipped powers of nature Gods put down roots Himiko had connections to China and important to political legitimacy China recognized her as J apans empress Kofun Tomb period and Yamato Kings immigration brings beliefs technology people make population grow dominant familieselite known for tombs key hole shape did not leave writing behind tombs had figurines represented human form tombs located on farm land which demonstrated political power and wealth only house one body usually need human labor to build tombs were filled with foreign goods from KoreaChina mirror pottery textiles coins sword metal weapons and native goods Haniwa used as drainage and scare off robbers once it was a tomb could not be used for anything else Shinto distinct leadership class elite had connection with China political legitimacy no written record except history of Wei where talk about how China give gifts to ruler of Japan lived in thatched houses carried single edge iron long swords spears arrows iron helmets body armor Shinto pure and not pure the way of the Gods don t have sin correlation with nature harmony man identified with nature lacks holy scriptures and holy law what was appropriate and what was not impurity could be washed away prayers to soothe funeralsavoiding pollution of death than comfort relatives no organized priesthood or system for personal salvation no explanation of afterlife or how get there existed only in Japan worshipped own ancestral spirits kami Amaterasu sun goddess What do they tell us about political legitimacy in early Japan Got it from China recognized by China because give China gifts in return What evidence do they provide regarding the possibility that preConfucian Japan was a matriarchy China recognized Japan having empress women played roles and held positions in society they were able to inherit land they wrote a lot first novel was written by a women here Chinese cultural package and creative adaptation Buddhism more superior than Shinto philosophy and technologically life is an illusion life is painful caused by desire life continues through endless cycles of rebirth each determined by sum of ones actions in previous life karma freedom from pain realization of life s illusion release from the cycle of painful reincarnation could be attained by stop desire and obtaining nirvana should ride self of pain desire illusion through proper conduct meditation withdrawal from society religion without a God salvation accomplished independently when came to J apanchanged Mahayana Greater vehicle taught that salvation was too hard for humans to accomplish on their own good works so needed holy man boddistava who earned salvation but refused to leave world until help others attain nirvana funded temples and schoolsspiritual workgood karma Buddhist priests brought new technologies and medicine Tendai taught that all paths to enlightenment were efficient but salvation required many good works and education contemplation of Lotus sutras attain nirvana from wisdom and intuition and providing service for others included internal works esoteric and external works exoteric Shingontaught that Buddhist truth was impossible to understand and emphasized powers of secret ritual practiced by holy men focused on esoteric ritual chanting montra chant syllabal or string of them and vibrations of sound to enlightenment in meditation mudra poses energy from pose gets you closer to enlightenment 2 schools really for imperial house and rich nobles because farmers had little money and time Shinto and Buddhism survived because reached mutual accommodation Tendai preached that Shinto kami were local Japanese manifestations of the boddistava national religion saw as a powerful religion where elite would get more power in court thought to help gain political power Buddhist priests were economically strong not pay taxes on land elite competed in building monarchs monks and priestspowerful when moved capital to get away from them they followed them to the new capital Confucianism follow Chinese model of the Great Law national laws and penal code and institutions for justice new system of inherited ranks only sons of old uji military aristocracy could take civil exams had female leaders Fuijiwara family ruled behind the scenes basically had Mandate of Heaven descendants of the sun goddess everyone knew their place notions of Confucianismljgive Yamato family more stability aristocracy hierarchy said only elite could get an education and hold a position meritocracy Prince Shotoku member of the imperial family and was assisting aunt who was empress tied idea of moral officials in centralized state to moral statements 17 clauses of them but were never enforced look at ereserve believed would help centralize state and strengthen emperors position Shoen sons who would never become emperor or inherit leadership of various familiesl get positions within leadership of army or Buddhist establishments and got granted tax exemptions but could not continue for long without endangering economic and political government these are semiindependent land holdings so many that more land was under control of religious or military leaders than taxed and controlled by government shown owners began to raise and maintain their own samurai and were forced to create systems od administration and wanted to consolidate them into larger units Regency person or group that rule in name of monarch exercises authority for emperor delegation of power to someone that is behind the scenes emperor gets respect and title but no true authority Matrilocal husband goes to live with the wife Matrilineal mothers name is passed down female line Patrilocal wife moves in with husband Patrilineal fathers name is passed down male line Samurai warriors that fight to get rewards out of it owned land at first one who serves fighting for militarypolitical dominance self interested expensive no social mobility fought for social advancement and personal glory move up in ranks of samurai women could be Tale of Genji Murasaki wrote worlds first novel called this illustrated court life about what the court did historical fiction but historians use as a source and they can verify it with court records How and why did the Japanese adopt and later adapt Chinese socialpolitical and religious systems Confucianism and Buddhism Immigrants brought it over saw Buddhism as a powerful religion where they would get more power in court more sophisticated than Shinto thought it would help gain political power higher up see as threat lower support it for elite not common people used Confucianism to try to have a central government What aspects of Confucian ideology did Prince Shotoku emphasize in his Constitution Harmony should be valued no one is above the law obey imperial commands correct wrong when you see it put people can trust and who are worthy in power need trust be open minded make it known what is good and badrewards and punishments only take orders from emperor don t be envious of others respect everyone care for others everyone does their own part in society mattersissues should be discussed not decided by one person only How did shoen lead Japan towards decentralized feudalmilitary government in Kamakura Relationships and alliances based on rewards no national unity if someone else had a better deal or land promised but never given then they would rebel were powerful in military and economy Feudal Japan through Sekigahara Mongol Invasions Mongols wanted diplomatic relationship with Japan and Japanese leadership ignored them so Mongols tried to invade to force them and the Japanese saw that they had more sophisticated technology and weapons typoon happened and blew them back later came back to invade and the Japanese expected them because Mongols demanded submission to them and the Japanese responded by sending Mongols heads cut off shogun needs to ask for help from vassals because military is not big enough no national army no national treasury because emperor could not collect taxes so cant collect taxes so just agree to help because expect reward and because their land is threatened but will not gain anything because just protecting what they already have emperor asked for assistance from ancestors and sun goddess and kami monks and priests prayed recited sutras asked for Buddha to help Mongols had larger army but typoon came again kamikaze shogun rewarded monks first because believed they called divine wind Samurai work for daimyo controlled by them and paid by them Daimyo shogun Ashikaga wanted to monitor them control marriages because they form alliances and may be strategic came from previous powerful families or risen up or moved up by making or breaking alliances has samurai army want to make sure they control them and make sure shogun do not take away their power built castles where they house a large army and have a castle town there to supply them with goods powerful private landowners stopped rewarding samurai with land get paid Primogeniture firstbest son receives all of the inheritance Onin War capital was destroyed and title of the shogun was irrelevant spent resources fighting each other and so daimyo sense loss of control and they fought over who will be next shogun Sengoku Period none of the daimyo were concerned about the shogun or emperor both were too impoverished so there was no point to attack them and no money in imperial treasury emperor died and was not buried for 6 weeks because did not have money to do a proper burial and emperor did not formally marrytoo expensive
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