Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GEOL 102-001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 102-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Kent M. Syverson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
OCTOBER 5 2015 GEOL 102001 OCEANOGRAPHY EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Topic History of Oceanography Exam Percentage 13 1 De ne this ThreeStar Concept Cork 2 True or False During the Middle Ages Romans became maritime traders 3 Which of these was not a prominent explorer during the Age of Discovery 14871522 a Columbus b Balboa c Magellan d Da Vinci 4 The Challenger187276 was the rst purely exploratory scienti c mission and the scientists aboard were mapping wind currents ocean currents and ocean depths How did they measure ocean depth 5 True or False The voyage of The Mete0r192527 marked the rst use of SONAR technology 6 The Glomar Challenger 196883 was a oating drill rig that collected sea sediment What is signi cant about sea sediment ANSWER KEY 1 Lower density objects oat while higher density objects sink 2 False the Arabs became maritime traders 3 D during this time the Spanish became rich while the English and Dutch became accomplished pirates 4 With a cable and anchor which was not very precise due to wind ocean currents and other extenuating factors True It holds records of historical climate information mu Topic Geologic Time Exam Percentage 32 1 What are the two popular theories to explain the origin of the earth a OCTOBER 5 2015 GEOL 102001 OCEANOGRAPHY EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE b 2 De ne the following terms Erosion Deposition Ripple marks Sediment collapse Crossbedding 3 What does mountain buildingquot do in terms of how we see sediment layers 4 The rock at Devil s Lake is made mostly of quartzite Quartzite is what kind of rock aigneous b sedimentary c metamorphic d conglomerate 5 Sandstone is what kind of rock aigneous b sedimentary c metamorphic d conglomerate 6 De ne these terms Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Conglomerate 7 Relative Geologic Time works by observing rock beds and ordering the rock layers chronologically by to newestoldest This requires geologists to look at rock beds from the to the bottomtop and take into account any mountainbuilding erosion or deposition activity No precise dates are required 8 True or False Absolute Geologic Time works by determining the exact dates events occurred using carbon dating historical records etc OCTOBER 5 2015 GEOL 102001 OCEANOGRAPHY EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 9 Match the era with its proper title the rst shellsquot quotage of the mammalsquot earliest primitive lifequot quotage of the dinosaursquot Precambrian Era Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era 0000 0000 o 10 Fill in the correct dates for each era 0 Age of the Earth 0 End of Precambrian Era beginning of Paleozoic Era End of Paleozoic Era beginning of Mesozoic Era End of Mesozoic Era beginning of Cenozoic Era 11 De ne the following terms 0 Carbon Dating Radioactivity Halflife o ANSWER KEY 1 a The Big Bang supported by scientists which proposes the entire universe was formed through a massive release of energy and evolution b Creationism supported by religious people which proposes a greater entity or collection of entities created the universe through divine means 2 Erosion the picking up and moving of sediments and other objects Deposition the dropping off or depositing of sediments and other objects opposite of erosion Ripple marks formed by sand in running water due to water currents Involves erosion deposition and sediment collapse of sediments carried by water ow Sediment collapse occurs when deposited sediment builds so much it gets too heavy to support itself and collapses forming ripples Crossbedding occurs when this collapsed sediment creates layers 3 Massive rocks can be turned on end during mountain building This means that ripple marks created on a horizontal surface now appear on a vertical surface 4 C 5 B 6 Igneous crystallized form of a liquid rock Sedimentary compressed layers of sediment Metamorphic requires head and pressure Conglomerate a cluster of rocks that have fallen together and are now pressurized into one shape 7 Oldest to newest bottom to the top 8 True 9 Precambrian earliest primitive lifequot Paleozoic rst shellsquot Mesozoic quotage of the dinosaursquot Cenozoic quotage of the mammalsquot 10 46 billion years 570 million years 245 million years 65 million years 11 Carbon dating measures the radioactivity halflife of geologic materials to determine their age Radioactivity the energy that is released when one element changes into another Halflife the amount of time it takes for onehalf of an amount of an element to break down Topic Plate TectonicsEarthquakesVolcanic Processes Exam Percentage 41 o 1 De ne this ThreeStar Concept Glassblower 2 True or False Earthquake waves are sound waves 3 Label the earth s layers A o 4 De ne the following terms 0 Lithosphere o Asthenosphere o Isostacy o Buoyancy o 5 Which of the following is NOT evidence for Continental Drift a continents in shapes that could t together b similar weather conditions across continents c similar fossil types across continents d similar rock types across continents 6 Around 1925 the idea of Continental Drift was dismissed in the academic community because it was thought the force necessary to move the continents 7 In the 19605 the idea came back into fashion with a new name Sea oor Spreadingquot What technological advancement made this theory a reasonable possibility once again 8 Oceanic lithosphere is at the MidOceanic Ridge and is in sea oor trenches 9 Label each type of plate boundary 0a ob 0C o 10 De ne this ThreeStar Concept Super Ball o 11 Fill in the blanks Divergent Plate g Presence of volcanism QL Landform expression g Presence of earthquakes Type Magnitude Transform Plate g Presence of volcanism QL Landform expression g Presence of earthquakes Type Magnitude O Convergent Plate g Presence of volcanism QL Landform expression g Presence of earthquakes Type Magnitude o ANSWER KEY 1 Hot solids bend cold solids snap 2 True 0 3 Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core 0 4 Lithosphere cooler harder more brittle outer portion of Earth Asthenosphere hotter more plastic upper portion of Earth s mantle Isostacy the action of the lithosphere oating on the asthenosphere Buoyancy ability of an object to oat due to the support of the uid the body is in or on and the relative density of both the uid and the body 0 5 B o 6 Would shatter the continents themselves 0 7 SONAR imaging of oceanic ridges trenches and volcanoes 8 Created destroyed 9 Divergent transfer convergent 10 Temperature is the average molecular activity Density is mass As heat rises denSIty decreases and Vice verse volume mass constant l Denszly lt gt i volume 0 11 Divergent yes ridge yes weak shallow ones Transform no presence of fracture zones yes weak shallow ones Convergent yes mountains and volcanoes yes deep strong ones 0 Topic Video Shark Encountersquot Exam Percentage 7 1 How many species of shark exist today a Less than 200 b 500 c 700 d 900 or more 0 2 Of these how many are dangerous a None of them b Only a handful c The majority of them d All of them 0 3 What makes a shark a shark a Cartilage skeleton b Multiple rows of razor sharp teeth that rotate forward to replace broken or missing ones c Dermal denicles or teethlike scales d 57 gill slits e Internal fertilization of young f quotAmpullae of Lorenziniquot g All of the above 0 The 14mpulae 0f Lorenzhi are electroreceptors 0r y39ely led canals that pick up electrical pulses from other living things Without the shark s use of sight smell or touch This allows them to nd both food and mates Shark Facts Sharks do not provide any care for their offspring Term shark also covers chimeras and rays Chimeras are the most primitive species of the three 0 The sharks you see today are streamlined perfected versions of their ancient ancestors Bonnet Head sharks feed their young through a placenta unlike other sharks 0 Angel sharks hide in the sand and allow prey to swim over them unawares They then snap upward to swallow their prey whole These sharks are triggered by sight not by their ampullae Hammerheads heads are shaped to act like a metaldetector for food It allows them a larger range for detecting prey in the sand with their ampullae Nightshockers use electricity to detect prey stun prey and defend themselves Reef Whitetip sharks proved that sharks didn t need to keep swimming to breath Whale sharks are the largest sh in the sea Megachasma Pelagios or the Megamouth Shark is a species a million years old 16 ft long 1200 lbs it was long believed to be extict until it s rediscovery in 1990 It s a deepsea shark The bedrock in central Montana contains several ancient species ofshark WW 0 0000 ANSWER KEY Topic Video Killer Whales Wolves of the Seaquot Exam Percentage 7 1 True or False Killer Whales Orcinus orca are the largest members of the dolphin family 0 2 Which of the following is true about Killer Whales a They are curious and intelligent b They have colonized every ocean on earth c They hunt in packs like wolves d They specialize in what they hunt e All of the above 0 3 Which of the following is NOT true about Killer Whales a They specialize in what they hunt b They use clicks and other calls to communicate with one another c Every family pod uses the same vocabulary to communicate d Each whale has unique tail and dorsal patch markings 4 True or False Calves both male and female stay in their mother s family pods for life 5 True or False Sexual interplay amongst whales is mostly heterosexual 6 True or False Whales seek out pleasurable activities such as rubbing their bellies on rocks or swimming through long seaweed Killer Whale Facts North Paci c KWs hunt salmon Each whale chases its own sh Norwegian KWs rely on herring As a group they herd the herring calling and signaling to one another and stunning the sh with powerful icks of their tails South Indian KWs specialize in elephant seals using a technique that involves riding waves up the beach to catch the seals then riding the counterwave back into the sea This can sometimes result in beaching or getting stuck on shore These whales are silent hunters and prey on seal pups Argentinian KWs also hunt seals but they use a decoy whale to distract the seals while a second whale goes in for the kill KWs practice hunting skills by playing with their food almost like a cat They toss their prey up in the air with their tails and practice lunging at it from underneath the water as well ANSWER KEY True Killer Whales can get up to 30 feet long and weigh up to 7 tons E C True pods prevent inbreeding by joining up with other pods during major hunting seasons False Males participate in sexual acts with other males to establish dominance True
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