Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide GEOL 105 ( Ken Lepper)
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Popular in Geology
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Date Created: 10/06/15
GEOL 105 Ken Lepper NoteTaker 091815 Weathering o Weathering the physical breakdown disintegration and chemical alteration dissolutiondecomposition of rock at Earth s surface 0 Two types of weathering 0 Physical Weathering I breaking of rocks into smaller pieces by mechanical processes 0 Chemical Weathering I breaking down of rock components and internal structures of minerals by chemical processes a Positive feedback cycle between physical and chemical weathering Physical I Mechanical Weathering 0 Types of physical weathering mechanical processes 0 Thermal expansion contraction o Wetting and drying 0 Frost wedging I Water increases in volume 9 when it transform from liquid to solid 0 Unloading Exfoliation Sheeting I Exfoliation is called sheeting fractures sometimes 0 Biological Activity Biophysical weathering I Plants have a remarkable ability to grow through small cracks Examples Desert Cobble thermal expansioncontraction Wetting and drying of shale slaking Chemical Weathering o Aqueous Processes o Dissolution I Aided by small amounts of acid in the water I Best example is rain water and limestone 0 Ion Exchange I Chemical exchange of ions in solution with sedimentsoil usually clay particles 0 Oxidation I any reaction in which electrons are lost from an element I frequently involves production of oxide minerals Examples Dissolution Graves Oxidation Rust Metallic FeO 3e Fe3 Fe203 Hematite 0 Biochemical Processes 0 Weak organic Acids I many biological waste products are weak acids I some organisms secrete acid intentionally to release nutrients from rocks Example Lichens Biochemical weathering agents Effects of Weathering o Alterations caused by chemical weathering o Decomposition of soluble minerals ions in solution 0 Formation or retention of stable materials 0 Smoothing or rounding of corners and edges Erosion o Erosion the physical transportation of material by mobile agents such as water wind ice or gravity 0 Particulates Sediments o Solutes dissolved ions 0 The mobile Agents ErosionTransport depositional systems 0 Water Fluvial rivers and streams 0 Wind Eolian 0 Ice Glacial o Gravity Mass wasting Soil is a combination of the 4 things Atmosphere Lithosphere hydrosphere and Biosphere Soil 0 Soil combination of minerals organic matter water and air that supports the growth of plants 0 Regolith rock and mineral fragments produced by weathering o Humus decaying animal and plant remains 0 Living Organism and their biotic processes are also an essential component of soils Extra notes The Ideal Soil Compositio in this case ideal for Crop Production Soil the ultimate biofilm that sustains life on lands Active soil layer average thickness gt 1 meter The Type and quality of soils depends on 0 Five Soil Forming Factors 0 Parent Material I Ex residualregolith vs transported soil 0 Topography I Exhi top vs valley bottom 0 Climate I key factors temperature amp precipitation o Organism I influence the soil s physical chemical properties 0 Time I Amount of time for soil formation varies for different soils depending on geologic and climatic conditions The Soil Profile 0 Soil forming processes operate from the surface downward 0 Vertical differences the layers are called soil horizons 0 Master horizons o O horizon organic matter 0 A horizon organic and mineral matter I High biological Activity I O and A horizons make up the Topsoil o E horizon little organic matter I Zone of leaching o B horizon zone of accumulation o C horizon partially altered parent material Collectively the O A E and B horizons Solum or true soil End of Week GEOL 105 Ken Lepper 092115 Sample Quiz Questions 0 Soils form layers from the surface downward called a Stata b Beds c Horizons d Lamination Answer is C Horizon 0 Two forms of types of weathering that breakdown the surface are Chemical and Physical What is a sedimentary rock 0 Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering of other rock at the Earth s surface 0 Rock and mineral fragments or ions in solution 0 Contain evidence of past environments 0 Often contains record of past life fossils 0 Record of past climate conditions 0 Record of sediment transport processes Examples Monument Valley 23 of the Grand Canyon Arches National Park Economic Importance of sedimentary rocks 0 Sedimentary rocks are important for economic considerations because they source of 0 Coal o Petroleum and Natural Gas 0 Source of Iron aluminum titanium manganese and REEs rare earth elements 0 Aggregate and building stones Abrasives 0 Commercial 0 Turning sediment into rock 0 Many changes occur to sediment after it is deposited o Diagenesis chemical physical and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited o Occurs within the upper few kilometers of Earth s crust o 23 kilometers of the Earth surface are sedimentary rocks Examples of Diagenesis 0 Soil formation 0 Turbation mixing 0 Ex Bioturbation cryoturbation o Dewatering o Compaction 0 Ion Exchange with groundwater o Lithification Lust material into Solid rock Turning sediment into rock 0 Lithification Transformation of sediments into solid rock by o Compaction o Recrystallization Development of more stable minerals from less stable ones 0 Cementation Natural cements include calcite silica and Iron Oxides from groundwater Example of Recrystallization AragonitegtCalcite Different CaCO3 Polymorphs Shapes of molecules Types of sedimentary Rocks 0 Rock types are based on the manner in which the sediment was transported and deposited o Detrital sedimentary rocks sediment transported as solid particles 0 Chemical sedimentary rocks sediment that was transported in solution Textures of Sedimentary Rocks 0 Two major textures are used in the classification of sedimentary rocks 0 Clastic Discrete fragments and particles All detrital rocks have a clastic texture o Nonclastic Pattern of interlocking crystals May resemble an igneous rock Must but not all chemical sedimentary rocks have a non clastic texture Detrital sedimentary rocks 0 The chief constituents of detrital sedimentary rocks include Ex Hematite Limotite Note Highlither is to distinguish the detrital sedimentary rocks that have that feature The Colors of Detrital Sedimentary Rocks and Ironoxides 0 Iron Oxides serve another significant role in sedimentary rocks 0 They are almost entirely responsible for the COLOR or sedimentary rocks 0 Less than 12 of Feox in total rock gives it color 0 Hematite Oranges Reds Maroons o Limotite Yellows and Oranges Detrital sedimentary rocks 1 0 Common Detrital sedimentary rocks 0 Shale Clay sized lt4 um 41000 mm particles in thin layers that are commonly referred to as laminea Most common sedimentary rock Gray and black in color and can preserve fossils o Siltstone Siltsized 463 um particles generally nonlaminated Yellowish o Sandstone Composed of sand sized 63um to 2 mm particles Forms in a variety of environments I Quartz is the predominant mineral the layers can be seen Fossil preserved Note shales and Siltstones are frequently referred to as mudstones but the term is too vague Detrital sedimentary rocks 2 0 Common detrital sedimentary rocks continued 0 Conglomerate and Breccia Both are composed of glass greater than 2mm in diameter With matrix particles that are smaller in size than the clasts o Conglomerate Consist largely pf rounded gravels o Breccia If composed mainly of large angular particles Principle of Original Horizontality 0 After being transported by one or more of the mobile agents sediments are deposited in horizontal layers 0 These sedimentary layers are most commonly refer to as strata Unconformity 0 An unconformity is a break or disruption in the rock record produced by erosion andlor nondeposition of rocks unit Types of unconformities o Angular unconformity tilted rocks are overlain by flatlying rock 0 Disconformity Strata on either side of the unconformity are parallel 0 Generally indicates Erosional Service 0 Non conformity metamorphic or igneous rocks in contact with sedimentary strata f UHCH farmftfes Mmmn nmiity ngnuilarr Mnmnfurmiity iis n mity U mn fannitfas in the Gran CE y n Sedimentary Facies I xtreme Mountairi streams breccias 39 simpification iFoothills conglomerates Rivers sandstones amp Shorelines deltas Off shore a sandstories siltstories Deep ocean basins shales i Timeequivalent strata I Sedimentary rocks deposited at the same time in the past can have different grainsizes i be different rock types i Represents transportation distance and energy Rock Symbols Table of Lithologic Symbols SYMBOL tI li HDLDGTt39 SYMEDL lJTHOLDGV39 Breeds Limestone Conglomerate Dolostone Sandstone v Volcanic rocks galEm 1 Plutonis rocks Shale i Platonic Coal Meta morphi rocks 092315 POP Sample Quiz Questions The physical chemical and biological changes that take place in sediments after deposition are called Dialysis Diagenesis Diagonalization Disapparition Answer is B Diagenesis PPNT Which of the following detrital sedimentary rocks is most likely to exhibit fine laminations A Shale B Siltstone C Sandstone D Conglomerate Answer is A Shale rocks Chemical Sedimentary rocks Consist of Precipitates material that was once in solution Precipitation of chemical sedimentary occurs 0 Predominantly by organic processes biochemically facilitated Creatures that live in water helps 0 But also by Inorganic processes under certain conditions BiochemicalBiogenetic Limestone Numerous aquatic organisms synthesize CaCO3 for their tests Shells from ions dissolved in water form in association with coral reefs 0 Minerals Calcite or Aragonite Same chemical formula Different arrangement of atoms in space 0 Limestones formed from these shells or tests are called biochemical or biogenetic Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Limestones Dolostones Origen gtgt alteration from limestones Evaporite Chen 5 Coal Chemical Sedimentary Rocks 0 Common chemical sedimentary rocks 0 1 Limestone Most abundant chemical sedimentary rock Composed primarily of the mineral calcite Marine biogenetic limestones form in association with coral reefs or shoals and include the rock types 0 Fossiliferous limestone o Coquina broken shells o Chalk microscopic organism tests 0 The white cliffs of Dover England Inorganic Limestone 0 Under some conditions Ca2 and C03 2 can precipitate directly from water forming calcite inorganically 0 Usually associated with Sudden changes in water temperature Mixing of waters with very different C03 2 concentrations 0 Inorganic limestones include Oolitic limestone Bahamas Banks with spherical form and Travertine Yellowstone Chemical Sedimentary Rocks 0 Common chemical sedimentary rocks 0 2 Dolostonesl Dolomite Product of alteration of limestones Diagenetic interaction of brines rich in Mg with calcareous sedimentslimestones Calcite Dolomite 2CaC03 Mg2 CaMgC032 Ca Acid Reactivity o Calcite Immediate I vigorous with acid 0 Dolomite Must be prepared to react with acic o 3 Evaporites Transported as ions Usually highly soluble but Evaporation of water containing the ions triggers deposition of chemical precipitates Examples include Rock salt and rock gypsum o 4 Chert Composed of microcrystalline quartz Transported as colloidal silica Varieties include flint jasper Branded iron formation and chalcedony banded form is called agate Opal microscopic spheres of microcrystalline quartz o 5 Coal Different from other biogenetic chemical sedimentary rocks because it is composed of organic material not just originating from biological processes Stages of Coal Peat swap environment Lignite Bituminous CoalCompaction AnthraciteMetamorphism Stages in coal formation in order of increasing burial pressure and heat 0 Plant material 0 Peat o Lignite o Bituminous o Anthracite Metamorphic Revie Sample Test Question 0 Rock gypsum is a A Biogenetic Limestone B Inorganic Limestone C Biogenetic Evaporite D Inorganic Evaporite Answer is D Inorganic Evaporite 0 Which of the following rocks is a form of inorganic limestone A Coquina B Fossiliferous limestone C Travertine D Chalk Answer is C Travertine 0 Which of the following is not a form of microcrystalline sedimentary quartz A Opal B Oolite C Agate D Jasper Answer is B Oolite 092515 Sedimentary Environments o A Geographic setting where sediment is accumulated o Is linked to the characteristics of the sediments that accumulate mineral content grain size grain shape etc 0 Types of sedimentary environments 1 Continental I Terrigenous o Stream deposition fluvial system c Alluvial fans 0 Deposition in lakes lacustrine o Evaporite basins playas I salt flats I pluvial lakes o Sediment deposited from the action of ice glacial 0 Wind transport Eolian 2 Marine 0 Shallow to about 200 meters depth 0 Continental shelves 0 Deep 0 Continental slope o Abyssal plain 3 Transitional shorelinenear shore o Beaches Tidal flats Lagoons back bays bayous Deltas Stream I Fluvial Environments Streams from tributary systems or drainage networks to collect and distribute the water on the surface There are braided Stream systems and Meandering stream systems There are some evidences of possible tributary systems on Mars An Example of Fluvial Environments is the flood plain of the lower Mississippi river An Example of meandering stream system is the Mississippi river L bangle Mississippi River Meandering stream Alluvial Fan Environment Conglomerate Alluvial form where streams and debris flows discharge from mountains onto valley floor leaving a triangular or wedgeshaped deposit of sands and gravel typically the larger clast are more abundant closer to their sources Alluvial Fan forming at the mouth of a canyon Glacial Environments Collectively known as drift Depostied through processes like till or outwash Till most common Glacial Deposit o Deposited directly by the melting ice along the glacial margin and consists of all sediment that has been picked up by the glacier as it scraped across the surface of the Earth 0 Mixed Grain size 0 Once it is lithified till is classified as a conglomerate Glacial really produce numerous lands Lithified till or Tillite is a type of conglomerate that can be found on Gowganda Tillite Ontario Canada Gowganda Conglomerate Periglacial Environments those that are in a cold climate typically near glaciered regions cold climate frequently marginal to the glacial environment and is characteristically subject to intense cycles of freezing and thawing of superficial sediments Peat bog Coal Eolian Environments Great Sand Dunes National Park Mon CO Eolian amp Pluvial Environment Sand dunes Gypsum dunes White Sands National Monument in New Mexico Shallow Marine Environments gtgt Limestones Great Barrier Reef from space Australia Guadalupe Mountains Ancient reefs NM Deep Marine Environments Modern clay deposition Rock record Shale Turbidities formation on the ocean Important petroleum environments Transitional Environments Beach Tidal flats and evaporitic basins o Racetrack Playa Death Vally CA 7 7 ill 39 Hanaquot Deltas o Nile River Delta exhibit distributary channel systems o Lena river Delta Lagoons Back bays Bayous I 7 H 11 n I 391 39 39I Bayou Come in Louisiana Sedimentary Structures 0 Provide information useful in the interpretation of o Sedimentary Environments o Sedimentary structures 0 Types of sedimentary structures 0 Strata the characteristic layering of most sedimentary rocks Also called beds or sedimentary layers Personal notes Sedimentary structures 0 Ripple Marks Wave ripples o Symmetric Profile 0 Asymmetric ripples can be used to determine flow direction A Symmetrical ripple marks E asymmetrieal ripple mares o Crossbedding in rock 0 Can be used to determine flow 0 High angle crossbeds Fluvial stream Deposit more than 25 0 Low angle crossbeds Eolian wind deposit 10 up to 25 54 Crossbedding of sandstone near Mt Carmel roadZion Canyon indicating wind action and sanddune formation had occurred prior to formation of the rock 0 Modern mud cracks 0 Ancient mud crack 6 j m Ancient mud cracks preserved on the base of a bed of sandstone Fossil raindrop impressions on the top of a waverippled sandstone from the Horton Bluff Formation near Avonport Nova Scotia 0 Tools Marks gtgt Glacial Striations Sandstone with preserved too marks o Concretions gtgt chemical sedimentary rocks formed secondary within detrital sedimentary rocks 0 SD Badlands same rocksioutcro W o Septarian concretions gtgt tertiary chemical sedimentary within a secondary chemical sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks 0 Types of sedimentary structures continued 0 Crossbedding o Graded beds 0 Ripple Mark 0 Mud Cracks 0 Raindrop Marks 0 Tool Marks 0 Concretions o Fossils Sample Test Questions Tributary channel systems are characteristic of which sedimentary environment Fluvial Lacustrine Alluvial Deltaic 9003 Answer is A Fluvial o Evaporite minerals are most likely to form in which sedimentary environment A Glacial B Fluvial C Deep Marine D Pluvial Answer is D Pluvial o The most common unconsolidated glacial sediment deposit is A Soil B Till C Conglomerate D Breccia Answer is B Till Note Conglomerate is when it gets solid GEOL 105 NoteTaker 092815 Introduction to Fossils Fossils Evidence of Past Life 0 Fossils traces or remains of prehistoric life now preserved in earth materials 0 Fossils are generally found in sediments or sedimentary rocks 0 Rarely in metamorphic rocks 0 Rarely in igneous rocks 0 Example in igneous rock Pompeii o Paleontology study of fossils o Biostratigraphy differentiation correlation and relative dating of rocks units based on the fossils they contain 0 Conditions Favoring preservation 0 Rapid burial 0 Possession of hard parts skeleton shell etc 0 Low temperature environments 0 Low oxygen environments 0 Fossils can be created from few thousand to many millions of years 0 Types of Fossils 0 Hard body parts by far the most common type of fossil Shell teeth bones etc o Entire Organism flesh included 0 Molds and casts Can be important to our knowledge of organisms without hard parts like jellyfish for example 0 Trace fossils Important to our knowledge of behavior of organisms Examples Bones teeth are examples of body parts lnsects in Amber are Entire organism fossils Entire organisms can happened in cold environments like Dima a frozen Baby Mammoth Petrified wood Natural cast of shelled invertebrates Mold of a trilobite mold of a jellyfish 0 Type of Trace Fossils 0 Tracks or Trails Dinosaur foot prints in limestone o Burrows o Coprolites fossil dxung vforieptiles do not ok t preserve well 392 o Habitatlterations Nests wallows bite marks think of beavers courting structures think of birds and fish etc State Fossil of North Dakota Teredo Wood a threefer Plan Bio Trace fossil 0 Plant fossil o Bivalve fossil 0 Trace fossil a g i Biostratigraphy Matching of rocks of similar ages in different regions is known as correlation Bio stratigraphic correlation relies on fossils 0 Williams Smith late 1700 noted that sedimentary strata in widely separated areas could be identified and correlated by their distinctive fossil content Fossils and Correlations Principle of fossil succession 0 Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content Index fossil o A geographically widespread fossil that is limited to a short span of geologic time Fossil Suite 0 A group of fossils that frequently occur together because they inhabited the same biomes Fossil succession Birds come from Dina sours and the theory for the evolution of the horse Bio stratigraphic Correlation i stra tirapfiic familialtiara in Blue lines indicate the same type of fossils for the three different areas 0 0 Red Lines include the combination of fossils that are in the areas 0 Setting up the areas to create a Age time for the fossils We will have i4 r 1 FE Earnela ted I in r Eec i s Hail Ii T I if in 5 il LI39 ii 7 ll i 2 LEE L Em I 7 a a H i 5 3 an DinaH ii 39 ii i in 5 5 11 a From Oldest to Newest Going from the bottom until the top Three Largest Mass Extinctions in Earth history 1 Permian 251 Ma ago 0 95 of all marine organisms o 75 of terrestrials 2 Cretaceous 65 Ma ago 0 80 marine 0 Around 55 terrestrials 3 Holocene 10 ka today 0 4555 of terrestrials o Oceans difficult to assign a percentage but extinctions are definitely occurring 0 Entire Coral reef biomes marine mammals numerous marine birds and fish populations are plummeting threaten Note think to be instantaneous extinctions but these occurred during millions of years Stromatolites the Earliest Fossils The earliest evidence of life on Earth Archean Eon 35 34 Ga to Present today Mounds formed by colonies of cyanobacteria Living Cyanobacteria Ediacarain Fauna Earliest multicellular life forms preserved in fossil record 0 600900 Ma 0 Precambrian time Soft bodied o Preserved as molds Sample Test Questions Distributary channel systems are characteristic of which sedimentary environments Alluvial Deltaic Fluvial AandB A B and C W909 Answer is D Alluvial and Deltaic 0 Coal is most likely to form in which of these sedimentary environments Fluvial Deep marine Pluvial Transitional Shallow Marine W909 Answer is D Transitional 0 Which of the following isare not a sedimentary structures A Strata B Conglomerate C Concretions D Tool Marks E C and D Answer is B Conglomerates is not a sedimentary structure GEOL 105 Notetaker 09I30I2015 What39s the point e Fossils are one of the best way to quotconnectquot with the geologic past 0 The goal here is to recognize several types of fossils and to learn how paleontologists distinguish between similar forms Review Stromatolites o The earliest fossil evidence of life on Earth 0 35 34 Ga to present day 0 Layered mounds formed by colonies of cyanobacteria Review Ediacarian Fauna o Earliest multicellular life forms preserved in fossil record 0 600900 Ma 0 Softbodied o Preserved as molds Geologic Time Scale Simplified E i hi39ii g relll ir Mg Dcwrmnce of Ediamria 39 ctur ence of S Itrumam lite The Cambrian Explosion 600 to 540 Ma Transition from Proterozoic to Phanerozoic Eon o Appereance and abundance of hard bodied macro fossils Prot from Protozoans single celled organisms Phan from Greek phaneros visible Trilobites Phylum Arthropoda 0 Other arthropods insects arachnids crustaceans Class Trilobita Very early exoskeletal organisms Extreme diverse o numerous types 0 numerous niches life ways quotThequot Fossil of the Paleozoic Era 0 Lower Cambrian to Upper Permian Trilobate Threelobes Tril mites nth Tri Imites ia nts Batems brachycepheius 5 will w q h r W n 39 EA km wi39 imquot a iiiiiiixlxi Ornate Trilobitea Delicate Trimbites Trillite Clwuin Genus Agnesiue Phylum Brachiopoda Brachiopods o Bilaterally symmetric bivalves 0 Lower Cambrian to Recent Py39rii tized Emchi Phylum Bryozoa Bryozoans Twig animals 0 Colonial organisms o ZOOIDS o Branching fanshaped or corkscrew macro structures 0 Lower Ordovician to Recent Woman Fossi Is Phylum Mollusca 0 Class Gastropoda o Cambrian to Recent 0 Class Cephalopodia o Ammonoidea Devonian to Cretaceous o Nautiloidea U Cambrian to recent 0 Class Bivalvia o Ordovician to Recent 0 Class Coleoidea o Octopi Squid Cuttlefish very weird to find in the fossil record litdew Earrail a gastrode Ga stratapods C ilfedi Shell with transati n al mg axis f mii rl Cephal puds Ammnites C iled sham wnith ut trans lat im Cephal pods Nautilus Cilied Shelli with ut translatian Fm sxiil w39itlh nacre What s the ifference Playutilgids Almminnites Simple suture Sample suture Herr day mi Eamhrian Nautiloid are the oldest species and ammonoids are an evolution Bivalve Mollusks Symmetric valves ex clams oysters mussels Note Symmetry on shells mmmmwna dam lelltuilin plme is mmmw 139 l Tfflim ll fl39J39Tji i llmlwl 13a 3 I 111 runway Phylum Echinodermata 0 Class Echinoidea o Starfish Brittle stars sand dollars Sea urchins Ordovician to Recent 0 Class Crinoidea o Ordovician to Recent o Fivefold symmetry parts do not have to be in equal size 3955 j Echinidea StarfiSh Echinoidea irittie Sta r5 Echimidea Sea Urchins Crinoidea Cri aidis Ex39ta nt Sea limes C r39i nidea Stemetamk segmentg ashquot 4 i49 l mg Crimnidea Calyx Feeiing head Phylum Cnidaria Corals 0 Class Anthozoa 0 Order Tabulata Cambrian to Permian 0 Order Rugosa Cambrain to Triassic 0 Order Scleractina Triassic to Recent f mh Tabulata Tabulate Caral LILMr EHh IH mm H1 man lill39l girlmum run II culumm mleanl39nu quotcampusEli Iz iT mung ludiuu dumla39 II was miu lr39s39imfli lulnl innijnminaj in prohum sii r a ma Ruggsa 39HDM I CDFEIS wwwma sieilkneit Sclera tinia Extanthadern Cma s Living coral polyps SUMMARY Phylum Arthropoda 0 class Tribolita Phylum Brachiopoda Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Mollusca 0 Class Gastropoda 0 Class Cephalopoda Order Ammonoidea Order Nautoloidea 0 Class Bivalvia Phylum Echinodermata 0 Class Echinoidea 0 Class Crinoidea Phylum Cnideria 0 Class Anthozoa Order Tabulata Order Rugosa Order Sciertinia Life Through Time Biological quotagesquot of the Earth Paleozoic Era Cambrian period 542488 Ma 0 Age of Trilobites Ordovician period 488444 Ma 0 Age of Cephalopods Silurian period 444416 Ma 0 Age or Corals Devonian period 416359 Ma 0 Age of Fishes Mississippian period 359318 Ma 0 Age of Crinoids Pennsylvanian period 318299 Ma 0 Age of Plants age of Coal Permin period 299251 Ma 0 Age of Amphibians Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles o Triassic period 251 202 Ma 0 Jurassic period 202146 Ma 0 Cretaceous period 14665 Ma Cenozoic Era Age of Mammals o Tertiary period 6526 Ma Large Mammals o Quaternary period 26001 Ma Mammals start to be part of the Earth Review Sample Test Questions The state fossil of North Dakota is A tree frog trapped in amber Bison latifrons ancient long horned bison A trilobite with long eye stalks A Worm filled brachiopod Teredo Wood W909 Answer is E Teredo Wood True or False No hominids have ever gone extinct therefore humans occupy a special place in nature and don39t have to worry about extinction A What39s hominid is that like two words that sound the same B I am going to cry C True D False Answer is D False Fossilized feces animal droppings are trace fossils called A Gastroliths B Coprolites C Dungites D Poopoliths Answer is B Coprolites GEOL 105 Notetaker 10022015 Metamorphism and Metamorphic Textures The rock cycle 1 Igneous Rock 2 Sedimentary Rocks 3 metamorphic rocks compaction and camentation l r j Metamorphism o The Transformation or one rock into another by temperatures andor pressures unlike those in which the original rock formed 0 Generally temperatures greater than 300 C and depth more than 23 Km 0 Metamorphic rocks can be produced from o Igneous rocks 0 Sedimentary rocks 0 Other Metamorphic rocks 0 Metamorphism progresses in a continuum from lowgrade to highgrade 0 During metamorphism the rock cannot melt but undergoes significant changesin o vicosity loss of cohesion between crystalsgrains o Crystalography atomic arrangement within crystals Crystallographic changes Recrystallization AIZSiO5 Kyanite Andalusite sillimanite Pressure EPHJ Silliman Maialusiie Jquot 39 I I I n i I l I quot quot V 4m 5m EDD WEI B Tern 2 rams 6 Types of Metamorphism Contact of thermal metamorphism 0 Results from intrusion of magma into host rock Hydrothermal metamorphism 0 chemical alterations from hot ionrich water Regional Metamorphism o Occurs during Orogenesis mountain building 0 Produces the greatest volume of metamorphic rock 0 Orogenic metamorphic belts usually display zones of contact andor hydrothermal metamorphism Shock metamorphism o Occurs when High speed projectiles called Bolides strike Earth39s surface Agents of Metamorphism Heat Pressure Chemically active fluids Heat 0 Two primary sources of heat 0 Heat from magma Contact Metamorphism 0 An increase in temperature with depth due to the geothermal gradient Pressure 0 Isotropic isoequal tropo Change 0 confining pressure applies forces equally in all directions 0 Increases with depth 0 Anisotropic Aninot isoequal tropochange o unequal pressure in different directions 0 induces differential stresses or shear stresses Chemically Active Fluids 0 Mainly water with other volatile components 0 Commonly including disperged metals 0 Enhances migration of ions 0 Aids in recrystalization of existing minerals 0 Source of the fluids 0 Pore spaces of sedimentary rocks 0 Fractures in igneous rocks 0 Hydrated minerals such as clays and micas Metamorphism The importance of Parent Rock 0 Most metamorphic rocks have the same overall chemical composition as the parent rock from which they formed 0 Example Sedimentary limestones transforms to metamorphic marble but remains CaCo3 Metamorphic textures o Textures refers to the size shape and arrangement of minerals grains 0 Two primary types of metamorphic texture o Foliated from differential stressesl anisotropic pressure 0 NonFoliated from confining or isotropic pressure 0 Foliation any planar arrangement of mineral grains or structural features within a rock 0 Examples of Foliation Parallel alignments of flattened minerals grains and pebbles Compositional banding Rock cleavage where rocks can be easily split into thin tabular sheet I r u gt i r u r i U r r NJ 7 i i i quot Ju I 39gt r H I P p l 39l i l I 39r l l J39 39 l 39l 39 ii I l l l I I l a i J After metamorphism o Foliation can form in various ways including 0 O O Rotation of platy andor elongated minerals Recrystalization of minerals in a preferred orientation Changing the shape of equidimensional grains into enlogated shapes that are aligned or rotated Changing the shape of equidimensional grains changing the shapeorientation of equidimensional grains by rotation Foliated Textures o Resulting from differential stresses OOOO Slaty parting Schistocity or schistos texture Platy minerals are discernible with the crenulated unaided eye Gneissic banding During higher grades of metamorphism ion migration results in the segregation of minerals onto bands Augen texture During higher grades of metamorphism with the high shear stress Isolated minerals grain that appear NonFoliated Textures o Resulting from confining pressure 0 Fused Granular texture Metamorphism of chemical sedimentary rocks and pure sandstones o Porphyroblastic texture Large grains called porphyroblast surrounded by minerals High fluid content in parent material 0 Eclogitic texture Extreme high Temperature and confining pressure low fluid content in parent material Garnets in a Narich green pyroxene Review Ssm i TEEt QUEEHUH a Ta39 l The fssili organism pioturotl is so arthropod osllod am A Erioiatl Trilobite Etromstollito Eirsohiopooll showrooms EFF Answer is B Trilobite Review Sample Tost Question I Tho frssi organism motored has E f oi stai39I39n39umstoiF sod is sometimes os illoo a sea Hails tht is t at Nautilus Rogosa Coorollito Erloiio Triloito WF F P Answer is D Crinoid GEOL 105 Ken Lepper NoteTaker 1OIO5I2015 Common Metamorphic Rocks 0 Sediment o Clays plentiful deep ocean basins o Sedimentary Rock 0 Shale o Foliated metamorphic rocks 0 Slate o Phyllite o Schist o Gneiss Note The order of the rocks above are given from low pressure and temperature to higher pressure and temperature Slate o Foliated rock 0 Slate Very finegrained Excellent rock cleavage Most often generated from lowgrade metamorphism of shale Platy minerals not large enough to be identified with the unaided eye Iquot 13 geologyWm Slate Rock Phyllite o Foliated Rock 0 Phyllite Platy minerals not large enough to be identified with the unaided eye Glossy sheen and wavy surfaces Contains fine crystals of muscovite andor chlorite micas Recrystallizationgrowth of platy mineral like mica Schist o Foliated rock 0 Schist Mediumto coarsegrained Platy minerals mainly micas predominate Schistocity or schistos texture To indicate composition mineral names are used such as mica schist garnet schist Gneiss o Foliated rock 0 Gneiss Mediumto coarsegrained Banded appeareance warped or bent bans HighGrade Metamorphism Often composed of white or lightcolored feldsparrich layers with bands of dark ferromagnesium mineral Recrystallizationmigration of minerals into composition bands Common Metamorphic rocks 0 Fused Granular Texture o Quartzite o Argylitel Hornfels The highlighted Textures are Biogenetic Quartzite o Nonfoliated rock 0 Quartzite Formed from a parent rock of Quartrich sandstone I Quartz grains are fused together Argylite o Nonfoliated rock 0 Argylite Hornfels Formed from a predominantly clay parent rock such as shale Tightly fused finegrained metamorphic rock Marble o Nonfoliated rock 0 Marble Coarse crystalline Parent rock was limestone or dolostone Composed essentially of calcite or dolomite crystals Used as a decorative and monument stone Exhibits a variety of colors Highgrade Coal and beyond 0 Nonfoliated rock 0 Anthracite coal Formed from plant matter Highest grade of coal highest purity o Graphite Still higher grades of metamosphism No longer considered coal but pure carbon Shock Metamorphism o Occurs when high speed projectiles called bolides strike Earth s surface 0 Products are called impactites DIT Diagram a road Map for Metamorphism Regional Metamorlhic Environments Diageneeis Temperature PC 00 7 200 400 EDD BUD 100 H llemlele Faelee quot 2 3 l l Aquot I I u 4 39 7 m gmll jie H 7 P 55 V Granuiite 6 39 quot 39 his Mic 539 Facilee 20 a E m E 1e Not a 12 em 4039 ll nature 14 r 5039 Remember the order of the Rocks in an order from lower Pressure and Temp to Higher Pressure and Temp Metamorphism and plate tectonics 0 Most metamorphism occurs along convergent plate boundaries 0 Compressional stresses deform the edges of the plate 0 Formation of Earth s major mountain belts including the Alps Himalayas and Appalachians 0 Also important sites of magma generation Contact thermal Metamorphism Environments 0 Result from a rise in temperature when magma invades a host rock A zone of alteration forms in the rock surrounding the magma 0 Many sulfides ore minerals are associated with contact metamorphic environments 0 NonFoliated Contact Metamorphic Environemnts Hydrothermal Metamorphic Environments 0 Chemical alteration caused when hot ionrich fluids called hydrothermal solutions circulate through fissures and cracks that develop in rock 0 Most widespread along the axis of the MidOcean rigid system 0 Zeolite Zone on Map DIT Diagram 0 There is a big interest in Zeolite structures doing environment contaminant research because the large open space in the structure can act as molecular sieves Sample Text Questions 0 The two primary agents of metamorphism are A Sunlight and rain B Protons and electrons C Heat and Pressure D Ions and molecules Answer is C Heat and Pressure 0 Which of the following is not a metamorphic rock texture A Slaty parting B Schistocity C Gneissic granular D Fused Granular Answer is D Fused granular is not a texture is the group Random Sample Text Questions 0 In an idealized soil profile the correct sequence of soil master horizons from the surface downward is A A B C D E answer is C 0 True or False The age of the Earth has been confirmed by radiocarbon da ng Answer is False Radiocarbon dating is not enough long to determine the age of Earth 0 Which of the following conditions is not conductive to Fossilization A Exposure at the surface for an extended period before burial B Low temperature environemts C Low oxygen environments D Hard body parts Answer is A o The fosil organism pictured above has a coiled shell with transition It is a A Coprolite B Brachiopod C Gastropod D Crinoid E Trilobite Answer is C Gartropod o Eolian Seidmentary environments are characterized by the action of A B C D E Fire Ice Wind Water Rain Answer is C Wind 0 The deposition and preservation or large quantities of plant matter coal occurs in which sedimentary environment W909 Transitional laggon and back bay environments Transitional shoreline environments Deep marine environment Terrigenous eolian environments Terrigenous Glacial Environments Answer is A o The diagnostic difference between conglomerate and sedimentary breccia is 9003 Breccia forms in the mountains conglomerate forms in the oceans Breccia is sedimentary conglomerate is igneous Breccia has angular clasts conglomerate has rounded clasts Breccia does not have matrix grains conglomerate does have matrix grains Answer is C M I r 4a o The fossil organism pictured above has 5fold symmetry and although it is an animal is sometimes called a sea lily What is it W909 Nautilus Rugosa Coprolite Crinoid Trilobite Answer is C Which of the following is not a form of microcrystalline sedimentary quartz A Agate B Jasper C Oolite D Flint Answer is C True or False Limestone a widely used monument and building stone slowly dissolves in weakly acidic waters Answer is True The two fundamental types categories of weathering that breakdown rocks are lonization and mobilization Exfoliation and sheeting Worms and bacteria Freezing and thawing Physical and chemical W909 Answer is E True or False lron Oxides account for nearly all red yellow and brown coloration in soils and sedimentary rocks Answer is true True or False All detrital Sedimentary rocks have clastic textures This is true The present is the key to the past is an adage that represents the theory of slow continues geologic change called A Catastrophism B Libertarianism C Unitarianism D Uniformitarianism E Vegetarianism Answer is D Which of these is not like the other Which rock does not belong to the set Limestone Sandstone Siltstone Conglomerate Shale Answer is A W909 The physical chemical and biological changes that take place in sediments after deposition are called Dialysis Disapparition Diagonalization Diagenesis Dilithification W909 Answer is D Which if the groups of organisms are not Mollusks A Gastropods B Ammonites C Brachiopods D Nautiloids Answer is C Fossils or which of these organism exhibit fivefold symmetry Pentaderms Hexapods Echinoderms Exotherms Endotherms W909 Answer is C A rock sample is found to contain 3000000 atoms of 40Ar progeny and 1000000 atoms of 40K parent The halflife of 40K is 13 Ga How old is the rock 6015 years 4 million 13 billion years 26 billion years 39 billion years Answer is D 13x226 Ga Tributary channel systems are characteristic of which sedimentary environment Pluvial Fluvial Eolian Alluvial Deltaic Answer is B Fluvial W909 W909 Which of these is not like the other Which rock does not belong to the set Limestone Dolostone Siltstone Rock Salt Rock Gypsum Answer is C Siltstone is a detrital rock The fossilzed layered and mounted structures build by colonies or cyanobacteria are called Ediacarin Fauna Stomatolites Strombolies Pentalobates Trilobites Answer is B Which of this is not like the others Which term or phase does not belong to the set Wet and dry cycling Thermal expansion contraction Unloading Frost wedging Dissolution Answer is E Which of the following detrital sedimentary rocks is most likely to exhibit fine laminations Limestones Sandstones Siltstones Conglomerate Shale Answer is E Shale True or False No hominids early types of humans have ever gone extinct therefore humans occupy a special place in nature and do not have to worry about extinction mpowgt mpowgt mpowgt W909 This is False Which of the following would not be considered a trace fossil Teeth Burrows Coprolites Gastroliths Footprints Answer is A Teeth are hard body part fossils W909 o The fossil organism pictured above has a coiled shell without translation and a complex suture It is a Stromatolite Brachiopod Ammonite Crinoid Trilobite Answer is Ammonite C W909 The Virtual Fossil Museum wwwhssllmuseummet o The fossil organism pictured above is an arthropod called Stromatolite Brachiopod Ammonite Crinoid Trilobite Answer is E Trilobite W909 Rock gypsum is a Inorganic chemical sedimentary rock Inorganic detrital sedimentary rock Biogenic detrital sedimentary rock Biogenic chemical sedimentary rock Answer is D The most common unconsolidated glacial sediment deposit is Soil Limestone Dirt Regolith Till Answer is E True or False All the chemical sedimentary rocks have classic texture This is False The soil master horizons that are considered top soil are A and O B and A C only O U E and B Answer is A All rocks can be classifiedgrouped into 3 basic rock types which are Answer is Igneous Sedimentary and Metamorphic True or False Living organism and their biotic processes are a vital component of soil This is true Which of the following rocks is a form of inorganic limestone Chalk Coquina Oolitic limestone Fossiliferous limestone A and B Answer is C Which of the following is considered a biogenetic chemical sedimentary rock but its primary components are not minerals Calcite Coal Limestone Dolostone Halite Answer is B 9003 W909 W909 W909 W909 End of Study Guide
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