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Exam 2

by: TylerElliot
GPA 3.7
Principles of Biology
Kim Thompson

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About this Document

This is the study guide for exam 2, containing information from weeks 4-6 as well as review from weeks 1-3.
Principles of Biology
Kim Thompson
Study Guide
BIOL1010, Biology, Exam 2
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by TylerElliot on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1010 at Ohio University taught by Kim Thompson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Environmental Science at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 10/06/15
Biology 1010 Exam 2 Study Guide 1 Define hypothesis A hypothesis is an educated guess based on observations 2 Define scientific theory A scientific theory is a welltested hypothesis that has been widely accepted among scientists 3 What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory A hypothesis is the educated guess based only on observations while a theory has been tested many times 4 What are the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells are smaller simpler and contain no nucleus Eukaryotic cells are larger in size contain a nucleus and have organelles and internal membranes 5 What is the role of the nucleus What type of cell is it found in The nucleus is the control center of eukaryotic cells 6 What about ribosomes Ribosomes synthesize or break down proteins and are found in both types of cells 7 Mitochondria The mitochondria is the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells 8 Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are the organelle where photosynthesis takes place in plant cells 9 Define ecology Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environments 10 Why is the physiological longevity of an organism usually longer than its ecological longev y The physiological longevity of an organism is usually longer than its ecological longevity because the physiological longevity only takes into account how long an organism s life span is while ecological longevity takes into account the organism s surroundings and environment 11 What are the three types of symbiotic relationships Parasitism one species benefits to the expense of the other Commensalism one species benefits while the other is seemingly unharmed Mutualism both species benefit from one another 12 What is an autoimmune disease Examples An autoimmune disease is when the body makes antibodies to its own cells and proteins Examples are multiple sclerosis type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis 13 What is taxonomy Taxonomy is the study of the classification of living things 14 What are the categories of classification Domain Kingdom Phyladivision Class Order Family Genus Species 15 What is the ONE characteristic ALL organisms in domain eukarya share They are all eukaryotic cells 16 What are the four pieces of evidence for endosymbiosis A Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA B Mitochondria and chloroplasts are selfreplicating organelles C Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own ribosomes D Mitochondria and chloroplasts share many features with prokaryotes like cyanobacteria 17 What are the 3 evolutionary lines of vascular plants and their defining characteristic Seedless vascular plants become fossil fuels Gymnosperms first to produce seeds and are conebearing Angiosperms flowers 18 Define gametes Gametes are specialized reproductive cells that appear as sperm for males and eggs for females 19 What is the difference between heterozygous and homozygous Being homozygous is when an organism has two identical factors for a trait while heterozygous is when the two factors are different 20 What about genes and alleles Genes are the hereditary information that determines a trait while alleles are the different forms a gene might take 21 Dominant and recessive traits Dominant traits override other alleles and are expressed as capital letters while recessive traits are only shown if the recessive alleles are the only alleles present they are also expressed as lowercase letters 22 Phenotypes and genotypes A phenotype is the physical traits a person shows while a genotype is the hidden alleles in an individual s genes 23 Monogenic and polygenic traits Monogenic traits are determined by a single gene with two alleles while polygenic traits are affected by multiple genes 24 What is the inheritance pattern and phenotype of Sickle Cell Anemia What is the advantage of heterozygotes in certain environments Sickle Cell Anemia affects the shape of red blood cells when oxygen is sparse the cells appear as long and thin sickles Carriers or heterozygotes of the trait can lead normal lives as long as they avoid situations where oxygen could become extremely low 25 What are Mendel s two fundamental laws of inheritance The Law of Segregation states that a parent contributes only one of its alleles to the offspring and if the parent is heterozygous then the allele given is random The Law of Independent Assortment states that the alleles of one gene are passed to offspring independently of the alleles of other genes 26 What is mutation A mutation is the sudden appearance of a new allele 27 Why are Mendel s Laws not always applicable Mendel s laws are not always applicable because of conditions like incomplete dominance and lethality 28 Define Mitosis Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction where the parent cell divides into two daughter cells that are identical to each other as well as the parent 29 Define chromosome Chromosomes are the structures visible during cell division 30 Define chromatin A chromatin is the threadlike chromosomal material of the nondividing cell 31 Define homologous pairs Homologous pairs are the chromosomes in daughter cells that appear to be identical but are derived from different parents 32 Define sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes are the 23rd set of chromosomes that determine the sex of the offspring 33De nelocus A locus is an allele s position on a chromosome its address 34 How did the behaviour of chromosomes during Mitosis lead to the conclusion that it was the hereditary material During cell division chromosomes are divided into their two identical chromatids one of which is sent to the daughter cell to make it identical to the parent 35 What is the chromosome theory of inheritance Why was its acceptance limited The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance states that the two members of each homologous pair of chromosomes carry alleles for the same genes and therefore affect the same traits The acceptance of this was limited because biologists needed to learn more about whatever mechanism prevents the doubling of chromosomes at fertilization considering each parent gives an equal number of chromosomes 36 Define zygote A zygote is the fertilized egg in a diploid cell 37 Define fertilization Fertilization is the fusion of gametes egg and sperm to form a new individual with a unique combination of genes 38 Define haploid Haploid cells have only one member of a homologous pair 39 Define diploid Diploid cells have both members of a homologous pair 40 What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction in which the daughter cells are identical to the parent cell and have an equal number of chromosomes while meiosis is a form of sexual reproduction that creates a unique cell with a unique combination of genes received from two parents 41 What occurs during interphase of the cell cycle Why are there differences in cell types During interphase organelles duplicate DNA replicates chromosomes duplicate and the cell grows and prepares for mitosis There are difference in cell types because cells do not all divide at the same rate and some such as nerve cells don t divide at all 42 What happens when the cell cycle is disrupted When the cell cycle is disrupted and a cell becomes unregulated it divides too rapidly which is the origin of cancer cells 43 Why do genes not always follow Mendel s Law of Independent Assortment What are linkage groups Genes don t always follow Mendel s Law of Independent Assortment because chromosomes actually follow this law not genes Linkage groups are where clusters of traits tend to be inherited in groups 44 How were isotopes used to determine that genetic material was DNA instead of protein Hershey and Chase conducted an experiment using radioactive isotopes that were incorporated into e Coli cells One isotope was incorporated into the DNA while the other was incorporated into the protein capsules The isotope put into the DNA found its way into the e Coli cells while the other stayed only within the protein coat This showed that DNA carries genetic information 45 Define ecosystem An ecosystem is the interaction of biotic and abiotic components in a certain place 46 Define biotic Biotic refers to the living components of an ecosystem 47 Define abiotic Abiotic refers to the nonliving components of an ecosystem 48 Define biological communities Biological communities are populations of many living species living together in a definable space 49 Define detritivore A detritivore is a decomposer 50 Define biome A biome is a large community of plants and animals in a specific area defined by its climate 51 How are nutrients cycled through an ecosystem What are the most critical biogeochemical cycles Nutrients are cycled through an ecosystem because they are taken from the environment passed between organisms and then returned to the environment The most critical biogeochemical cycles are water carbon nitrogen and phosphorus 52 How is Carbon maintained in reservoirs From air to plants through photosynthesis then to animal through consumption 53 How is the movement of energy through an ecosystem different from the movement of matter Matter cycles through ecosystems but energy simply passes through and some is lost along the way 54 How are biological communities organized Biological communities are organized in trophic levels 55 What are the trophic levels Examples Producers Plants and algae grass Primary Consumers herbivores cow Secondary Consumers carnivores human Detritivores decomposers maggots 56 How do living organisms modify the environment in ways that lead to the changing communities in an ecosystem Ecological successions 57 What are the four roles of DNA Makes copies of itself Encodes information Controls cells Changes by Mutation 58 What is the shape of DNA DNA is a doublehelix 59 Who identified the shape of DNA Watson and Crick identified the shape of DNA 60 What are the three basic components of DNA 5carbon sugar Nitrogenous base Phosphate group 61 How is Chargaff s rule related to the structure of DNA Chargaff s rule states that the Adenine in one strand of DNA corresponds to the Thymine on the other while Cytosine on one strand corresponds to Guanine on the other which show how the strands are bound as a double helix 62 What experiment was conducted to show that the replication of DNA is semiconservative Meselson and Stahl conducted an experiment where the parental DNA contained one isotope while the newly synthesized DNA contained another isotope lf replication is semiconservative one strand of each daughter helix should contain one isotope and the second strand should contain the other 63 What is the structure of RNA RNA appears in a single strand 64 What are the roles of mRNA tRNA and rRNA mRNA carries genetic information from the DNA to the cytoplasm where it is translated into protein tRNA recognizes specific amino acids and brings them to the sites where mRNA is translated into a protein rRNA join together in the cytoplasm to form ribosomes 65 How do nucleotides code for amino acids Nucleotides use a set of three codons that specify the 20 different amino acids


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