LING 100: Introduction to Language and Linguistics - Study Guide
LING 100: Introduction to Language and Linguistics - Study Guide LING 100
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vicki Chow on Wednesday October 29, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to LING 100 at University of British Columbia taught by Hotze Rullman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 318 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Language and Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of British Columbia.
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Material Up to Week 8 Chapter 1 The Origins of Language Divine Source Bibicay Adam and Eve Hindu tradition Sarasuati wife of Brahma Basic hypothesis infants who grow up without language will spontaneously use the original language 399 Genie severely neglected American child no language Natural Sound Source human auditory systems function at about 7 months during pregnancy ability to identify sounds in environment connection between sound and thing producing sound 399 idea that primitive words are derived from imitations of natural sounds Jespersen s bowwow theory 399 eg onomatopeia 399 doesn39t account for soundless objects and abstract concepts Poohpooh theory Jespersen speech is developed form instrictive sounds people make in emotional circumstances 399 eg ouch ah wow etc 399 spoken language is usu produced exhaling vs inhale of interjections unlikely source of sounds for language Social Interaction Source Yoheho theory sounds of person involved in physical effort esp with coordinated groups 399 places development in social context groups require communication to stay organised and intact 399 doesn39t account for primates that live in social groups and use grunts and social calls but don39t have capacity for speech Physical Adaptation Source looking at types of physical features humans possess esp distinct ones that may have been able to support speech production significant transition to upright posture with bipedal locomotion and revised role for front limbs 399 effects seen in physical differences between skull of gorilla and Neanderthal from about 60k years ago reconstructed vocal tract suggests possibility of some consonantlike sounds upright roughly even teeth f and v sounds lips have intricate muscle interlacing found in other primates p b m sounds 399 b and m most widely attests vocalisations of infants in their first year regardless of language relatively small mouth that can open and close rapidly that is also part of an extended vocal tract with an Lshape vs fairly straight path from front to back in other mammals shorter thicker more muscular tongue that can be used to shape a wide variety of sounds within the oral cavity can close off airway through nose to create more air pressure in mouth nasal sounds such as m n larynx voice box in a lower position due to upright posture creation of longer cavity pharynx that increases range and clarity of sounds produced via larynx and vocal tract 399 lower position increased chance of choking on food ToolMaking Source some believe manual gestures were a precursor to language about 2mi years ago development of righthandedness making stone tools wood and composite tools followed evidence of brain at work brain large relative to body size and lateralised special functions in each hemisphere 399 functions that control motor movement involved in speaking and object manipulation are close to each other in the left hemisphere 399 possible evolutionary connection between language and toolusing abilities brain developed to organise and combine specific sounds or signs in specific arrangements 399 other proposals involve production of single noise to indicate objects may have been crucial stage but lacks structural organisation Genetic Source Innateness hypothesis humans are genetically equipped to acquire language 399 at birth baby39s brain is A of eventual weight larynx higher in throat to allow for simultaneous breathing and drinking larynx descends brain develops child starts walking and talking in relatively short period of time 399 possibly due to a crucial mutation quick and not gradual change Chapter 2 Human Language and Animals Communication Communicative signals behaviour used to intentionally convey information 399 eg I m here for the interview Informative signals behaviour that provides information usu unintentionally 399 eg Accent from elsewhere Glossolalia speaking in tongues production of sounds and syllables in a stream of speech with no apparent communicative purpose Hockett s Design Features Reflexivity allows language to be used to think and talk about language itself Displacement allows users to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment 399 eg past and future tenses things that don39t exist Space time and reality 399 bees have some version of displacement in communicative dances but very limited Learnability language is teachable and Iearnable Discreteness language is composed of distinct atomic units 399 no continuum between or within these units 399 eg no word halfway between pit and bit binary division between discrete sounds Prevarication allows users to lie or deceive Arbitrariness describes fact that there is no natural connection between form and meaning 399 onomatopoeic words have a less arbitrary connection 399 most animal signals have a clear connection between signals and meaning finite number of signals only used in specific situations Productivity allows users to create new expressions infinite number of potential utterances in any human language 399 also creativity or openendedness 399 Fixed reference lack of productivity in animal communication 399 eg bees have no word for up and can39t invent one Cultural transmission process whereby a language is passed from one generation to the next 399 animals are born with a set of specific signals that are produced instinctively Duality of patterning language is simultaneously organised at two layers basic meaningless units individual consonant and vowel sounds which are combined to form larger units words which have an arbitrary meaning 399 also double articulation 399 eg dog and god have different meanings 399 words can then be combined to create larger expressions sentences etc 399 among animals each communicative signal has a single fixed form that can t be broken into separate parts Honeybee Dance Language Round dance food source is less than 50m away indicates distance but not direction Sickle dance food source is 50m150m away transitional dance between round and waggle dances Waggle dance food source is more than 150m away communicates both distance and direction 399 also wagtail dance 399 duration of the waggling portion of the dance wagge run indicates distance roughly linear correlation 399 angle that the bee adopts relative to the vertical indicates angle to the flowers relative to direction of the sun outside the hive solar angle transposed to gravitational angle Talking to Animals animals produce particular behaviour in response to particular sounds but don t actually understand what the words mean 399 eg dogs recognise the sounds of commands and the expected behaviours but not the meanings behind them 1930s Luella and Winthrop Kellog raised an infant chimpanzee with their baby son could understand but not say about 100 words 1940s Catherine and Keith Hayes reared chimpanzee as is she was a human child learned to produced several albeit poorly articulated words Beatrix and Allen Gardner raised a chimpanzee Washoe like a human child in a comfortable environment and encouraged her to use signs learned 100 words in 3 2 years including novel signs and combinations and the ability to form sentences understood much more than she could communicate 399 similar experiment with Francine Patterson and a gorilla named Koko Anne and David Premack taught chimpanzee Sarah to use plastic shapes as words to build sentences raised as an animal in a cage and trained with food rewards could understand complex structures 399 eg If Sarah put red on red Mary give Sarah chocolate Duane Rumbaugh chimpanzee Lana learned Yerkish set of symbols connected to a computer Herbert Terrace argued that chimpanzees simply produce signs in response to demands of people and tend to repeat signs those people use yet are treated as if taking part in a conversation 399 based on his work with another chimpanzee Nim treated as a research animal dealt with a lot of different research assistants who were not fluent in ASL 399 chimpanzees essentially performing sophisticated tricks 399 Gardners Washoe could produce correct signs in absence of people emphasised environment with lots of imaginative play and interaction with fluent signers who were also signing with each other Sue SavageRumbaugh attempted to train a bonobo Matata to use Yerkish while her adopted baby Kanzi was with her baby spontaneously started using system with great ease at 8 could understand spoken English at the level of a 2 2 year old human child Chapter 3 The Sounds of Language Phonetics and the Vocal Tract Vocal lrrct Landmarks Ht szel 2m 1395l V tJ1lquotiilZIE39 39n Ir39u 1 39quote il1r a Hj 39 L i39l E A ialnarynrae quoti1quotIjr 39 UY 1 A il5vi1 gI tt1395JnIi l1iati1Ifiilullr39I A t by trachea i Ad 5 esophagus to lung to toi39mll1 Phonetics general study of the characteristics of speech sounds 399 Articulatory phonetics study of how speech sounds are made 399 Acoustic phonetics study of physical properties of speech as sound waves 399 Auditory phonetics study of perception via ear of speech sounds 399 Perceptual phonetics study of how the brain processes speech sounds 399 Practical phonetics study of how to produce hear and transcribe sounds Airstream mechanism method by which airflow is created 399 Pulmonic using the lungs 399 Egressive air pushed out most sounds in most languages 399 lngressive air brought in not used systematically in any language L Glottalic the closed glottis is moved up or down 399 Egressive ejectives 399 lngressive implosives 399 Velaric suction created with the back of the tongue 399 Egressive not used systematically in any language 399 lngressive clicks Vocal folds thin strips of muscle in the larynx source of sound 399 voiced sounds produced by drawing them together air from lungs repeatedly pushes them apart vibrations 399 voiceless sounds produced when fols are spread apart air from lungs passes between them unimpeded 399 eg 2 vs s L glottal stop produced when folds are tightly closed and no air passes through 19 Resonance chamber where sound is amplified 399 includes pharynx cavity behind nose and mouth that connects them to the esophagus oral cavity mouth and nasal cavity nose The IPA International Phonetic Alphabet aims to provide one unambiguous symbol for any sound regardless of language 1887 speech is primary writing is secondary not all spoken languages have a written form but all written forms refer to a spoken language Broad transcription only indicates more noticeable phonetic features those that are contrastive Narrow transcription includes various additional articulatory details or modifications usu indicated by diacritics added to the basic symbol 399 eg kh c1 11 g aspirated nasalised long voiceless 399 Aspiration extra puff of air or voicelessness after a sound Place of Articulation position inside the mouth where the constriction takes place In reference to consonant sounds as place of articulation doesn39t quite apply to vowels Biabial made using both lips 399 eg I0 b m W Labiodental made using upper teeth with lower lip 399 eg f V Alveolar made on alveolar ridge rought area behind and above upper teeth with the front part of thetongue 399 8 t S d ln 2 ll 1 Dental made by using the tongue tip behind the upper teeth or between them 399 eg 9 6 min men theta and eth 399 may be referred to as interdentals when tongue tip is between teeth Palatal made by using tongue and hard palate roof of mouth 399 eg J U 3 d3 i oe moice treasure iudge Mes Velar made with back of the tongue on the velum soft palate 399 eg k 3 U kid gun bang Glottal made with glottis open space between vocal folds 399 eg h 399 Glottal stop produced when space between vocal folds is completely closed very briefly then released 399 eg P uhoh Flap produced by tongue tip briefly touches alveolar ridge 399 eg r butter budder lager la er etc Manner of Articulation In reference to consonants Stop airflow briefly blocked let go abruptly 399 eg I0 t k b d 3 Fricative airflow almost blocked and forced through a narrow gap to create a type of friction 399 8 lf9 S U h V 5 Z 3 Affricate airflow briefly stopped released through narrow gap 399 combination of a stop and a fricative 399 eg tJ d3 Nasal sound produced through nose with the velum lowered 399 as m n U Uvular produced with the back of the tongue near the uvula hanging thing at back of throat 399 eg R in French gouge ette Liquid air flows around sides of tongue as tip touhes near alveolar ridgefor or with tip raised annd curled back near ridge 1 399 eg I 1 Glide produced with tongue in motion to or from the position of a vowel 399 eg w i Vowels produced through vocal folds without constriction of airflow in the mouth 399 all typically voiced 399 described in terms of height backness and rounding high mid or low front central or back rounded or unrounded Front vowels i 1 3 ae bgd bjd bed bad Central vowels e A above bood schwa and wedge Back vowels u as 3 o boo bgk raw cgt High vowels i u I as bad by bjd book Mid vowels e e o e A 0 abgve bed blgd raw Low vowels ae a 1 bad cgt 399 sounds of relaxation and pleasure usu contain lower vowels Rounded vowels u as oas 3 Diphthong sound consisting of a combination of two vowels sounds 399 vocal organs move from one vocalic position to another lgt eg a1 ass e1 lots 91 sign how say tg bgvl 10 Chapter 4 The Sound Patterns of Language Phonology study of the mental organisation of speech sounds in languages in terms of systems patterns and speakers knowledge of these patterns 399 based on abstract aspect vs actual articulation of sounds 399 eg t in tar writer and butter are all represented the same way but sound different in actual speech due to surrounding sounds phonological environment Phonemes the smallest units of a language that distinguish meaning 399 in abstract representation of sounds of a language 399 eg phoneme t is abstract vs t used for phonetic or physically produced segment 399 function contrastively 399 eg f and v are different in English because feel and veal have different meanings but only differ in their first sounds 399 Natural class a set of sounds with phonetic features in common 399 sounds with common features tend to behave in phonologically similar ways 399 marked with a if feature is present if not 399 eg p voice biabia stop k voice vear stop Phone a physically produced speech sound presenting one version of phoneme 399 phonetic units appear in square brackets 399 Allophonez speech sounds that represent a single phoneme 399 eg t in stop vs th in top vs I in winter 399 Think of Batman vs Bruce Wayne same person sound different environments never present together 399 Complementary distribution two different allophones are found in different and nonintersecting environments 399 eg ph at beginning of a word eg pin vs p elsewhere eg spin 399 Don39t have to be similar only in different and nonintersecting environments eg to continue with the Batman analogy the Joker and Catwoman Minimal pair set 2 or more words that are identical in form except for one phoneme in the same position of each word that provides contrast 399 eg bit beat bat bought lid hid kid did 399 changed phoneme is always in the same position 399 depends on language contrast varies 399 eg and r are not contrastive in Japanese 11 Phonotactics constraints on the permissible combination of sounds in a language 399 part of every speaker39s phonological knowledge 399 eg fsivg and pvke don t exist as English words and probably never will but b1k and w1d aren39t words but could be Syllables Syllablez a unit of sounds consisting of a vowel and optional consonants before or after the vowel 399 most common types in all languages CV and CVC some languages only have these kinds 399 Onset part of syllable before the vowel one or more consonants 399 Rhyme part of syllable containing the vowel nucleus and any following consonants coda 399 Open syllables have onset and nucleus but no coda 399 eg I you we 399 Closed syllables have onset nucleus and coda 399 eg cat dog pet Consonant cluster 2 consonants in sequence 399 3consonant clusters in English always consist of an s a voiceless stop p t k and a liquid or a glide r w 399 eg yatch aw plice Coarticulation Effects when a sound is made at virtually the same time as another 399 speech is not careful and deliberate but fast and spontaneous actual speech sounds reflect that 399 occur in everyone s normal speech phonological processes investigated to attempt to understand regularities and patterns of actual use of sounds in language Assimilation a feature of one sound becomes part of another during speech production 399 eg l have to go hafta go because t is voiceless so we often make the nextsound more like f than v Nasalisation pronunciation of a sound with air flowing through the nose usu before a nasal consonant 399 eg 1 and ae in pin and pan 399 represented by a tilde quot39 over the vowel symbol in narrow transcription 399 eg I can go a1 ken goes due to velar g preceding nasal sound comes out as Ij velar nasal 399 vowel in can naturally reduced to a schwa 9 Elision the process of leaving out a sound segment in the pronunciation of a word 399 eg you and me you an me friendship frien ship aspects aspecs every ev ry 399 t usu left out sound in consonant clusters esp in coda 12 Chapter 5 Word Formation Neologisms and Etymology Neologism a new word 399 a lot of regularity in wordformation processes in a language one can very quickly understand them and accept the use of its different forms 399 eg hoover hoovering hoovered etc Etymology study of the origin and history of words 399 language is shaped by the needs of its users constantly evolving Borrowing and Compounding Borrowing the process of taking words from other languages Compounding 399 eg English piano Italian sofa Arabic jewel French 399 borrowed words may be used with novel meanings 399 eg German English partner ook im Partnerlook 2 people who are together and are wearing similar clothing 399 Calque each elements of the word is translated into the borrowing language 399 also loantranslation 399 eg English skyscraper French gratteciel scrapesky German Wolkenkratzer coud scraper process of combining 2 words to form a new word 399 eg bookcase wallpaper rainbow goodlooking 399 common in some languages eg German and English and not in others eg Spanish and French 399 it doesn39t matter is the words are written together or separated by a hyphen or space compounds distinguished by stress pattern 399 the category ofa compound is usu determined by its righthand member in English head of the compound 399 the meaning of the compound is usu only partly predictable from the meaning of its parts or not at all 399 eg greenhouses usu aren39t green strawberries have nothing to do with straw blackboards don39t have to be black etc 399 Blending process of combining two separate forms to produce a single new term 399 usu beginning of one and end of the other but not always 399 eg smog smoke fog bit binary digit modem modulator demodulator 13 Clipping and Conversion Clipping process of reducing a word of 2 syllables to a shorter form 399 usu originates in casual speech 399 eg cab cabriolet ad advertisement Tom Thomas 399 Hypocorism process in which a longer word is reduced to a shorter form with a y or ie at the end 399 favoured in Australian and British English 399 eg telly television movie moving pictures brekky breakfast Australian Aussie 399 Backformation process of reducing a word to a shorter version and using the new word as a verb NV compounds L eg television televise option opt editor edit emotion emote 399 may involve three steps NN compounding reanalysis and removal of the suffix 399 eg stagemanager stagemanager stagemanager stagemanagerer stagemanageer stagemanage Conversion a change iin a word39s lexical category part of speech 399 also category change or functional shift 399 often correlates with a shift of stress 399 eg record as a noun vs verb 399 eg bottle butler vacation noun verb a guess a must a spy verb noun seeth rough standup verb adjective dirty empty gross adjective verb 399 meanings may shift substantially when words go through conversion 399 eg doctor as a noun vs verb total as a noun vs verb Coinage Derivation and Multiple Processes Coinage invention and general use of completely new terms 399 eg aspirin zipper granola vaseline product general term 399 Eponym new words based on the name of a place or person 399 eg teddy bear sandwich Machiavellian 399 Acronym new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words 399 eg NASA UNICEF NATO all caps laser light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation scuba selfcontained underwater breathing apparatus L Initialismz same but pronounced by saying each separate letter 399 eg CD SPCA UBC 14 Derivation process of forming new words by added affixes 9 bound morphemes defined next chapter such as un ed ism etc 399 Prefixes affixes added to the beginning of words 399 eg un mis pre 399 Suffixes affixes added to the end of words 399 eg less ish ness 399 lnfixes affixes incorporated inside another word 399 eg English 9 absofrickinglutely or the expletive but hey 399 eg Khmu 9 see 9 srnea to drill 9 a drill Analogy new words formed to be similar in some way to existing words 399 eg Yuppie sounds like hippie and yippie 15 Chapter 6 Morphology Words Word a minimal unit that stands alone Word token individual occurrences of words Word type forms of a word 399 Phonological word a string of sounds that behaves as a unit for certain kinds of phonological processes esp stress or accent 399 eg We39ve hot dog Lexeme set of all inflectional forms of the same word 399 Lemma the dictionary form of the word 399 eg Run is the lemma of the lexeme that has the forms runs running ran etc Morphemes Morphology the analysis of the structure of words 399 study of forms Morpheme a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function 399 eg morphology consists of morph and ology two units of meaning sitters consists of sit er and s two units of meaning and one of grammatical function Free morpheme can stand by itself as a single word 399 eg new law book Bound morpheme cannot stand alone must be attached to another form 399 eg ist s pre RootStem the base word to which affixes are attached to in the formation of words 399 eg careessness free stem bound suffix bound suffix 399 Bound stem element treated as the steam is not a free morpheme 399 eg receiveinit1i Lexical morpheme free morpheme that conveys content 399 eg nouns adjectives verbs adverbs 399 new ones added easily open class Functional morpheme free morpheme that is used as a function word 399 eg conjunctions prepositions determiners pronouns 399 new ones almost never added cosed class 16 Derivational morpheme bound morpheme used to make new words or words of a different grammatical category 399 eg settlement stupidity misunderstand Inflectional morpheme bound morpheme used to indicate the grammatical function of a word inflection 399 eg ed s en ing Morphological Description and Morphs inflectional morphemes never change the grammatical category simply a different version of the same word derivational and inflectional suffixes used together appear in that order 399 eg teachers er before s words such as sheep pl and men are exceptions to the general patterns treat as special cases Morph an actual form used as part of a word represents one version of a morpheme 399 eg cats cat s 2 morphs la Allomorph one of a closely related set of morphs 399 eg cat plural cats guess plural guesses man plural men sheep plural sheep allomorphs of plurality s es ae e 2 399 2 zero morph 399 Suppletionz the whole root is replaced with a different form 399 eg go went Word Trees the structure of words can be represented in a tree format to reflect their construction 399 like a more organised and more visual form of labelled bracketing 399 eg re nan if re aaaijiizrn it in In Er IE I q in H 543 EEI T lf i l 5 Chapter 7 Grammar 17 Parts of Speech Grammar the analysis ofthe structure of phrases and sentences of a language Noun person place thing or idea 399 eg boy meadow peace 399 Proper nouns names of people places or things start with a capital letter in English Determiner words used with nouns to form noun phrases classifying or identifying them 399 eg a an the Adjective words usu used with nouns to provide more information about them 399 eg beautiful great terrible Verb refer to actions and states involving nouns in events 399 eg jump smack be have Adverb typically used with verbs to provide more information about actions states and events 399 some used with adjectives to modify information about nouns 399 eg quickly dumbly really very Preposition words used with nouns in phrases to provide information about time place and other connections involving actions and things 399 eg at in on near with without Pronoun words used in place of noun phrases usu in reference to nouns already known 399 eg she they he ourselves Conjunction used to make connections and indicate relationships between events 399 eg and or but because when Agreement and Grammatical Gender Agreement the grammatical connection between two parts of a sentence 399 eg subject and verb You tried 399 grammatical function of a noun phrase usu used to refer to someone or something performing the action of the verb 399 partially based on number singular or plural 399 also category of person first second third involves speaker hearer others 399 Tense distinguishing forms of the verb as present past future etc 399 Active vs passive voice what subject does vs what is done to the subject Gender consists of natural gender biological distinction and grammatical gender distinction between classes of nouns as masculine feminine or neuter not linked to sex 18 399 eg Spanish la pluma pen el agua water German derApfe apple die Frau woman das Madchen girl Prescriptive vs Descriptive Approach Prescriptive approach grammar has rules for the proper use of language that are traditionally based off of Latin 399 eg don39t split infinitives don39t end sentences with prepositions Descriptive approach grammar is based on a description of the structure actually used in a language vs what should be used Structural analysis investigation of the distribution of grammatical forms in a language 399 involves the use of testframes which can be sentences with empty slots in them 399 eg The is loud is loud fits noun phrases Constituent analysis grammatical analysis of how small constituents go together to form larger constituents in sentences 399 eg determining how words go together to form phrases An old man brought a shotgun to the wedding An old man brought a shotgun to the wietzliizling 399 diagrams can also be marked off using labelled brackets L eg 5 PAquotirhei Nidogllvplvllovedl 39 lA the girl 399 If you don39t know the symbols refer to next chapter Hierarchical organisation the analysis of constituents in a sentence showing which constituents art higher than and contain other constituents 19 Chapter 8 Syntax Syntactic Rules Syntax the structures of phrases and sentences Recursive syntax an infinite number of sentences can be generated from a finite number of words and phrase structure rules 399 like Hockett s design feature of productivity but more specific Syntactic rules try to adhere to all and only criterion all grammatically correct phrases and only grammatically correct ones 399 not all of former undergeneration any of latter overgeneration 399 ungrammatical phrases are denoted with an asterisk Generative grammar set of rules defining the possibly sentences in a language 399 finite number of rules infinite number of wellformed sentences 399 also reveals how superficially different phrases can be similar and vice versa Structure Surface structure different syntactic forms of individual sentences Deep structure abstract level of structural organisation all elements determining structural interpretation are represented Structural ambiguity situation in which a single phrase or sentence has 2 different underlying structures and interpretations 399 eg She tripped the man with the ruler Symbols of Syntactic Analysis consists of rewrites as optional constituent only one ofthe elements enclosed may be selected 5 sentence NP noun phrase PN proper noun Comp complementiser N nounVP verb phrase Adv adverb CP complement phrase V verb Adj adjective PPrep preposition Pro pronoun Det determiner PP prepositional phrase 20 Phrase Structure Lexical and Movement Rules tree diagrams are dynamic represent a way of generating not one sentence but many others with similar structures Phrase structure rules structure of a phrase of a specific type will consist of one or more constituents in a particular order 399 eg NP NP Det N Det N 399 a simple grammar system of rules on how to form sentences of a language 399 generates a set of sentences strings of words S NPAux VP PP PNP NP Det Adj N PP VP V NP PP Adv NP Pro VP V CP NP PN CP Comp S Lexical rules rules stating which words can be used for constituents generated by phrase structure rules 399 eg N gir lightbulb building etc Movement rules rules used to move constituents in structures derived from phrase structure rules 399 use this arrow gt Lexical Categories parts of speech or word classes 399 tradition definitions are based on semantic criteria and are useful on a practical level but are problematic for theoretical and scientific purposes 9 definitions based on formal critera morphology and syntax 399 eg Only nouns can replace the blank I saw the old Lexical items content words open word classes new words easily added 399 eg N V Adj Adv Functional items function words closed word classes relatively few new items rarely added 399 eg Det Conj Pro 399 Prepositions are kind of borderline Constituents and Constituency Tests a word or group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure 399 may consist of smaller constituents 21 Constituencv Tests 1 Movement only a constituent can be moved as a unit 399 eg make sentence activepassive cleft sentences 399 eg The man threw Q vs thrown by the man 399 eg It was a ball that was thrown by the man It was the man who threw the ball 2 Replacement only a constituent can be replaced by a single proform replace nouns etc such as a pronoun 399 eg threw a ball The man threw it 3 CoordinationConjunction a constituent can be coordinated conjoined with another constituent of the same category 399 eg The man threw a ball and a Frisbee 4 Sentence Fragment a constituent can be used as a sentence fragment on its own such as an answer to a question 399 eg Who threw a ball 9 The man 5 Deletion only applies to VPs 9 take out partrest of sentence 399 eg Did the man throw a ball 9 Yes he did not all tests works for all sentences tests cannot be applied mechanically 9 evidence for constituency 9 not just results of a single test but totality of evidence Syntactic Trees quotuquotF b 39w39 i 8 T like word trees but for phrases and sentences explicitly shows the different levels in the analysis 9first level is 5 next is NP and Vp etc there really isn39t that much to explain it s more of a practice thing than concept thing 22 Recursion the process of repeating items in a selfsimilar way 399 eg the box in the closet in the bedroom on the third floor of the apartment on the main street in the busy city in the eastern part of the countryetc 399 Embedded sentences Sentences inside of another Sentenception basically 399 eg John thinks that the doctor said that the patient saw that the nurse made coffee 23 Chapter 9 Semantics Meaning Semantics the study of meaning in language Conceptual meaning the basic components of meaning conveyed by the literal use of a word 399 eg box a container with a flat base and sides Associative meaning the type of meaning that people might connect with the use of words that is not part of the conceptual meaning 399 eg box boring unorigina as in thinking outside the box 399 varies from person to person Semantic Features basic elements such as human indicated with a or if the feature is present or absent 399 eg man human mae adut apple animate smal edibe The threw the ball blank N human 399 used in analysis of the components of word meaning many words in a language may be hard to put into neat categories words are more than just containers that carry meaningful components Semantic Roles the part played by the noun phrase in the event described in the sentence 399 also thematic roles 399 include the agent theme instrument experiencer location source and goal Agent the entity performing the action 399 usu human but can be a natural force machine or creature as well 399 eg The man threw the ball Theme the entity involved in or affected by the action 399 also the patient 399 eg The man threw the ball 399 can also be an entity simply being described 399 eg The apple is red Instrument entity used by the agent to perform an action 399 eg The man ate the apple with a fork For some strange unknown reason Experiencer entity who has a feeling perception or state 399 used with verbs such as see know enjoy feel like etc 399 eg The patient saw the the nurse made coffee 24 Location entity that describes place 399 eg The ball is on the groun pj Source where the entity moves from 399 eg The man threw the ball from the roof Goal where the entity moves to 399 eg The ball fell to the ground Lexical Relations and Collocation the relationships of meaning between words 399 include synonymy antonymy hyponymy homonymy polysemy and metonymy Synonym 2 words with very closely related meanings 399 eg replyanswer buypurchase biglarge 399 can usu but not always be substituted for each other in sentences don39t have total sameness Antonymy two forms with opposite meanings 399 eg alivedead oldnew truefalse 399 Gradable antonym used in comparative constructions negative of one does not necessarily imply the other 399 eg redder happier sicker 399 eg The man isn39t haggy 7E The man is E 399 Nongradable antonym comparative constructions not usu used negative of one implies the other 399 also complementary pairs 399 eg marriedsingle truefalse identicaldifferent 399 eg deader more dead 399 eg The man is ziive The man is not i 399 Reversive meaning of one is the reverse action of the other not the negative of the other 399 eg enterexit lengthenshorten raiselower Hyponymy meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another is a kind of 399 eg writescrawl fruitapple colourred 399 concept of inclusion and hierarchical relationships 399 eg An apple must be a fruit so fruit is included in the meaning of apple 399 Superordinate higher level term II 399 eg write fruit colour 399 Cohyponyms 2 words that share the same superordinate term 399 eg colour red green blue 25 Prototype the most characteristic instance of a category 399 eg When I say tool what is the first one you think of Probably hammer 399 helps explain the meaning of words in reference to the clearest example 399 there is some general pattern to the categorisation process that determines our interpretation of word meaning subject to individual experience 399 membership in concept not always determined by similarity to prototype 399 eg A chisel is not less of a tool than a hammer 399 The man borrowed my tool chisel is less expected but still true Homophony 2 written forms with the same pronunciation 399 eg totwotoo whetherweather planeplain needknead Homonymy when one form written or spoken has 2 unrelated meanings 399 eg bat flying creature instrument for sports race contest of speed ethnic group 399 have different histories and meanings accidentally came to the same form 399 will have two separate dictionary entries Polysemy 2 words with the same form and related meanings 399 eg mouth part of a face a cave a river run as in person water colours 399 will have a single dictionary entries with a list of different meanings homophony homonymy and polysemy are the basis of a lot of wordplay usu for humorous effect 399 eg A good artist always knows where to draw the line What do you call a flirty Greek philosopher A socratease Metonymy a word is used in the place of another with which it is closely related in everyday expenence 399 can be based off of a containercontents relation a wholepart relation or a representativesymbol relationship 399 eg He drank the whole botte A hands on deck The White House announced Collocation a relationship between words that frequently occur together 399 eg peanut butter and jelly mom and dad trick or treat 399 Corpus linguistics the study of language in use my analysing the occurrence and frequency of forms in a large collection of texts usu on a computer 399 eg true feelings used in reference to reluctance to express deeply felt emotions 399 provides more evidence to understanding of words and phrases in reference to the context in which they are typically used 26 Chapter 95 Sentence Meaning It s only on the slides So Truth Conditions Compositionality and Entailment what the world would have be like if something were true 399 truthconditions facts truthvalue true or false 399 knowledge of a language means that you know what the world would have to be like for any given sentence to be true 399 eg One of my neighbours is proficient in Latin you don39t know if this is true or false but you know what the world would have to be like if it39s true 399 if you became aware of the facts you would be able to decide if it39s true or false Compositionality meaning is only derived from the meaning of words combined with the way those words are put together in the syntax Entailment the relationship between two sentences where the truth of one A requires the truth of the other B 399 eg The man ate an apple A The man ate a fruit B The man killed and ate a boy A The man is a murderer and a cannibal B 399 does not remain true under a negation 399 eg The man ate an apple A The man did not eat an apple A No longer entails that the man ate a fruit B 399 can39t be cancelled by denying it L eg The man ate an apple but he didn39t eat a fruit pragmatically odd represented with a 27 Chapter 10 Pragmatics Pragmatics and Context Pragmatics the study of speaker meaning and how more is communicated than is said 399 depends on a lot of shared assumptions and expectations Physical context the situation time or place in which words are being used 399 eg Bank on the side of a building as the financial institution and not a nverbank Linguistic context the set of other words used in the same phrase or sentence 399 also cotext 399 eg getting money from the bank financial institution vs a slippery bank riverbank Deixis using words such as this or here as a way of pointing with language 399 also deictic expressions 399 can refer to person space or time 399 eg me you them that professor here there near this on that now later last year yesterday Reference and Speech Acts Reference an act by which a speakerwriter uses language to enable a listenerreader to identify something 399 there is a range of reference for any given word 399 includes use of proper nouns other nouns in phrases or pronouns 399 eg Obama Jenny my girlfriend a snake be it 399 can also refer to things when we39re not sure what to call them 399 eg the green stuff the spikey thing Inference additional information used by the listenerreader to create a connection between what is said and meant 399 we can use things to refer to people and vice versa 399 eg Jenny is wearing a Les Miserables shirt The shirt is a reference to the book vs being made of pages of the book and is under the following inference If X is the name of a work eg a book movie painting then X can be used to identify an object that references that work 399 eg He played Bach The yellow raincoat was sleeping 28 Anaphora use of pronouns noun phrases with the or another noun related to the antecedent to refer to something previously mentioned 399 used to maintain reference 399 Antecedent the first mention of someonesomething that is later referred back to 399 eg A man threw a ball 9 It landed on a roof got a ladder to get the ball down from Hi 399 eg I found a house to rent but the kitchen was very small must make the inference such as if X is a house then X has a kitchen 399 Cataphora the antecedentanaphora relationship is reversed 399 more common in stories 399 eg It was destroying the city and if we didn t escape we would be doomed as well A giant lizard had come upon Tokyo Presupposition an assumption by the speakerwriter about what is true or already known by the listenerreader if A presupposes B the truth of B is taken for granted whenever A is asserted 399 Constancy under negation test used to identify a presupposition 9 negate a sentence with a particular presupposition and check if it is still true 399 eg When did you get a new car presupposes that you had a car before and are currently in possession of a different one 399 can t be cancelled easily 399 eg The man ate an apple but he didn39t eat fruit technicay denied but sounds awkward and kind of dumb Implicature extra meaning beyond what is said that the listenerreader understands 399 eg Did he throw the ball He s getting a ladder the latter statement implicates that he threw the ball and it got stuck somewhere probably on the roof 399 can be cancelled by denying it 399 eg I m hungry There s an apple on the counter but vou can39t have it implicature cancelled Speech Acts and Politeness Speech act an action such as questioning performed by a speaker with an utterance 399 Direct speech act an action in which the form used directly matches the function 399 eg Can you drive 9 interrogative with question 399 Indirect speech act an action in which the form used doesn39t directly match the function 399 eg Can you help me interrogative with a request or command 29 Face public selfimage emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognise 399 Politeness showing awareness and consideration of another s face 399 appropriate language to mark politeness may differ greatly between cultures L Facethreatening act saying something that threatens another s selfimage 399 eg Give me the ba acting as if you have more social power 399 Facesaving act saying something that lessens the possible threat to another s face 399 eg Coud you pass me the ball removes assumption of social power 399 Positiveface the need to be connected belong and be a member of the group 399 a facesaving act will show solidarity and draw attention to a common goal 399 eg Let s do this together 399 Negativeface the need to be independent and free from imposition 399 a facesaving act will show concern about imposition 399 eg Sorry for bothering you but
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