Bio 105 Test 2 Study Guide + Answers
Bio 105 Test 2 Study Guide + Answers BIO 105-01
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Racut on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 105-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Ann B. Somers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Major Concepts Biology in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Bio 105 Study Guide Test 2 0 After research do theories turn into facts 0 What is a fact 0 What is a Scientific 0 What is a Scientific Th y 0 What do theories answer What do laws answer Testable Explanations Hypotheses Theo es o What is larger a theory or a law 0 Popular use for a theory i ii iii iv Scientific use for theory v vi vii What is Tentative What is Embedded Science is DogmaticDemocratic True or False What is Peer Review What are the types of Peer Review What are some Limitation of Science What is considered Good science v Bad science NO OPEN QUESTIONS SCIENCE IS ALWAYS PROVISIONAL Do theories graduate to fact What is the difference between a theory and a fact yes this has already been a questions It s important What is methodological materialism Why do scientists use this What are the facts of evolution What are the Embedded Theories What does it take to upturn a scientific theory Scientific ideas mean nothing unless What is young earth creationism YEC Billy Graham Einstein Creationism and Evolution should we teach both sides Problems with Scientific theory What are the facts What are the theories What tells us that species are fixed What is a vestigial trait What are biochemical similarities Explain PreDarwinianWallace Thought When did the Age of Discovery occur What happened in the Age of Discovery Who discovered extinction Who came up with distribution puzzling What did T Jefferson believe in Thomas Malthus DarwinWallace Who wrote the Origin of Species When was it written What does variation in domestic species result from Is it under human control What is this called Darwin s conclusion SUMMARY 0 Age of Discovery 0 Writings about Evolution E Darwin and Lamarck o Extinction Discovered Cuvier o Writings of Malthus on population 0 Voyages and writings of C Darwin and Wallace 0 Close scrutiny of natural worldNOT PERFECT What did Malthus say Why is variation essential What is descent with modification Gene mutations are a source of what What do differential reproductions result in POPULATIONS EVOLVE NOT INDIVIDUALS What is fitness What is Darwinism Five Causes of Evolution II III IV Natural Selection Mutation Genetic Drift Gene Flow and Interruption of Gene Flow Naming species Name the Kingdoms What are the Phylum Chordata What is a gene pool s genetic diversity within and between species always visible Why is genetic diversity important What is the bottleneck effevt What is a genetically simplified population What units of endangered species are protected under the endangered species act What is the problem with low genetic variation Each individual has how many alleles for each gene Can there be more What drives human evolution What are 3 possible responses of species to Environmental Fluctuation Big Band of Mind Bio 105 Study Guide Test 2 After research do theories turn into facts NO What is a fact Objective verifiable observation What is a Scientificm Description of observed phenomenon What is a Scientific Theory Explanation of phenomenon What do theories answer What do laws answer Theories WhyHow Laws DO NOT answer why or what causes it Testable Explanations Hypotheses Theo es What is larger a theory or a law Theory Changing it into a law would be a downgrade Popular use for a theory Assumption without evidence Opinion Imperfect Fact quotjust a theory hunch Scientific use for theory Testable Explains why Makes Predictions Refutable can be argued What is Tentative Idea testable not yet rigorously tested What is Embedded Rigorously tested stroneg supported with no competing theories Science is DogmaticDemocratic True or False False What is Peer Review Role of criticism People with similar knowledge NOT about making sure they agree with each other What are the types of Peer Review Scientific journal articles Dissertations Academic bookschapters White paper scientific What are some Limitation of Science Cannot make moralaesthetic decisions Cannot guide itself science is only ONE way to know the world Language of science cannot describe most profound experiences of life What is considered Good science v Bad science Good science Peer reviewed testable refutable predictive conclusions based on data Bad untestable 391 NO OPEN QUESTIONS SCIENCE IS ALWAYS PROVISIONAL Do theories graduate to fact NO What is the difference between a theory and a fact yes this has already been a questions It s important Fact world s data Theory structures of ideas that experiment What is methodological materialism Scientists restrict themselves only to material causes natural causes like matter energy and interactions rather than supernatural causes Why do scientists use this It s essential It works Science can neither validateinvalidate God and supernatural Science makes no assertions about reality outside of nature What are the facts of evolution So firmly supported we assume it s true humans and gorillas evolve from common ancestors What are the Embedded Theories General agreement among scientists quotbelief in evolution increases with education What does it take to upturn a scientific theory EVIDENCE Scientific ideas mean nothing unless It can withstand criticism Upheld by proof What is young earth creationism YEC Aka Special Creation Conflicts with science Science and Religion confliction Billy Graham Recognizes word quotdayquot in genesis as figurative NOT literal Does not matter how God brought life into existence Einstein t DOES matter how God brought life into existence Creationism and Evolution should we teach both sides NO Why Hundreds of creations stories There are not 2 sides of science Science teachers are not qualified to teach religion Standards forjudging science and humanities differ Problems with Scientific theory What are the facts What are the theories Fact Evolution as change of species overtime Theory Evolution by means of natural selection What tells us that species are quotfixedquot Close observations Fossil Records DNA Analysis Anatomy What is a vestigial trait Functionlessrudimentary body part with important function tailbone What are biochemical similarities Dogs coyotes jackals wolves can interbreed to produce hybrids Explain PreDarwinianWallace Thought Genesis taken as literal NOT symbolic Species are fixed Creation is finished All life forms on Noah s Ark Species quotperfectly designed Extinction unkown When did the Age of Discovery occur 1500 s to 1700 s What happened in the Age of Discovery Hundreds of new species Humansexplorers moved Inventory of world s species exploding fossil collections up Noah s Ark crowded Who discovered extinction Cuvier 1796 Who came up with distribution puzzling Darwin What did T Jefferson believe in Perfection of creation NO extinction Thomas Malthus Essay on Principle of Population 1798 Every species capable of large s of offspring Produce more than can survive Many die before reproducing DarwinWallace Mid 1800 s Origin of Species 1859 HMS Beagle Darwin Pigeon breeders produce different animals from same stock Rethinking of origin of species Who wrote the Origin of Species When was it written Darwin 1859 What does variation in domestic species result from Is it under human control SELECTION Yes What is this called Selective Breeding Darwin s conclusion Nature performing same kind of selection as breeders just slower Offspring with slight advantage most likely to survive Under environmental control Species adapt to changing environment W Age of Discovery Writings about Evolution E Darwin and Lamarck Extinction Discovered Cuvier Writings of Malthus on population El Voyages and writings of C Darwin and Wallace El Close scrutiny of natural worldNOT PERFECT What did Malthus say More offspring are produced than can survive Why is variation essential Forchange What is descent with modification Successful offspring pass on genes Gene mutations are a source of what Variation What do differential reproductions result in Evolution POPULATIONS EVOLVE NOT INDIVIDUALS What is quotfitnessquot The of offspring produced by an individual Linked to the environment NOT to progress perfection What is Darwinism Evolution is not just natural selection Five Causes of Evolution I Natural Selection IV Mutation change in genes passed to offspring Caused by environmental agents chemicalradiation Mistakes when cell copies DNA Rarely generate novel traits Usually deleterious harmful Genetic Drift random fluctuations in gene frequencies Most in small populations does not increase adaptation BY CHANCE Allele different form of gene Fixationone allele is at frequency of 100 Can lead to loss of alleles and fixation Can cause environmental changes but is NOT mechanism that allows adaptation NATURAL SELECTION DOES Gene Flow and Interruption of Gene Flow Transfer of alleles from one population to another movement of individuals Interruption separation of species land masses connect oceans become unconnected Reproductive Isolation Geographic isolation mutations natural selection form 2 subspecies LEADS TO NEW SPECIES Naming species Binomial Genus horribilis Name the Kingdoms Kingdomanimalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Ursidae Genus Ursus Specific Epithet horribilis What are the Phylum Chordata Mammal WPP N Fish Reptile Avian Amphibian What is a gene pool Total array of genes and alleles in populations Is genetic diversity within and between species always visible NO Why is genetic diversity important Lower s change the dynamics of survivability Inbreeding depression Stillbornbirth defects What is the bottleneck effect Reduced genetic variation of population gene pool as result of drastic reduction in population size surviving population no longer represents the original population What is a genetically simplified population Loss of diversity What units of endangered species are protected under the endangered species act Species Subspecies Special Populations NOT HYBRIDS What is the problem with low genetic variation If you lose 1 the entire pool is changed Vulnerable to fixationgenetic simplified population Each individual has how many alleles for each gene Can there be more 2 alleles for each gene 1 from mother 1 from father Yes there can be more than 2 More alleles more variation Mutations are random Selection is NOT random Sex and genetic shuffling gene exchange in eggsperm prior version to fertilization What drives human evolution CLIMATE What are 3 possible responses of species to Environmental Fluctuation 1 Unable to move cannot adaptextinction 2 Keep moving with habitat 3 Adapt to wider range of habitat Big Bang of Mind Around 50000 years ago human imagination erupts
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