Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide JOUR 3741
U of M
Popular in Diversity and Mass Communication
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbi Stark on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 3741 at University of Minnesota taught by Jennifer Williams in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Diversity and Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
EXAM 1 STUDY Lectures Lecture 1 Social Identity how you view yourselfothers in society more about social groups self concept 0 Characteristics 0 Many groups vs meaningful groups 0 Self de nition shared with others 0 Reference group don t know every member of group but know you re a part of it 0 Events historical and current Social Identi cation how we designate ourselves to common markers 0 Common markers 0 Gender sexuality race ethnicity age disability class profession ideology religion political affiliation relationships stigmatized identities How Do Social Identities Develop 0 Self categorization ingroup vs out group 0 Beliefs become aligned with in group 0 Reference group don t know everyone but know rules 0 Socialization we learn from external environment 0 Mass media s role answering the why Psychological Components of Social Identity 0 Cognitive Component quotcoolquot component long term personality traits attitudes memories identity related experience 00000 0 Emotional componentMotivational component 0 experiences as kid 0 emotional how we feel O we share with each other 0 differentiates us 0 groups ful ll emotional need 0 Behavioral component 0 in uences how we behave 0 whether we are accepting or not Intersectionaljty simultaneously belonging to multiple groups Stereotype beliefs held about individualgroup based on limited view Social Psycholocrical Persioective on Stereotypes Ability to process incoming information Fear Laziness Being judgy Cognitive shortcut categorization Schemas node of memory Stereotypes schema can become a stereotype In group diverse vs Out group stereotypes Cumulative effects cultivation theory Exposed to stereotypes repetitively until they become your perspective Cultural Studies Persioective on Stereotypes SeI Stereotypjng you think you re something so you become that something 0 lens of power how we examine stereotype Q patriarchal cultures Hegemony dominance of politicalsocial elites over those with less power 0 stereotypes reinforceperpetuate power structure 0 stock characters help us understand plotssub plots Lecture 3 Media Industry amp Gender Bias Conglomeration Vertical integration Horizontal integration Grazian slides 1 1 and 12 Grazian s Main Thesis decision making in the media industries is primarily driven by the minimization of risk not quality of ideas due to a pro t mindset Q Grazian Pro tOriented Mindset Minimization of Risk and Going with What You Know Established Genres Copycat strategy Established actors writers and producers Blockbusters sequels prequels remakes spinoffs Branding merchandising promotional synergy Sex vs Gender Sex biologically determined genitalia Gender socially constructed identities are negotiated within a certain context Engenderment process by which a biological female becomes a socially constructed feminine being and a biological male becomes a socially constructed masculine being Three Waves of Feminism 1st Wave 0 19th century women s social and political reforms 0 Education employment right to vote 2nd Wave 0 1960s present 0 Associated with Women s Rights Movement 0 Equality pay sexuality and reproductive rights equal access to education and sports 3rd Wave 0 Daughters of 2nd Wave 0 Different subgroups O 1 group thinks we re done 0 Most know we haven t achieved equality 0 1990s Rebecca Walker expansion and more representation not just cis whites 0 Many subgroupsterm highly contested Lecture 4 Women 8 Film 1970s general trends 1960s early 1970s 0 Men strong hero rugged individuals 0 Women supporting role to men ignored disposable sex objects 0 Women s roles homemaker wife mother assistant secretary submissive not educated 19708 0 New female character intelligent educated selfassured 0 Still need to be rescued by male characters but much stronger being single is less negative 0 Some lms begin to deal with contemporary issues facing women 0 Films produced and directed by men Women 8 Film 1980s general trends 1980s 0 Context climbing corporate ladder family values reinvigorated women do it all superwoman 0 Female boss always had an issue evil mean Women as Action Adventure Heroes Critical problems 0 Strong female leads 0 Weak box offices 0 Male spectatorsobjecti cation 0 Ex Charlie s Angels TV Roles 1970s general trends 0 Heroes TV Roles 1980s general trends 0 Women worked outside home 0 Raised family and ran household 0 Fathers more of a passive role than in past TV Roles 1990s general trends TV Roles Current general trends 1990s Current More diverse population of women still fewer and younger Women shown in greater numbers Women in more diverse roles More compleX roles Some stereotypes still persist Risk is higher in movies than in TV Late Night TV dominated by men Social Comparison Theory Leon Festinger 0 Natural drive motivation to compare for selfevaluation 0 People seek info to make personal evaluations 0 Learn norms of appearance 0 Locus of control internal vs environment 0 Similar vs Dissimilar other 0 Other is de cient vs other is better effects ego self esteem Intended Advertising Effects 0 Human needs 0 Advertising activates that need 0 Position brand 0 Purchase brandproduct 0 Question Locus of control manufactured external need Unintended Advertising Effects Women You walk away feeling de cient Low self esteem Large sums of money on beauty products Eating disorders Diet pills other overthecounter drugs Lifestyle prescription drugs Severe depression suicide Perfection is unattainable PhOtOShOD and Locus of Control 0 Germany banned sexualizedphotoshopped images That s pretty dope 0 False advertising they re not real puffery women should know better 0 Ex aerie real Commodi ed Feminism Commodj ed Feminism marketers who sell products to women using quotfeministquot ideals and empowerment as the brand and advertising strategy Lecture 5 Hypermasculinity gender based ideology of exaggerated beliefs gt what it means to be a man 4 Problematic Interrelated Beliefs Toughness as emotional self control Danger as exciting Callous attitudes towards womensex Violence as manly IPOONH Men 8 Film 1970s general trends 1970s 0 Men Buddy Films backlash to Women s Rights movement pessimistic 0 Women peripheral to plot woman becomes prop Q Masculinity violent plots Hayes code dropped 0 Increased images of aggressionviolence against women The Sensitive Man 0 Weak support for feminism Q Demonized women EX Kramer vs Kramer Q Reinforces gender roles Sensitive man Comedic Q The sensitive man comedic Q Inept child care 0 Hegemonic patriarchy negotiated in lm 0 Men vs woman as parents Men 8 Film 1980s general trends 0 Hyper masculine Action Adventure 0 Women passive love interestdamsel in distress Guy Movie Comedies quotRomantic Guy movie comedies EX De nitely Maybe male perspective Parallel trend Hypermasculinity Eailed masculinity EX 40 Year Old Virgin Laughing at men who don t t ideal TV Roles 1970s general trends 0 Leave it to Beaver is an example of gender roles TV Roles 1980s general trends TV Roles 1990s general trends 0 80s 90s fathers helped more 0 90s more diversity TV Roles Current general trends 0 2000 present 0 Married men and their wives out of his league 0 Balance of power shifted to wife Readings Chapter 2 Social Comparison Theory Social Comparison Theory individuals have a natural drive to compare themselves with others for self evaluation purposes 0 Leon Festinger people seek info that allows them to make personal evaluations of themselves thought the individual had control over comparison process and not the environment 0 People engage in social comparisons with others as a way of resolving discrepancies between their actual self and their ideal self 0 Researchers now recognize the potential role media plays in comparison process 0 Advertising can foster consumer desires through process of social comparison Socialization Socialization means by which individuals beginning at early age and continue forever learn about societal norms values and beliefs 0 For a society to survive you have to have commonality among its members 0 Socializing agents family peers school media Cultivation Theory Cultivation Theory mass media contour or cultivate the viewpoints of individuals regarding their surrounding environment 0 George Gerbner correlations or associations tend to exist between the messages conveyed in TV programming and the levels of television consumption 0 TV s representation of women as powerless is leading heavy viewers of TV to be less likely to express support for a female political candidate 0 Criticisms causality between tv exposure and viewer opinion cannot be shown Hegemony Hegemony Dominance of political and social elites over those with less power Three Waves of Feminism Ist Wave UK US mid 18005 0 Feminisme France 0 Struggled for right to vote 0 1920 s UK and US women can vote 2nd wave continued until 19905 O Marxism Q Freudian 0 Reproductive freedom and workplace equality Q Redstockings Manifesto doctrine 3rd Wave 0 Greater acknowledgement of differences between men and women and a celebration of those differences 0 Women should have a choice what to do with their lives 0 Lipsticks feminists Q Situation has improved over the last few decades Chapter 8 Socialization Theory and Gender p153 0 Gender The cultural and social meanings experiences and institutional structures that are de ned as appropriate for males and females masculinity and femininity 0 Individuals learn about gender and about what it means to be masculine or feminine according to what they observe around them including what they see in the mass media Judith Butler s argument p 15556 Judith Butler Gender Trouble Feminism 8 the Subversion of Identity 0 quotqueer theory gender is all about performance and that there is no such thing as quotgender identity 0 nothing within gender identity is xed 0 gender performances reinforced through repetition 0 people can change Hypersexuality p 160 Q 4 of lms included in the best pic category featured 1 or more females as director 26 writer 41 producer 0 females more likely to be shown in lms directed by women 0 hyperattractive hypersexual or passive Social Cognitive Theory and Disney Males are either 0 seX crazed and manly Q comical and inept quotBeauty 8 the Beast sitcoms p 168 169 EX King of Queens TV 8 Movie Trends Generally How Women and Men were Represented 0 Typical female happy homemaker competent 0 Typical male head of household breadwinners their representation hasn t really changed 0 Single working woman appears in 6070s 0 Gender roles have changed a great deal since the 1970s 0 More women moving out of the home and into the workforce 0 Relationships between husband and wife have become more equal 0 Men seem more willing to share in childcare and work around the house 0 It s not perfect yet
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