Study Guide 2
Study Guide 2 PY 358
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Davis on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 358 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Theodore Tomeny in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 47 PY 358 Abnormal Psychology Professor Dr Tomeny Chapter 4 Key terms Be familiar with the following terms While knowing definitions is important it is equally important that you are able to apply these terms in real world contexts to various aspects of abnormal psychology agoraphobia a fear of being in public places or situations where escape might be difficult or help unavailable if a panic attack occurs anxiety a common emotion characterized by physical symptoms futureoriented thoughts and escape or avoidance behaviors anxiety disorders a group of disorders characterized by heightened physical arousal cognitivesubjective distress and behavioral avoidance of feared objectssituations events exposure the critical ingredient in behavior therapy in which a person learns to overcome fears by actual or imagined contact with the feared object or event fight or flight a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system activated by stress or fear that includes accelerated heart rate enhanced muscle activity and increased respiration generalized anxiety disorder the excessive worry about future events past transgressions financial status and the health of oneself and loved ones heritability the percentage of variance in liability to the disorder accounted for by genetic factors obsessivecompulsive disorder a condition involving obsessions intrusive thoughts often combined with compulsions repetitive behaviors that can be extensive time consuming and distressful panic attack a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort subjective distress and a cascade of physical symptoms panic disorder a disorder in which the person has had at least one panic attack and worries about having more attacks parasympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that counteracts the effects of system activation by slowing down heart rate and respiration returning the body to a resting state posttraumatic stress disorder the emotional distress that occurs after an event involving actual or threatened death serious injury or a threat to physical integrity and that leads to avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma feelings of emotional numbness and persistent symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system arousal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors a group of medications that selectively inhibit the repute of serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane restoring the normal chemical balance drugs thought to correct serotonin imbalances by increasing the time that the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse separation anxiety disorder the severe and unreasonable fear of separation from a parent or a caregiver social anxiety disorder a pervasive pattern of social timidity characterized by fear that the person will behave in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing specific phobia marked fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation that leads to significant disruption in daily functioning sympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body for the flight or flight response when activated the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration allowing the body to perform at peak efficiency trait anxiety a personality trait that exists along a dimension those individuals high on this dimension are more reactive to stressful events and therefore more likely given the right circumstances to develop a disorderaso called anxiety proneness worry the apprehensive negative expectations or outcomes about the future or the past that are considered to be unreasonable in light of the actual situation Application of termsconcepts What parts of the nervous system are involved in the anxiety response What does each part do The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are involved in the anxiety response Fight or flight activated SNS activated by fears and stress heart rate increases blood pressure rises breathing is at peak efficiency allows for all resources to be used for escape PNS brings the body back to resting state How is typical anxiety differentiated from anxiety disorders What are some factors to consider when trying to identifydetermine those experiencing an anxiety disorder normal anxiety feeling anxious occasionally is normal can cause functional impairment sociodemographic factors like race sex and SES women and men seek treatment at equal rates disorders characterized by heightened physical arousal cognitive distress and behavioral avoidance of feared objects situations and events 57 comorbidity 32 of americans get it at some point in their lives most common among all age groups but onset usually around age 11 equally distributed among ethnicities can be an economic burden You won t be asked to list every symptom of the anxiety disorders but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another What is a panic attack and how is it different from panic disorder panic attacks are a brief period of intense fear and physical arousal which develops abruptly symptoms peak in about 10 minutes cognitive and somatic symptoms panic attacks are common but panic disorder is not 2 types of attacks expected attacks know you have a fear and unexpected attack don t know why you had it out of the blue Panic disorder is characterized by repeated panic attacks combined with major changes in behavior or persistent anxiety over having further attacks What are the differences between obsessions and compulsions obsessions are intrusive thoughts compulsions are repetitive behaviors that can be extensive time consuming and distressful Apply the major theories eg psychodynamic cognitive behavioral biological to the anxiety disorders How does each theory explain the anxiety disorders ie what causes the disorders based on the different theories What are common anxiety treatments based on these theories biological causes by hereditary factors temperament trait anxiety personality traits differences in brain functionstructure neurotransmitters serotonin and GABA low treatments can include use of SSRI for the depletion of serotonin in neuron synapses and use of benzodiazepines to allow GABA to transmit nerve signals psychosurgery used as a last resort if patient failed to benefit from medication and therapy psychodynamic caused by a conflict between the id child wants and ego adult thinking sexual and aggressive impulses and defense mechanisms treatment includes use of free association and dream interpretation as a reflection of the patients experience in the outside world cognitive information was processed differently leading to the development of anxiety Aaron Beck s theory of maladaptive thoughts fear of fear model figure 48 one can but hypersensitive to bodily sensations anxiety sensitivity distorted cognitions maintain the disorder treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy well researched approach exposure in combination with cognitive restructuring to change negative cognitions hypothesis testingdecide if this is the worst thing that actually happens generate a positive coping cognition to counteract negative thought relaxation training behavioral learned behaviors one becomes classically conditioned vicarious learning theory information transmission treatments well researched approach exposure client faces fear to get over it 70 improve after this treatment with remission rates of 93 after 2 years and 62 after 10 years excluding PTSD virtual reality and imaginal exposure social skills training SST How are exposure and avoidance involved with anxiety disorders Anxiety has 3 distinct components physiological response cognitive symptoms or subjective distress and avoidance or escape Exposurebased behavior therapies are effective treatments for these disorders key component to therapy is the exposure to the feared object situation or event patient learns to lose fear by operant conditioning strategies Chapter 5 Key Terms amnesia the inability to recall important information and usually occurs after a medical condition or event conversion disorder a pseudo neurological complaint such as motor or sensory dysfunction that is not fully explained by the presence of a medical condition depersonalizationlderealization disorder feelings of being detached from one s body or mind a state of feeling as if one is an external observer of one s own behavior dissociative amnesia the inability to recall important information usually of a personal nature that follows a stressful or traumatic event dissociative disorders a set of disorders characterized by disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness memory identity or perception of the environment dissociative fugue a disorder involving loss of personal identity and memory often involving a flight from a person s usual place of residence dissociative identity disorder the presence within a person of two or more distinct personality states each with its own pattern of perceiving relating to and thinking about the environment and self factitious disorder the condition in which physical or psychological signs or symptoms of illness are intentionally produced in what appears to be a desire to assume a sick role factitious disorder imposed on self a condition in which a person self engages in deceptive practices to produce signs of illness factitious disorder imposed on another a condition in which one person induces illness symptoms in someone else iatrogenic the term describing a disease that may be inadvertently caused by a physician a medical or surgical treatment or by a diagnostic procedure illness anxiety disorder the condition of experiencing fears or concerns about having an illness that persists despite medical reassurance malingering a condition in which physical symptoms are produced intentionally to avoid military service criminal prosecution or work or to obtain financial compensation or drugs pseudoseizures a sudden change in behavior that mimics epileptic seizures but has no organic basis somatic symptom and related disorders a condition defined as the presence of one or more somatic symptoms plus abnormalexcessive thoughts feelings and behaviors regarding the symptoms Application of termsconcepts What do somatic symptom disorders all have in common Somatic symptom disorders are conditions where there are physical symptoms or concerns about an illness that cannot be explained by a medical or psychological disorder You won t be asked to list every symptom of the somatic symptom dissociative and factitious disorders but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another Somatic symptom disorderThe patient has to be diagnosed with one or more somatic symptoms that are distressing and resulting in significant disruption of daily life symptoms can change but one must be present for 6 months excessive thoughts feelingsbehaviors related to symptoms or associated with health concerns High anxiety about health concerns persistent thoughts about seriousness of symptoms waste time thinking about symptoms Conversion disorder pseudoneurological complaints motorsensory disfunction paralysis and blindness 1015 found to have actual diagnosable medical condition symptom groups motor deficits sensory deficits and seizures and convulsions does not follow known neurological pattern of human body glove anesthesia can occur as loss of sensitivity in handwrist physical anatomy cannot explain symptom pattern of glove La Belle Indifference beautiful indifference substantial emotional indifference to the presence of these dramatic physical symptoms appear undisturbed by paralysis illness anxiety disorder Fears and concerns about having an illness that persist despite medical reassurance obsessive about health high anxiety about health perform excessive health related behaviors often elect negative reaction from physician 78 comorbid Preoccupation with having a mental illnessat least 6 months Somatic symptoms not present only mild Not better explained by another iHness factitious disorder physical psychological signs symptoms of illness are intentionally produced in what appears to be a desire to assume a sick role factitious disorder imposed on self individual imposes deceptive practices designed to produce signs of illness on self factitious disorder imposed on another impose on someone else usually a mother harming a child to get medical attention ES22 of children die because of imposed illness 33 of patients with conversion disorder work full time people with somatic work 78 days less per month than other medically unexplained illness makes up 1530 of appointments 20 of expenses for treatments make up these diseases chronic fatigue syndrome CFS somataform disorder huge economic impact can be the result of stress challenges or the presence of a virus hard time convincing that it is real 91 billion lost because of less productivitylabor loss How is malingering different from factitious disorder Mallingering is an individual intentionally producing a physical symptom to avoid military prosecution or work malingerers make their claims out of a motivation for personal gain people with factitious disorder have no such motivation What are some unique challenges when it comes to detecting somatic symptomfactitious disorders What are some unique challenges to treating these disorders Treatment not without reluctance or resistance challenge for getting people to reveal their symptoms to a professional Emphasis is placed on physical symptoms Refusal to believe one has a psychological problem in need of psychological intervention Apply the major theories eg psychodynamic cognitive behavioral biological to somatic symptom dissociative and factitious disorders How does each theory explain these disorders ie what causes the disorders based on the different theories What are common treatments based on these theories Psychodynamic intrapsychic conflict personality defense mechanisms psychological basic education of mind body connection cognitive behavioral therapy cognitive distorted cognitions somatic amplification inaccurate beliefs prevalence of illness symptoms and treatments behavioral modeling and reinforcement environmental stress sexual abuse family separationloss family violence sexual assault biological brain malfunction vs structural abnormality What are some of the controversies related to the possible causes of dissociative disorders Dissociative disorders are characterized by disruption in the usual integrated functions of conscious memory Controversy because therapy can recover false memories cases rose after a movie came out about this disorder 80100 of people didn39t even know they had this until after they started therapy correlation between therapist accepting and DID produced Chapter 6 Key Terms antidepressants a group of medications designed to alter moodregulating chemicals in the brain and body that are highly effective in reducing symptoms of depression bipolar disorder a state of both episodic depressed mood and episodic mania bipolar l fullblown mania that alternates with episodes of major depression bipolar II hypomania that alternates with episodes of major depressive cyclothymic disorder a condition characterized by fluctuations that alternate between hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms depression a mood that is abnormally low disruptive mood regulation disorder a disorder for children age 6 to 18 years old who have severe recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion in tensity or duration to the situation double depression a combination of episodic major depressions superimposed on chronic low mood electroconvulsive therapy ECT a controlled delivery of electrical impulses which cause brief seizures in the brain and reduce depressed mood hypomania a mood elevation that is clearly abnormal yet not as extreme as frank mania learned helplessness a term meaning that externally uncontrollable environments and presumably internally uncontrollable environments are inescapable stimuli that can lead to depression lithium a naturally occurring metallic element used to treat bipolar disorder major depressive disorder a persistent sad or low mood that is severe enough to impair a person s interest in or ability to engage in normally enjoyable activities mania a mood that is abnormally high mixed state a state characterized by symptoms of mania and depression that occur at the same time mood disorders a syndrome in which a disturbance in mood is the predominant feature persistent depressive disorder a chronic state of depression in which the symptoms are the same as those of major depression but are less severe premenstrual dysphoric disorder a more severe form of premenstrual changes that afflict 3 to 8 of women of reproductive age selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs a group of medications that selectively inhibit the repute of serotonin at the presynaptic neuronal membrane restoring the normal chemical balance drugs thought to correct serotonin imbalances by increasing the time that the neurotransmitter remains in the synapse suicidal ideation a condition characterized by thoughts of death Application of termsconcepts How are mood disorders different from regular happiness or sadness mood disorders are defined by pathological extremes of certain moods specifically sadness and elation While sadness and elation are normal and natural they may become pervasive and debilitating and may even result in death either in the form of suicide or as the result of reckless behavior How are Bipolar and Bipolar disorders differentiated bipolar l full blown mania alternates with episodes of major depression Mania is a period of abnormal elevated or irritable mood lasting for at least one week or requires hospitalization must include at least 3 or more of inflated self esteem decrease need for sleep talkativeness flight of ideas distractibility increased goal directed activity bipolar II hypomania mood elevation that is abnormal yet not severe enough to impair functioning You won t be asked to list every symptom of the mood disorders but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these mood disorders are differentiated from one another Bipolar both episodic depressed mood and episodic mania formally called manic depressive disorder rapid cycling bipolar 4 or more severe disturbances within a year cyclothymic disorder characterized by fluctuations that alternate between hypomania and depression episodes aren39t as severe as mania or major depression persists for at least 2 years Major depressive disorder persistent sad or low mood that is severe enough to impair a persons interest in or ability to engage in normally enjoyable activities disturbance in psychological emotional social and physical functioning Persistent depressive disorder dysthymia chronic state of depression symptoms are same as major depression but less severe persistent and lasts longer than 2 years never without symptoms for longer than 2 months often goes undiagnosed Depression is more than just sadness What are all the different ways that depression can affect someone persistent low mood feeling blue guilty feeling worthless pessimistic outlook on life insomnia or over sleeping fatigue and tiredness decreased appetiteweight loss or overeatingweight gain loss of interest in hobbies social activities thoughts of suicide attempts difficulty concentrating How might mood disorders look different depending on the person s age in children mania may be chronic irritability and temper tantrums may have difficulty diagnosing because it is hard to differentiate from ADHD conduct disorder ODD and Schizophrenia What are common risk factors for suicide Who is more likely to attempt suicide Who is more likely to commit suicide What are common approaches to treating suicide Risk factors include suicidal ideation family and genetics psychiatric illness90 biological factorslow serotonin impulsivity pathological aggression 50 with bipolar attempt 89 with depression attempt risk factors for youth include bad conduct and drugs women have higher attempts at suicide but men have higher rates of commitment Treatments include psychological intervention psychosocial intervention follow up psychiatric care Apply the major theories eg psychodynamic cognitive behavioral biological to the mood disorders How does each theory explain these disorders ie what causes the disorders based on the different theories What are common treatments based on these theories psychodynamic anger turned inward attachment theory behavioralno more positive reinforcement from environment learned helplessness think you cant overcome so stop trying cognitive fueled by negativedistorted thought biological genetics and family studies neurological studies environmental factors and life events Genes have stress sensitive short version and a protective long version having the short version doubles the risk of depression following stressors Bipolar treatment Psychological CBTchaIIenge distorted thoughts develop skills to change the negative thought patterns interpersonal and social rhythm therapy IPSRT promotes adherence to regular daily routines biological lithiumnaturally occurring metallic element moderates glutamate levels in the brain anticonvulsants atypical antipsychotics electroconvulsive therapy ECT electric signal through the brain Major depression treatment psychological focuses on understanding thoughts perceptions and behaviors influence depression CBT Interpersonal psychotherapy lBT relationships with others in life Behavioral activation increased contact with positive reinforcement and healthy behaviors biological 1st generation and antidepressants tricyclic antidepressants monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOls 2nd generation antidepressants SSRI electroconvulsive therapy light box therapyusually for seasonal depression transcranial magnetic therapy deep brain stimulation Chapter 7 Key Terms amenorrhea the absence of menstration for at least 3 consecutive month anorexia nervosa a serious condition marked by a restriction of energy intake relative to needed energy requirements resulting in significantly low body weight bigorexia another term for muscle dysmorphia a psychological disorder marked by a negative body image and an obsessive desire to have a muscular physique binge eating consuming a larger amount of food than most people would eat in a discrete period of time and having a sense that eating is out of control binge eating disorder a condition characterized by regular binge eating behavior but without the inappropriate compensatory behaviors that are part of bulimia nervosa body mass index BMI the formula for weight in kg divided by height in mquot2 bulimia nervosa a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in combination with inappropriate compensatory behavior aimed at undoing the effects of the binge or preventing weight gain enmeshment the over involvement of all family members in the affairs of any one member inappropriate compensatory behavior any action that a person uses to counteract a binge or to prevent weight gain osteoporosisa condition of decreased bone density purging selfinducing vomiting or using laxatives diuretics water pills or enemas to reverse the effects of a binge or to induce weight loss Application of termsconcepts How does one distinguish Anorexia Nervosa from Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa marked by an inability to maintain a normal healthy body weight measured by BMI denial of illness intense fear of gaining weightfeeling fat use weight and shape as a measure of self evaluation perception of body size and weight is distorted bulimia nervosa characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in combination with some form of compensatory behavior aimed at undoing the effects of the binge or preventing weight gain What are some medical problems associated with the different eating disorders anorexia abnormally slow heart rate low blood pressure risk of heart failure reduction of bone densityosteoporosis muscle loss and weakness severe dehydrationresuts in kidney failure fainting fatigue dry hair and skin hair loss bulimia electrolyte imbalances irregular heartbeats heart failure gastric rupture inflammation and rupture of the esophagus tooth decay and staining chronic irregular bowel movementsconstipation peptic ulcers and pancreatitis Eating disorders aren t just about food What are some of the other psychological issues often present that drive the development and maintenance of eating disorders westernized societal emphasis on thin ideals culture bound environmental exposure social learning information sharing hearing from friends online personality low self esteem perfectionism impulse 80 comorbidity most common are anxiety depression substance abuse personality disorder You won t be asked to list every symptom of the eating disorders but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these eating disorders are differentiated from one another Anorexia nervosa either restricting or bingepurge type denial of illness fear of gaining weight or looking fat perception of body size and weight is distorted bulimia nervosa recurrent binge eating in combination with compensatory behaviors to undo the binge lack of control over eating binge eating disorder regular binge eating behaviors without compensatory behaviors distress over binge eating rapidly eating eating after full eating when not hungry eating alone to avoid embarrassment disgust over behavior Apply the major theories eg psychodynamic cognitive behavioral biological to the eating disorders How does each theory explain these disorders ie what causes the disorders based on the different theories Biological role of the hypothalamus activity based anorexia addiction and BED neuroendocrine and neurohormonal factors brain structure and functioning family genetics nature vs nurture Psychological patterns of family dysfunction enmeshmentno clear rolesboundaries rigidity overprotectiveness poor conflict resolution distorted cognitions related to body shape weight and eating and personal control society and culture western thin ideals culture value on beauty What are common treatments for eating disorders Which care providers are typically involved in the treatment of eating disorders and why What is the role of each Anorexia nervosanormalization of eating behavior and weight increase calorie intake and weight gainimprove psychological factors depression and self esteem Bulimia nervosa normalization of eating elimination of binge eating and purging improve psychological factors depression and self esteem o Binge eating disorder normalization of eating elimination of binge eating weigh stabilization or weight loss improve psychological factors depression and self esteem Inpatient treatment maintenance of healthy weight consideration of other factors social support other medical conditions workschool suicidal ideation multidisciplinary team approach treatment comprehensive plan includes food psychotherapy individual group family privileges as a result of compliance with treatments biological treatment commonly prescribed need for medication specific to symptoms of anorexia no meds for binge eating disorders Bulimia treated with SSRI and Prozac Nutrition Rehabilitation dietician and nutritionist specializing in treatment of eating disorders nutritional needs for anorexia nutritional needs after treatment of bulimia usually in conjunction with other treatments Cognitive behavioral therapy change perception about body shape weight and eating sense of control addressed autonomic thoughts and core beliefs replaces negative and problematic thoughts and behaviors Use of self monitoring Interpersonal psychotherapy lPT a brief time limited therapy approach that focuses on decreased eating disorder symptoms by enhancing social skills and relationships addresses 4 problem areas interpersonal disputes role transitions abnormal grief and interpersonal deficits Family based interventions Minuchin and Palazzoli views on dysfunctional family system modern approaches for family therapy maudsley method effective with adolescents with eating disorders
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