study guide for the first exam
study guide for the first exam BIOL 155
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tony Kumetis on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 155 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Douglas Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Prin of Biology I in Biology at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
The test is scheduled for October 9th This is all the notes from the unit to study from What all living things need to survive Webster39s says 0 respond to stimulireact to changes in the environment 0 homeostasisbasic bodily functions stay constant sweat or shiver to keep constant body temperature 0 Water retention 0 Evolution is a species response to to its environment s changes 0 Ability to reproducepropagation of species creating offspring O asexual cloning yeast mitotic cycle 0 sexual genders and gametes sperm and ova Q metabolism All chemical reactions in the body the process of nutrients converting energy 0 buildup of bonds anabolic uses energy 0 breaking of bonds catabolic l Break down to build up 0 Growth Reproduction of cells in multicellular organism cells being basic unit of all living things 0 1 celled organisms unicellular includes amoeba and bacteria 0 many cells multicellular includes biofilms and humans 0 Two forms of organisms I simple celled prokaryotic probefore kary bodynucleus 0 No nucleus l complex cells eukaryote euafter 0 complex cells are compartmented with organelles because I division of labor I larger cell size I mitotic reproduction 0 living things grow larger as a species 0 metabolism 0 respirationmetabolic pathways breathing O wastebyproducts of metabolism 0 carbonmajor element in chemicals and molecules that make up organisms 0 carbon has the ability to bind to four other atoms which allows the building of complex structures with many functions 0 nucleic acids 0 deoxyribonucleic acid I double helix l info storage for the traits of organisms which are passed to offspring l nitrogenous pairs AgtT CgtG O RNAribonucleic acid more oxygen in system I single strand l lnfo retrieval and transport system I nitrogenous bases AUCG l mRNA and tRNA 0 lnterdependence living things interact with each other 0 Energy triangle l Producers convert energy into bonds usually plants I Consumers produce waste after eating other organisms which are used by producers and decomposers usually animals I Decomposers help producers and consumers go through metabolism 0 Water 0 adhesion water binds to a surface 0 cohesion water binds to other water molecules How are Organisms different 0 Domains main category of living things based on cell structure and complexity O Bacteria true bacteria prokarya mostly one cell 0 Archae bacterialike some are complex I been around a long time recently discovered I live in places most find uninhabitable ex volcanic vents O Eukarya organisms that possess complex cells I very diverse group 0 Ribosomes protein and RNA macromolecular structures in eukaryotes large and possess different sequences in bacteria they are small with a basic structure in Archae they are similar to eukaryotes OOOOO Domain Eukaryote kingdoms Mode of nutrition of cells examples animalia consumer multicellular humans fish etc plantae producer mostly multicellular trees single celledalgae Protista consumer producer unicellular amoeba and decomposer colonial forms eglena parmecium Fungi Decomposer multicellular mushrooms mold unicellular yeast Chemistry of life 0 Carbonbased molecule form a backbone for all life 0 Inorganic molecules water salts minerals dissolved charged atoms 0 NaK CI39Mg2 Zn2 and Fe3 O salts dissociate into ions charged atoms in water 0 atomic structures 0 Neutron proton and electron form atoms most basic unit of matterelement same throughout 0 Protons and neutrons each have 1 atomic mass unit amu l Ex Hydrogen has 1 Proton 1 Neutron and 1 Electron 0 mass is 2amu charge is O or neutral 0 Protons have 1 charge and 1 amu O Electrons have 1 charge and O amu O Neutrons have 0 charge and 1 amu Q in most atoms the of protons of electrons of neutrons net charge of O 0 mass of atom number of protons x 2 0 ion unequal number of protons and electrons O cationpositive charged 0 a ionnegative charge 0 isotope unequal number of protons and neutrons radioactive 0 new forms 0 released particles and energy dangerous to living organisms The periodic table Atoms want a full valence shell outer electron shell The first rings will hold two all else holds 8 0 filled O shell 0 O 0 column 18 is called the noble gases not reactive at all because valence shell is column 17 wants to gain an electron at any cost because it has 7 in its valence column 16 wants to gain two electrons because it has 6 in its valence shell column 15 wants 3 electrons column 14 wantsgives 4 electrons column 1 wants to give 1 electrons because they only have 1 electron in their valence shell column 2 gives 2 electrons column 3 gives three electrons electronegativity the ability to pull in electrons increases to the right of the periodic table Fluorine is the highest in electronegativity I a 1 r to ether I 39 ht Bonds ionic electrons are given or received 0 ex Sodium chloride NaCl Electron from sodium taken by Chlorine l sodium will become negative chlorine will become positive covalent bonds electrons are shared between atoms 0 ex organic molecules l methane I shared electrons shown with lines between atoms Hydrogen bonds 0 ex water molecules 0 covalent bonds between oxygen and hydrogen atoms of same molecule but oxygen pulls electrons closer to itself ionic bonds hold water molecules La Covalent bonds between hydrogen and oxygen atoms of the same water molecule Q Hydrophobic interactions molecules that don t dissolve in water 0 oils fats glycerides gas petroleum hydrocarbons living things are made of manv tVDes of molecules that fit into 4 categories polymer monomer structure function examples carbohydrate monosaccharide m1m2mn energy glucose s s simple structural fructose sugars support cellulose starch proteins amino acids aa1aa2aan specific jobs keratin actin tyrosine valine traits myosin tryptophan enzymes hemoglobin Nucleic acids nucleotides information DNA A C G T U storage and RNA sorry didn t know another way to put this onto here retrieval fats and lipids 2 types next page 1glycerol glycerol Energy based fatty acids storage adipose ssue cushions and protects 2 monomer sterolbased cholesterol only atomgtmoleculesgtorganic macromoleculesgtorganellesgtcellsgt tissuesgtorgansgtsystemsgtorganismsgtspeciesgt populationgtecosystemsgtbiomesgtbiosphere There are two types of cells simple prokaryote before nulceus small looks like a chocolate chip cookie complex eukaryote contains nucleus where chromosomes are contained large organelles compartments with special func ons The Scientific Method 0 Start with a question 0 Use that question to form a hypothesis 0 If I do X then lwill get Y l X manipulated variable I Y measured variable 0 and an alternate hypothesis I If I do X then lwill not get Y Q Devise a method to test the hypothesis and alternate hypothesis 0 materials and supplies 0 set up procedure I sampling more is better for accuracy I simple and easy to follow and replicate variables aspects of an experiment that can be changed or altered subject groups receiving treatment control does not change experimental groups have a change in the variable tools should be listed and readily available low cost must work replications attempt to get accurate answer and precise l at least three trials conduct experiment and data collection 0 tables charts and graphs for picture of data and trends 0 write down what happened I observations measurements and units 00000 O calculations Analyze data 0 use statistical tests 0 look for trends do data and observations does it make sense 0 do they support the hypothesis and alternate hypothesis Draw conclusions based on analysis Publish data 0 research paper journal book monograph 0 poster oral presentation at meetings 0 Don t publish it you want to patent more questions are generated during and after experiment 0 go back to step 1 l requires money time personnel experiments suppHes 0 write grant proposals request for funding I through funding agencies 0 public and private 0 society controls public The cell If you need to copy the picture please text me 8146615717 plasma membrane boundary of cell cell wall rigid structural materials outside plasma membrane cytoplasm liquid solution of cell Contains sugars and proteins proteins in the nucleoplast help package DNA to keep it protected Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached 0 ribosomes catalyze new protein synthesis golgi apparatus package materials to be moved through cell 0 packaged into vesicles Q mitochondria has its own DNA and makes ATP 0 proteins for chloroplasts mitochondria pyroxisomes and nuclear proteins are made by cytoplasmic ribosomes 0 proteins for ER golgi vesicles secretions and lysosomes are made in the rough ER 0 Chloroplasts absorbs light NRG and converts it to chemical NRG Q where everything is made 0 proteins Rough ER and cytoplasm 0 fatty acids smooth ER 0 Carbohydrates smooth ER 0 nucleic acids nucleus 0 The cytoskeleton is made of O microfilaments l single protein actin molecule l causes movement on a small scale and connect microtubules and intermediate filaments 0 intermediate filaments extremely diverse keratin intermediate in size each cell type has its own unique collection of these usually structural O macrotubules composed of a single protein monomer called tuban I largest cytoskeletal element I move large cellular movement I molecular motors Protein structures 0 Primary structure 1 O aa1aa2aa3aan 0 Secondary structure 2 O strands fold back on itself to form Ct helices 3 Sheets 0 tertiary structure 3 7 O globular form 3D structure Held together by hydrogen bonds 0 Quaternary structure 4 7 O two or more tertiary structures combine The test consists of 80 multiple choice questions and a 20 point essay question for a total of 100 points
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