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OLS 284 Midterm Exam Study Guide

by: Maggie Cunningham

OLS 284 Midterm Exam Study Guide OLS 284

Marketplace > Purdue University > OLS 284 > OLS 284 Midterm Exam Study Guide
Maggie Cunningham
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About this Document

Here is a detailed study guide of chapter 1 - 7 based off class notes and study guide notes :)
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Cunningham on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to OLS 284 at Purdue University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Chapter 1 Leadership is the process of in uencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it and the process of facilitating individual and collective ejforts to accomplish shared objectives Leadership is the process of in uencing motivating and enabling others to accomplish shared objectives and achieve success through individual and collective ejforts Professors Preferred definition Categories of measuring leadership effectiveness I Follower attitudes and perceptions of the leader I Leader s contribution to the quality of group processes I Performance and growth of leader s group or organization I Extent to which a person has a successful career Leadership vs Management I Lead people and manage things I Lead my family to establish a budget Manage my checkbook and financial accounts I Leaders do the right thingsquot I Managers do things rightquot Increase self confidence I Distance yourself from controlling judgmental people I Focus on differences of opinion rather than personality differences I Surround yourself with those who behave in a way that is sensible to their role I Practice for whatever you are preparing for in a safe environment I Seek out mentors and role models I Redirect conversation toward problem solutions and away from placing blame for problems What in uence leaders I The choice of objectives amp strategies to pursue I The motivation of members to achieve the objectives I The mutual trust and cooperation of members I The organization and coordination of activities I The allocation of resources to activities I The development of member skills and confidence I The enlistment of support from outsiders I The design of formal structure programs amp systems I The shared beliefs and values of members Process of In uencing occurs at 4 levels I Intraindividual I Single subordinate dyadic I Team I Organization Chapter 2 Leadership is an important role requirement for managers and a major reason why managerial jobs exist I In uence via decision making One way in uence occurs is by making decisions especially decisions about objectives strategies procedures and resource allocation The nature of decisionmaking in managerial positions is often as shown here I Emotional amp intuition are often involved I Important decisions are disorderly and political I Routine decisions are numerous I Most planning is informal amp adaptive I Roles for managerial positions Chapter 3 Decision Making I Resource allocator I Disturbance handler I Entrepreneur I Negotiator Information Processing Roles I Disseminator I Monitor I Spokesperson Interpersonal Roles I Liaison I Figurehead I Direct Supervisor I Indirect Supervisor I 3 Categories of Leadership Behavior Taskoriented Relationsoriented Changeoriented I Task Oriented Behavior Assign work to groups or individuals Clarify what results are expected for a task Set specific goals and standards for task performance Direct and coordinate work activities Organize work activities to improve efficiency Explain rules policies and standard operating procedures Monitor operations and performance I Relationsoriented Provide support and encouragement to someone with a difficult task Express confidence that a person or group can perform a difficult task Socialize with people to build relationships Recognize contributions and accomplishments Provide coaching mentoring when appropriate I Consult with people on decisions affecting them I Allow people to determine best way to do a task I Inform people about actions affecting them I ChangeOriented I Monitor the external environment to detect threats and opportunities I Interpret events to explain the urgent need for change I Study outsiders to get ideas for improvements I Envision new possibilities for the organization I Encourage people to view problems or opportunities in a different way I Encourage and facilitate innovation and entrepreneurship in the organization Chapter 4 I Leading Change amp Innovation I One of the most important and difficult leadership responsibilities is to guide and facilitate the process of making a major change in an organization I You could be the designated leader of the organization I Or you could be a midlevel manager within the organization I Or you could be an entrylevel manager with a formal supervisory role I Or you could be an entrylevel employee with no formal supervisory role but lots of leadership desire and ability to help the organization be successful I Reasons for resistance to change I Lack of trust I Belief that change is unnecessary status quo is just fine for many people if it ain t broke don t fix it I Belief that the change is not feasible I Economic threats I Relative high cost I Fear of personal failure I Loss of status and powerin uence I Threat to values and ideals I Resentment of interference I Approaches to leading the change 39 Attitude I Role I Changes in Technology I Change in Competitive Strategy I Economic Change I Human Factor Change I Steps in implementing the change I Step 1 Identify and describe the change and don t forget to explain why the change is necessary Step 2 Determine who are sponsors agents and targets Step 3 Identify questions that must be answered if they are not already answered in step 1 Step 4 Uses multiple techniques and guidelines to implement the change I Guidelines to implementing change Chapter 5 Communicate the benefits to be gained by the change Create a sense of urgency Identify supporters opponents amp reason for resistance Build a broad coalition to support the change Use task forces to guide the implementation of changes Fill key positions with competent change agents Empower competent people to plan Implement the change Make dramatic symbolic changes that affect the work Explain to individuals how the change will affect them Help people deal with stress amp difficulties of change Provide opportunity for early success to build confidence Monitor progress and make changes as needed Demonstrate continued commitment to the change I Participative leader Making decisions is one of the most important functions performed by leaders Participative leadership involves a leader including others in making decisions The nature of participative leadership can be depicted by a spectrum Benefits of moving to the right of spectrum I Higher decision quality not always I Higher decision acceptance I Higher satisfaction with decision process and climate I Higher skill development of others I Participative Leadership guidelines Diagnose the decision situation I Evaluate how important the decision is I Identify people with relevant knowledge I Evaluate likely cooperation by participants I Evaluate likely acceptance without participation Encourage participation I Get people to express their concerns I Describe a proposal as tentative I Look for ways to build on ideas suggestions I Listen to opposing views don t be defensive I Delegation guidelines I can be done better by a subordinate I are urgent but not the highest priority I are relevant to a subordinate s career I are of appropriate difficulty I are both pleasant and unpleasant I are not central to the manager s role I The success of delegation depends as much on how it is carried out as on what is delegated I Specify responsibilities clearly I Provide adequate authority and specify limits I Ensure person understands accepts responsibility I Inform others who need to know I Avoid reverse delegation I Allow mistakes to be made Chapter 6 I Leadership Traits amp Skills I Extensive research has identified a series of traits and skills that are found in people who demonstrate effective leadership I Trait refers to aspects of personality temperament needs motives and values I Skill refers to the ability to do something in an effective manner Skills are determined by learning and heredity I Personality Traits I Personality traits are relatively stable dispositions to behave in a particular way I Selfconfidence I Extroversion I Emotional maturity I Energy level I Needs or Motives I Needs or motives are another type of trait that involves a desire for particular types of stimuli or experiences I Achievement I Esteem I Affiliation I Power I Independence I Values I Values are internalized attitudes about what is rightwrong ethical unethical moral immoral I Fairness and justice I Honesty I Freedom I Equality I Loyalty I Civility I Performance orientation excellence I Values are important they in uence a person s preferences perception of problems and choice of behavior I Traits related to leadership effectiveness I High energy level I Physical and mental I Physical stamina and vitality I Mental assertiveness not mentally lazy I Helps cope with hectic pace long hours unrelenting demands I High stress tolerance I Emotional resilience I Remaining calm and staying focused on what s important I Enables decision making without adequate information I Enables con ict resolution and satisfying incompatible needs made by different parties I Helps provide confident decisive direction to subordinates in a crisis I Internal locus of control orientation I Extent to which one believes that events in his her lives are determined more by their own actions than by chance or uncontrollable forces I Internals believe they control own destiny I Take responsibility for their own actions and the actions of their teams I More likely to proactively plan how to accomplish objectives I Take more initiative in finding and solving problems I Learn from failures rather than attribute to bad luckquot I Externals believe events are mostly by chance or fate and they can do little to affect outcomes I Emotional maturity Well adjustedquot with no psychological disorders I Selfawareness of strengths and weaknesses I Oriented toward selfimprovement rather than denying or downplaying weaknesses I Less selfcentered care about other people I Not prone to extreme mood swings amp anger outbursts I Less defensive receptive to criticism I Personal integrity I Behavior is consistent with espoused values I Honest ethical trustworthy I Strong indicator of integrity is whether a person is thoroughly truthful or deceptive I Another indicator is whether a person keeps their promises Power Motivation I Someone with a high need for power enjoys in uencing people and events and is more likely to seek a position requiring leadership Socialized Power Orientation I Strong need for power expressed by using in uence to build up organization and make it successful I More likely to use consult use teams delegate Personalized Power Orientation I Use power to satisfy need for status and self esteem I Seek to dominate subordinates and show selfworth I Rewards punishments are used to manipulate others Moderately low Need for Affiliation I Defined by the amount of satisfaction received from being liked and accepted by others I Also defined by the extent to which one has a need to work with people who are friendly and cooperative I Too much Need for Affiliation results in I Unwillingness to allow necessary work to interfere with harmonious relationships I Necessary but unpopular decisions don t get made I Skills amp Effective leadership Research shows there are four categories of skills related to the effectiveness of leaders I Technical skills I Interpersonal skills I Conceptual skills I Strategic management skills will discuss in chap 11 I Technical Skills Knowledge about methods processes and equipment for conducting activities of the work center Factual knowledge about the organization structure rules and employees and its products and services Technical skills are gained through a combo of I Education I Training I Iob experience Especially important for entrepreneurs I Interpersonal skills Knowledge about human behavior amp group processes Understanding the feelings and motives of others The ability to communicate clearly amp persuasively Empathy charm diplomacy persuasiveness cooperativeness and social insight I Selfmonitoring or selfawareness taking cues from others to understand one s own behavior and its effects on others I Conceptual Skills I Iudgment foresight creativity and the ability to find meaning and order in ambiguous scenarios I Analytical thinking logic concept formation all of which can be measured by aptitude tests I Identifying patterns and understand complex relationships I The ability to develop creative solutions to problems I Conceptual skills are needed for I Effective planning organizing and problem solving I Emotional Intelligence I Emotions are strong feelings that demand attention they can affect behavior and conceptual and interpersonal skills I Anger fear sadness joy shame surprise etc I Emotional intelligence is the ability to I Recognize emotions in others I Recognize how someone is reacting to your emotions and behavior I Channel your own emotions into appropriate behavior I Be selfaware of how your emotions evolve and the implications of that I Accurately express your feelings to others with language and nonverbal communications I Guidelines for effective leadership I Learn about your strengths and weaknesses I Maintain high level of selfawareness I Identify and develop skills relevant for the future I Remember that a strength can become a weakness I Compensate for weaknesses Chapter 7 I Contingency theories describe how aspects of the leadership situation can alter a leader s in uence and effectiveness I Situational variables are conditions the leader is not able to change immediately I Characteristics of the work I Characteristics of the leader expertise traits I Characteristics of the subordinate needs values I Characteristics of the leadership position authority formal policies I How situations effect leadership I Sometimes the situational variable makes the outcome more favorable known as a leadership substitutequot I Example If subordinate has extensive training and experience the need for clarifying the tasks obj ectives and for coaching is reduced I Sometimes the situational variable in uences the leader s behavior known as demands constraints I Example Company policy requires bonuses paid when certain sales levels are achieved I Example Company culture strongly supports longerterm loyal employees and is suspicious of job hoppersquot I Sometimes the situation moderates the effects of the leader s behavior I Example The leader decides to pursue the path of coaching the subordinate What is a situation that would allow coaching to have greatest effect How about the least effect I Example The leader offers a pay raise if the worker agrees to work extra hours What is a situation that would moderate the effect of this enticement I Contingency leadership theories I PathGoal Theory I Leadership Substitute Theory I Situational Leadership Theory I LPC Contingency Model I Cognitive Resources Theory I Multiple Linkage Model I Path Goal Theory I Leaders motivate subordinates by in uencing their perceptions about the likely consequences of different levels of effort I Subordinates perform better when they I Have clear role expectations I Perceive that a high level of effort is needed to meet objectives I Are optimistic that they can achieve objectives I Perceive high performance will provide beneficial outcomes I Leadership Substitute Theory I Aspects of the situation make taskoriented behavior and relations oriented behavior redundant or ineffective I The characteristics of the subordinates task or organization serve as a substitute for leadership I Substitutes for taskoriented leadership I Highly structured repetitive tasks I Extensive rules and standard procedures I Extensive training experience for subordinates I Substitutes for relationsoriented leadership I Cohesive group team members support one another I Tasks are intrinsically satisfying and not stressful I Situational Leadership I The type of leadership behavior for a subordinate in various situations is based on the maturity of the subordinate I Maturity is defined by ability amp confidence to do a task I Low maturity subordinates require leaders to use substantial task oriented behavior I As maturity increases leaders decrease taskoriented and increase relationsoriented behavior I For high maturity subordinates leaders should use extensive delegation and only a limited amount of directive or supportive behavior I Least Preferred Theory I The situation moderates the effects of a leader s traits on performance and it is a function of what the leader s motive hierarchy is I Leader is inclined to have close personal relationships and act in considerate supportive manners High LPC I Leader is motivated by achieving tasks and objectives and will emphasize taskoriented behavior Low LPC I Relationship between LPC score and leadership effectiveness depends on three factors I Task structure leader position power quality of leader member relations I Low LPC leadership is most effective when I Tasks are highly structured the leader s position has substantial power and the relationship between leaders and members is good I Tasks are unstructured the leader s position is not recognized as powerful and the relationship between leaders and members is poor I High LOC leadership is most effective all other times I Cognitive Resource Theory I The performance of a leader s group is determined by the interaction of I The leader s intelligence and experience I The leader s directive behavior I The distribution of knowledge about the task I The amount of interpersonal stress I The amount and type of interpersonal stress affects the values of the other variables I Multiple Linkage Model I The performance of a group is determined by the interaction of I Task commitment of members I Ability and role clarity of members I Organization of work efficient use of people equipment and facilities I Cooperation and mutual trust I Resources and support I External coordination I Deficiency in one variable could trump all others


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