Lecture notes 4-9 - Weather and Climate
Lecture notes 4-9 - Weather and Climate geography 104
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Longmire on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to geography 104 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by dr. Andy reese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see weather and climate in Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Study Guide for Dr Reese s Weather and Climate Test 2 Lecture 4 Atmospheric Temperature Troposphere lowermost division 0 Surface to 18km 11mi Equatorial variable 90 mass of atmosphere Temperatures decrease with height Normal lapse rate average cooling at rate of 64 degrees CKM 35F1000Ft 0 Environmental lapse rate Actual local lapse rate Stratosphere next level up 0 1850KM 1131mi o Temperatures increase with height 0 Role of ozone Mesosphere not much happening 0 5080KM 3050mi o Comprises 00999 0 Temperature decreases with height 0 Heating near the base of this layer due to ozone dissipates with height Thermosphere highest level up 0 Roughly same as heterosphere 80KM 50mi outwards Temperature increases with height Over 1500 degrees C in some instances misleading Comprises 00001 0000 00000 Temperature Transition Zones Tropopa use Stratopa use Mesopa use Atmospheric Function lonosphere Absorbs cosmic rays gamma rays xrays some UV rays 0 From stratopause outwards The shorter the wavelength the quicker you hit something in the atmosphere The longer the wavelength the slower you hit something in the atmosphere 0 D E F Layers Don39t need to know anything about this for the test 0 AM vs FM radio AM re ects off of the Flayer Turn to AM 650 in car and nothing but static 1030 AM Same station tonight would be crystal clear Ozonosphere Part of stratosphere Ozone absorbs UV energy and converts it to heat energy Ozone cycle Ozone hole BAS 1973 British Antartic Survey CFC39s chloro uorocarbons Do not react in troposphere Break down in stratosphere releasing C1 C1ozone C10oxygen compete for 0 C100gt C1oxygen Energy TransferRadiation Exchanges 0 Radiation Transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves 0 Most important factor in uencing weather and climate solar radiation 0 Unequal heating of the earth s surface 0 Winds 0 Energy wants to be balanced Lightheatenergy Wherever you have temperature differences you have pressure differences Mechanisms of Energy Transfer 1 Conduction the moleculeto molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance 0 Ex heat transfer from butt gt seat Vibrations speed of molecules increase Collisions with neighboring molecules cause transfer of this energy Higher temperatures gt lower temperatures All states are able to transfer heat this way depending on the material 0 Ex boundary layer heating soils hot always goes to cold no matter what he may try to trick us on test about this 2 Convection transfer of heat by the bodily movement of a uid Liquid or gas Convection vs advection Vertical vs horizontal Warmgtgt Cold Densegtgt Less Dense Ex atmospheric and oceanic circulation The bigger the temperature difference the faster the ow Ex grabbing a hot pot off of the stove and getting burned Latent and Sensible Heating Sensible heat when energy added to a substance is used to increase the temperature 0 Heat you can feel Amound of temperature increase depends on 1 The amount of energy added 2 And the speci c heat of the substance Ex 4190jKg water vs soil With 4190jKg Water1 degrees and Soil524 degrees If given the choice between latent and sensible heating the earth will latent rst Land heats up quicker than water Latent heating when the energy added to a substance is used to change its state Solidgtgt liquid or gas Liquidgtgt gas Water is most important in meteorology Ex why you sweat Radiation transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves 0 All bodies with temperaturesgt 273 degrees C emit energy via electromagnetic radiation 0 Energy travels in waves 0 Different types of energy different wavelengths Radiation laws StefanBoltzmann s Law 0 Tells the full spectrum emittance of a body 0 How much energy intensity in watts o The sole factor determining this is temperature 0 Constant is 00000000567 wmquot2 o Doubling temperature 16x increase in emissions Wien39s Law pronounced like veen o Tells the wavelength of peak emission o What wavelength does the sun emit the most of Sun in Kelvin s is about 6000 degrees 289760004828 Then go back to spectrum chart and nd that 4828 to nd the answer Blue lights is the answer The sun emits blue light the most What happens to solar radiant energy SRE in the atmosphere 0 Absorption radiant energy is converted to internal energy Scattering energy is scattered in all directions weaker however wavelength doesn39t change 0 Rayleigh scattering air molecules 0 Preferential to shorter wavelengths 0 Why the slq is blue 0 Mie scattering aerosols more aerosols than air molecules Larger particles no preference to wavelengths Scatters the entire spectrum Haze Ex when you ngerpaint and mix all those colors together and get a nasty color 0 scattering happens in all directions 0000 After the sun sets those wavelengths have to travel a longer distance 0 Re ection change in direction of radiant energy without being absorbed or performing any work 0 31 of incoming radiation is lost to re ection o Atmospheric o Clouds 0 Earth Albedo the re ective quality of a surface 0 Albedo value what of light is re ected 0 Snow white 90 0 Road black 5 That39s why they make the roads black because black re ects less than white We would be blinded if the roads were white because it re ects so much 0 Transmission ability of a medium atmosphere to allow radiation to pass through it 0 Rays directly hitting the earth with no alteration Depends on conditions 0 Clear unpolluted day possibly 80 o Hazy day maybe 0 o On average 25 CAVU ceiling and visibility unlimited Refraction When EMR enters the atmosphere it literally goes from empty space to hitting the gases and aerosols of the atmosphere 0 When this happens the waves lose speed and change angles bend Refraction Sunatmosphere Rainbow Mirage differences in air 0 0 Lecture 6 Superior mirage Inferior mirage The Energy Balance Where does EMR go once it enters the atmosphere EMR Electromagnetic radiation Works just like a checkbook shortwave down shortwave up longwave down longwave up Net Radiation Q 0 Earth receives shortwave radiation from the sun 0 Earth emits longwave radiation to the atmosphere Shortwave balance 0 0000000 0 21 re ected off cloud tops 15 8590 24 absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 7 scattered by atmosphere back to space 3 re ected off surface to space 20 scattered by atmosphere to earth diffuse radiation 25 Direct Radiation to the surface Total SW energy that reaches surface 45 Average planetary albedo31 Average surface albedo3 Longwave Balance 0 Important Factors in uencing LW balance 0 O O 0 Greenhouse effect Glass transmits SW radiation Glass traps LW Only energy loss is through conduction through the glass Glass is a super low liquid and allows SW radiation to come in However in the atmosphere LW radiation escaping earth is preferentially absorbed by 0 Carbon dioxide water vapor CH4 N20 CFC39s 0 Unlike a true greenhouse the LW is not trapped inde nitely however it is delayed Longwave Balance 0 Surface Balance 0 96 emitted from atmosphere to earth 45 from SW 0 9645141 units absorbed by surface 110 LW emitted to atmosphere WITYgt100 8 emitted to space 19 used in latent heating turbulent mixing 4 used in convection turbulent mixing 1108194141 Perfect OOOOO Atmospheric Balance Atmosphere has already reradiated its 96 units to earth Everything else is eventually lost to space A total of 69 units of LW are lost to space Works just like a checkbook SWDSWULWDLWUNet RQ 1003196165 a Net R Q of 0 9641108213165 Bowen Ratio 0 The ratio of sensible heating to latent heating at a given place at a given time 0 Warm dry places BR Bowen Ratio sensiblelatent Las Vegas 0 Tropical Oceanic Areas low BR Bowen Ratio Amazonia 0 fractions are wet whole 5 are dry Daily Variations to Energy Balances Surplus Net R Warmest time of the say occurs with maximum energy absorption not input LAG Phase changes of water 0 Moving left to right warming absorbs energy 0 Cools the surrounding environment 0 Moving right to left cooling releases energy 0 Warms surrounding environment A hurricane just wants to condense water Absorptionrelease of energy in phase changes of water 0 Energy absorbed cools surrounding environment 0 Liquid water to water vapor Energy is used to convert water to water vapor not heat the surrounding environment Sensible heating when energy is absorbed to heat a surface earth there is less energy to heat surrounding environment 0 Energy released warms surrounding environment 0 Water vapor to liquid water 0 When water vapor cools and condenses to form rain energy is released to surrounding environment Sensible heat 0 Earth stores heat 0 When earth cools it releases heat however it warms the atmosphere around it Lecture 7 Temperature measure of the average kinetic energy motion of individual molecules of matter Heat a form of energy that ows from one system or object to another because of temperature differences Heat Energy Energy heat that is added or removed from a system or object Ex Jumping into a cold pool lose heat energy Temperature scales Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit English System 0 Worst of all three 0 Named for Daniel G Fahrenheit German Physicist 0 Based on the coldest temperature he could achieve in his lab 0 degrees Fehreinheit AND the temperature of the human body around 100 So melting point of ice32 degrees Boiling point of water212 degrees at sea level Arbitrary You cannot do math with the Fahrenheit scale Why melting point not freezing point All Ice melts at 32 degrees but freezes at different temperatures Celsius or centigrade o Named after Anders Celsius Swedish Astronomer 0 Better but still an arbitrary zero 0 Melting point of ice0 degrees 0 Boiling point of water100 degrees 0 Divided scale into 100 degrees using a decimal system Completely arbitrary nos math allowed 0 Kelvin scale SI 0 Best of the systems 0 Named for Lord Kelvin A British Physicist o 0 Degrees Kelvin is quotAbsolute Zeroquot Starts here 0 Increases proportional to the actual kinetic movement in an object 0 Absolute Zero Temperature at which all atomic and molecular movements stops Absolute zero has never been proven but we know it exists 0 Why is there no true quotAbsolute Zeroquot 0 ln Kelvins o Melting point of ice is 273K 0 Boiling point of water is 373K Conversions Degrees C59DegF32 Degrees F95degC32 K degreesDegC273 What is 129degF in K Temperature Terms 0 Mean Daily Temperature MaximumMinimum2 4 Landwater Heating Differences Temperatures on land are more extreme than temps on or near water The Principle of Continentality Result of continentality wide temperature ranges look for a map showing continentality Annual cycle of temperature 0 Just like the daily temperature trend lags behind the radiation trend by three hours 0 Annual temperature trend lags behind radiation trend by 0 1 month or so over land 0 23 months over water 0 Why Wind Chill 0 Wind chill factor indicates the enhanced rate at which body heat is lost to the air 1 Wind chill factor increases with Increased wind speed Decreased temperature 2 READ PAGES 135137 Heat Index 0 Indicates body s reaction to air temperature and water vapor humidity Look up a relative humidity graphchart Lecture 8 Pressure and Winds Wherever you have temp differences you have pressure differences And wherever you have pressure differences you have ow Keys to atmospheric motion 1 Pressure Gradient Force 2 Coriolis Effect 3 Friction 4 Gravity Wind moving air caused by the unequal heating of the earth s surface and atmosphere 1 Earth39s energy and heat wants to be balanced Transports atmospheric properties 1 Ex Arctic Blasts From Canada in the winter time 0 Differences in Pressure is what forces air to move 0 Pressure Unit Force per unit area 1 Ex weight of atmosphere per unit area 0 Remember that Gravity 1 Compresses air making it denser near the surface 2 Pressure decreases rapidly with increasing altitude Measuring Pressure 1 Mercury Barometer Invented by Evangelista Torricelli 1643 this is a man not a woman Simple Device 1 Reported in millibars lbs per square inch 1cm 1332 mb or 1inch 3387 mb Barometric Pressure is based on o The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level 0 1013 mb lsobar is a line of constant pressure 0 Just like isotherm but with pressure The Pressure Gradient Force 0 Pressure Gradient 0 Change in pressure with horizontal distance 0 Properties 0 Flow always goes from High Pressure to Low Pressure at right angles to the isobars o If the pressure differences are strong the winds with be strong Circulations Produced by the PGF 0 Sea Breeze or Lake Breeze daytime VS 0 Land Breeze nighttime High Temps Low Pressure Rising Air Low Temps High Pressure Sinking Air 0 Valley Breeze or Anabatic Wind day 0 Mountains 0 Upslope Monsoons 0 Just a largescale landsea breeze o Siberian High strong in winter over central Asia because it is so cold 0 Summertime Central Asia warms quickly the Siberian High dissipates Result Monsoon Many people die by the tens of thousands because of this monsoon The Coriolis Effect 0 The de ective force resulting from the Earth39s rotation o De ects moving air to the RIGHT in the NH 0 De ects moving air to the LEFT in the SH Effects on the PGF Coriolis always fully manipulates pressure gradient force ALWAYS Causes the Gradient Wind or Geostrophic Wind 0 Because of Coriolis de ects the PGF to the right 0 Upperair ows parallel to the isobars Coriolis Effect is greatest at the Poles 0 NO Coriolis Effect at the Equator WHY 0 Around the equator is the fattest part of the earth Think of an ice skater coming to make a turn When she has her arms out she doesn39t spin very fast but when she puts her arms closer to herself she spins faster and faster Nearsurface Winds Upperair has nothing to impede the Coriolis Effect 0 Coriolis is allowed to turn the ow parallel to the isobars However near the surface is the 0 Friction 0 Friction drag slows down wind and therefore weakens the Coriolis Effect 0 Coriolis isn39t allowed to turn the winds completely parallel to the isobars Putting it all together Cyclones low pressure and Anticyclones high pressure 0 In the UpperAtmosphere 0 NO FRICTION We are in the upper atmosphere Lower Atmosphere Effects of FRICTION True Geostrophic FIow cannot exist near the surface 50 On the surface 0 Around High Pressure anticycIones air ows in an outward spiraI across the isobars 0 Friction doesn39t allow parallel or geostrophic ow 0 Around Low Pressure cyclones air ows in an inward spiraI across the isobars Other Forces CentripetaI Force 0 Pus objects toward the center of a curvature o This force helps explain the curved ow of air near the ground with friction Once motion has been started by Coriolis Geographic flow goes over High and under Low Know hemisphere high and low of atmosphere and winds Lecture 9 General Circulation of the Atmosphere 0 Large time scales 0 Large space scales 0 Purpose of general circulation o The earth wants to be balanced This is the earths way of taking cold air to make it warm air and warm air to make it cold 0 Characteristics of the earth s general atmospheric circulation are set up by 0 ROTATION Most important If the Earth did not spin one circulation cell Warm air would rise at the equator creating low pressure at the surface 0 Cold denser air would sink near the poles creating High pressure at the surface Resu North to South winds NH South to North winds SH meridional winds However the Earth does spin so what happens to the one circulation cell theory 0 Earth spinning west to east 0 Newton39s 1St and 2nCI C of AM Aka Coriolis Don39t need to know this bullet 0 Air would move east to west at same rate 0 Cancel each other out o All wind would stop in an estimated 1014 days 0 Defeats the purpose Wind is named from the direction it is coming from 0 So the Earth does rotate and we must adhere to the laws of physics 0 This produces 3 circulation cells per hemisphere Hadley Cell Ferrel Cell and Polar Cell 0 The ITCZ o Intertropical convergence zone 1 Air rises at equator 2 Thermallyinduced low pressure at surface 3 Air converges toward the low and rises Belt of low pressure due to all of those hot temperatures at the equator ITCZ intertropical convergent zone 0 CE de ects the winds on their way toward the ITCZ RESULTING in the Trade Winds o Easterly winds 0 Center of ITCZ Doldrums o Calm winds 0 Bad news for sailors Subtropical Highs By the time air rises at the equator and starts to move poleward 0 Around 2530 degrees N and S it wants to sink 0 Why 1 Air is cooling 2 Conservation of angular momentum Coriolis Not making any more progress Horse Latitudes Subtropical Highs semipermanent o Are strongest in summer over oceans 0 Why 0 Bermuda High 0 Paci c or Hawaiian High Creates the Hadley Cell Circulation Equator to approx 2530 degrees N and S 0 Implications of Hadley Cell circulation o Rainforest Climates In uenced by ITCZ all year 0 Subtropical Desert Climates In uenced by STH39s all year Hadley cells shift with the direct rays of the sun 0 Tropical WetDry or Savanna Climates are produced by the alternating in uence of the ITCZ for part of the year and the STH for the other part 0 Ex Sahel region of Africa Grasslands with intermittent trees that never form a dense stand
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