Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide PSYC 3230
Popular in Introduction to Abnormal Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dallas Knox on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3230 at University of Georgia taught by Blount in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
Reviews for Test 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/06/15
Study Guide for Test 2 0 Anxiety is a broad category has been changed in the DSM V into three categories 0 0CD o PTSD o Other 0 Key Aspects of Anxiety 0 1 Anxiety is aversive noxious and unpleasant We don39t like to be around aversive things so we move from them 2lt is disruptive D disrupts our lives 0 Has cognitive emotional physiologicalbiological and behavioral aspects 0 We can39t per say cure anxiety but we can help the things which cause and effect it We look for the thought or physiological func causing the anxiety 0 4 Point Model four vin diagram circles describing how cognitive phsiobio behavioral and emotional aspects are all included and not always in concert together 0 Shuttle Box 0 CSlight has become associated with the shocking which was the US 0 O 0 Type of NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT 0 Starts jumping faster and faster and faster 0 Starts jumping when the light comes on because they are anticipating the shock o Escaping and avoiding anxiety 0 Anxiety motivates our behavior 0 Then take away the shock and leave the light to observe the behavior 0 If we don39t tell the guy he will continue and continue to jump Fear 0 Rational apprehension D immediate response to danger present oriented Anxiety 0 Negative mood state characterized by physical tension worry and apprehension about the future Phobia marked noticeable fear or anxiety about a speci c situation or object o Expose to fear almost always provokes immediate anxiety and fear 0 This leads to escape or avoidance 0 Fear or anxiety is irrational in that it does not match the objective dangers of the situation 0 Question What are people afraid of o 5 Major Categories of Phobias o 1Animas D wasps sharks spiders birds 0 2 Natural environment D Fire heights bad weather dark deep water tsunamis o 3Situation D small closed spaces elevators driving ying o 4 BloodInjury Injection D BII Phobias blood drawn shots blood needle prick medical channel on TV ppl will faint from heart beat rising then dropping quickly don39t tense up like the other ones 75 of ppl with this faint Tends to run in families so 65 chance Strong hereditary component 0 5 OtherD Clowns mascots choking dying Phobia prevalence D 25 of population is diagnosed with a phobia Gender ratio D females are more likely to have a phobia familial factor for all phobias are high also 0 Ways of acquiring a phobia o Theories of Developmental Phobias o 1 Direct Exposure D 1 CC cassica conditioning 2 OH Mower s to Factor A CC B Negative Reinforcement o 2 Indirect Exposure D 1 Modeling child models parent39s fears Information transmission Seligman39s Preparedness Theory of Phobias 0 We are prepared or biologically hardwired to become afraid of particular stimuli 1 We are indeed more likely to be scared or afraid of certain things 2 We are that way because our ancestors are that way conjecturetheory of evolution Barlow s Triple Vulnerability Theory of Anxiety including Phobias o 1 And 2 Are Diathesis and 3 Is Stress o 1 Biological Vulnerability an inherited contribution toward negative affect anxietydepression or anxious responding o 2 A generalized psychological vulnerability l sense that things are uncontrollable unpredictable and dangerous Can be caused by Natural disaster to a child Divorced parents Deathabandonment Hospital for a very long time Unresponsive parenting over protective parenting over restrictive parenting o 3 Speci c Psychological Vulnerability D something more immediate and focused which challenges the other vulnerabilities QuestionSo how do we treat him Guy in the Shuttle Box U want him not to jump when the light comes on 0 We want to prevent the response ofjumping 0 Response we want to prevent is anxiety or escape response 0 Exposure and Response Prevention 0 Everything you do is under this 0 Gradual ways 1n vivo exposure or basically in the real world 0 Build a fear hierarchy which is kind of similar to shaping Used this in the snake video we watched 2 Systematic Desensitization A Teach them relaxation because you can39t be relaxed and tense at the same time B Fear Hierarchy C Expose them via imagination Maybe a caveat then expose him in the real world Example in case of violent crime or abuse 0 Treatment 0 00000 Gradua Approaches i in vivo exposure ii Systematic desensitization Flooding Most feared right away and see the stimulus directly Forceful strategy with very high anxiety Modeling induce and reduce phobias Dshow a person playing with a dog Technical Virtual reality star trek l more interactive with video goggles What is the difference between video goggles and virtual reality Treatment works by two ingredients Exposure and Response Was the video a kind or unkind experiment Kind Exposure therapy Is it cruel When everything is decided by the patient then no Challenged but not forced Snake challenge video was gradual exposure Modeling took place and he was encouraging her prompting telling her to look at it Audience accountability control of the situation Maintenance 200 park nature documentary spontaneous recovery check make sure fear didn39t come back NOT CRUEL because they have the control and the options 0 Separation Anxiety Disorder SAD O Developmentally inappropriate and escessive fear or anxiety concerning separation from those to whom the individual is attached Kids separated from parents Equally common in boys and girls as children adults can have it also though 80 to 90 comorbidity D another anxiety or mood disorder Losing separated lost from parent School refusal because mom isn39t with you Hard to go back once you39ve been out of school for a while Events which don39t help SAD new school buy ong vacations or iHness Outgrowing quot Most people cease to be diagnosablequot Outgrowth this and develop a new disorder such as Social Anxiety Disorder Barlow s triple anxiety model Panic Attacks Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia O 0 Panic attacks are not diagnosable conditions they are more like having a fever but being diagnosed with the Flu a fever is a side effect Panic attacks are common in many disorders Panic Attacks 0 0 They are an abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort that reaches a peak with minutes What are physical symptoms Fast breathing fast heart rate shaking sweating rapid and shallow breathing Thinking bad thoughts and want to leave want to leave from the place you are in Common with anxiety disorders but are in many other disorders Panic Disorder 0 O O 45 of the population have them D recurrent and unexpected panic attacks followed by persistent concern about having another Maladaptive behavior deveop a high background level of stress Mitral valve prolapse between the atrium and the ventricle l blood is let back into the brain and acts like they are having a panic attack This can be treated by Beta blockers 25x more common in women than in men Begins around adolescence to mid305 Seems to have a genetic component People are 47 more likely to have it if they are related to someone with it parents Agoraphobia O O O O 2 Types 1 with panic disorder 95 of ppl or 2 without panic disorder 5 with panic like symptoms Common sense of this on the street De nition anxiety about being in or more placessituations from which escape might be dif cult or not available help might not be available in the event of having a panic attack or panic like symptoms Subway meeting social conseq talking at a national convention being on a bridge can be braver and stronger if someone was with you Anxiety leads to large pervasive avoidance Things life39s functions could be messed with because you could have a panic attack Example driving in Atlanta Expected or unexpected panic attacks Question why do panic attacks spread in the situations they occur O 0000 Mall Downtown Headed home Noise characteristic Generalization Large groups of people Crowded spaces Physiology present in both locations Internal world can prompt you as well Sad thoughts lead to more sad thoughts External and Internal stimuli O O 0 Program common stimuli Heartrate is a common stimulus Developing fear from fear a que waiting for more fear or stimuli Treatment for Agoraphobia 0 Exposure and response prevention with want to prevent eeing Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 O 0 Essential featureDe nition Excessive worry and anxiety occurring more days than not for a period of at least 6 months about a number of events and activities Physical symptoms cognitive symptoms chronic muscle tensions dif culty sleeping irritability fatigue mental agitation What are they worrying about worry about and try to avoid neg conseq Of something little things lifelong pattern Prevalence about 4 of people and gender ratio is female to male 21 Causes correlated fats are Ppl with GAD tend to misperceive benign events interpret them as threatening Tend to have low perceived control 0 Feel out of control 0 Highly sensitive to a threat in general 0 Usually comorbid for something else too To get over the negative state you have to go through it Ppl use worrying as an escape or avoidance behavior Worry lets you avoid some deeper issue How does GAD t into the negative reinforcement paradigm Anxiety pond drawing normal person throws a rock in and it sinks but a person with GAD skips the rock so the anxiety never goes away but continues on the surface worry Al worry B D worry C Older vs newer understanding Therapy Acceptance therapy accept something and willing to stay in that place Meds can help but relapse is really bad or high when you come off of them PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 0 Includes PTSD and ASD Acute stress disorder and several others we didn39t cover ASD and PTSD are the same thing but differ in length of time symptoms have been present ASDlj time period it re ects is at least 3 days to 1 month Ppl which sow extreme stress reaction immediately after trauma but don39t let meet criteria for PTSD PTSD beyond one month of symptoms Generic description essential feature of ASDPTSD Development of characteristic anxiety intrusive symptoms reexperiencing dissociative and other symptoms 5 Criteria for diagnosis they are all important but 1 2 and 3 are most characteristic Core Factors criteria 1 Exposure to trauma 2 Intrusive symptoms reexperiencing 3 Persistent avoidance 4 Negative mood and beliefs about self and others 5 HyperarousalHypervigilance Most important factor related to development of PTSD Trauma 2 Factors severity and proximity Additional predisposing factors correlated w developing it Being female Early separation from parents Family history of a mental disorder Tendency to take responsibility for an event 0 For example if I hadn39t booked this vacation this problem wouldn39t have happened Focusing on emotions rather than the problem itself Course of Disorder ASD 60 get better 40 develop PTSD In war soldiers committed to a cause so less likely to develop PTSD they see the meaning in the suffering High level of social support helps Prevalence Of both PTSD and ASD are 7 of ppl and 90 of combat victims in women D more likely to be sexual assault related Obsessive Compulsive Disorder OCD O Recurrent obsessions and compulsions that are extreme and time consuming or cause marked distress and frequent impairment What are obsessions lPersistent ideas thoughts images or impulses that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and cause marked anxiety and distress Examples cleanliness orderliness uncertainty Did I turn off the stove Although you checked a ton of times What are compulsions Over behavior repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels compelled to do in response to obsessions the goal of which is to decrease anxiety 0 Examples washing hands repeatedly applying deodorant 20x turning the light on and off 0 Most common is checking the stove or door or light and etc o What is the relationship between anxiety level and obsessions Compulsions Compulsions dec anxiety Obsessions inc anxiety 0 Comorbidities Another anxiety disorder or a mood disorder depression are most freq comorbidities Lifetime prevalence rate of 25 0 Treatment of choice D exposure The other examples in this new diagnostic grouping are either moved from other disorders or new diagnoses OCD and Tourette s o Tourette s promontory urges 0 People with Tourette s have a 35 to 50 chance of having 0CD but ppl with 0CD have a small chance of Tourette s 0 quot0CD is the bomb and Tourette s is the falloutquot 0 Exposure vs Response Prevention Dirty hands Not checking Reinforce pos change in behavior 0 Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD o Preoccupation with an imagined or over exaggerated defect in appearance that are not observable or appear to be minor to others 0 What are people likely to not like l nose ears bellies arms thighs calves lips chin neck knees breasts butt abs 0 They will also check out the offensive part all the time but it will only usually build dissatisfaction 0 Avoid social situations because they do not feel con dent 0 Question who do they go to for help Psychologist of psychiatrist Models M Jackson they just can39t stop so they have more and more surgeries 0 Course is continuous with freedom from sympotms periods 9 small pe ods o Suicide is an issue with this 0 Other Disorders in this category are Hoarding disorder Tricolomania hair pulling picking at your skin ExperientialAvoidance o Phenomenon which occurs when a person is unwilling to remain in contact with particular private experiences including bodily sensations emotions thoughts memories and behavioral predispositions and takes steps to alter these events or things in contexts which prompt or occasion them O 0 Examples PTSD 0CD Substance Abuse Anxiety all t under this and more Everything we have studied since the last exam is a part of experiential avoidance They mad do painful things to escape worse pains Teach people not to do these things and teach them to be in a place and be able to tolerate it Mood Disorders and Suicide 0 Mania and depression Too high a mood or too low a mood Major Depressive Disorder O 0000 Need 5 or more symptoms of depression during the same 2 week penod At least one of the symptoms has to be depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities Notjust a bad day but a bad 2 weeks Symptoms 1 Depressed mood all day everyday leven a depressed person will have uctuations 2 Loss of interestpleasure in all activities D exercise social stuff ice cream D anhedonialjpleasure seeking is gone 3 Weight uctuations D could be either 5 gain or loss ljemotional eater 4 Sleep changeexcessive sleeping interrupted sleep TV watching late or just staring for a long time People being slow or fast loverall movement changes speed Fatigue or loss of energy nearly everyday Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt Diminished ability to concentrate or indecisive everyday Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation There is both commonality and differences in people who are diagnosed Gender D more women than mean are diagnosed with MDD this goes for adolescents also Age 1843 years Lifetime prevalence rate 16 so this is pretty common Onset highest in medearly 205 Race more common in whites than in minorities l may be greater ethnic identity in other groups ght against depression helps with groupsD causation D no central support and more individualization Maybe Religion African americans and Hispanics have better church attendance Less trugle beacuae they tell them not to worry Community 2 really race and religion Comorbidity Disorders Depression Anxiety or reverse Anxiety will usually come rst anyways I LOWNOWU39I 0 Course of Episodes Episode 1 D 5060 more likely to have another Episode 2 l 70 more likely to have another Episode 3 D 90 more likely to have another 0 Thing which prompted the 1St still there Genetic predisposition Change is constrained by prior adaptation 0 1st year after MDD 40 still have symptoms and are diagnosable 20 symptoms but not diagnosable 40 symptom free 0 Genetic Contribution MDD is 153x more likely among 1St degree biological relatives than in the genre population 0 Years Lost D WHO or World Health Organizationl global burden disease from WHO ranks depression 4th in daily adjusted like years lost 0 Persistent Depressive Disorder 0 Depressed mood has to be present most of the day for more days than not for at least 2 years 1 Persistent MDD 2 Dysthymic Disorder D low mood nearly every day but reaches low of MDD don39t meet MDD diagnosis Premenstrual Dysmorphic Disorder 0 38 of women and its like bad PMS Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder 0 Severe recurrent temper outburst that occurs a few times a week 618 year old adolescents Girls who cry guys who punch a wall Behind outburst we assume a mood condition Not uncommon for children now to be bipolar If you buy these notes email me at daknoxugaedu to be sent the rest
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'