Study Guide For Ch. 4-7
Study Guide For Ch. 4-7 PSY 100
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jlyon on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Mark T Mirabito (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at State University of New York at Oswego.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Intro to Psychology Study Guide Ch 47 Chapter 4 Nature of Consciousness Your awareness of yourself and your surroundings LThe study of consciousness focusses on L Sleep b Altered waking states meditation hypnosis cPsychoactive drug effects moodperception Sleep Circadian Rhythm Biological Clock that is about 25 hours and can be adjusted 2 hours Any change in time zone more than that leaves this unbalanced The pineal gland secretes hormones melatonin that causes drowsiness more so at night 1 Stages of sleep a NR1 Half asleep or drifting off but you still have posture Theta waves begin to appear b NR2 Wham posture incoherent Spindles start to appear and K complex c NR3 Delta waves appear This is the least active stage Parasomnia 9 happens in this stage walkingeatingtalking in your sleep Need these for physical rest and memory consolidation 1 REM Dreaming sleep Paradoxical sleep BPM goes up mind is active but the body is paralyzed Need for mental rest and storingcataloging memories Dreams and Theories Dreams are semi logicalsemi illogical Everyone dreams some people lucid dream 1 Freudian Theories a All dreams are wishful fulfillment disguised as symbols b Manifest Content is the story seen by dreamer Latent Content is the hidden meaning NeoFreudians Dreams are attempts to deal with wishes guilt fears and other emotions Synthesis Theory HobsonMcCarley Theory Dreams mean nothing they re merely random bursts of electricity that came from primitiye parts of the brain When they reach the cortex our brain tries to make a story out of it The Working Theories Eliminate unnecessary memories Reinforces important memories Think about thingsproblems Sleep Disorders Insomnia a Onset Cannot fall asleep when you first go to bed takes over 20min to fall asleep always b Maintenance Wake up or frequently toss and turn while half asleep or wake up to early 0 Risk Factors Age 60 lower melatonin Genetics Gender woman have insomnia more Stress anxietydepression Inconsistent sleep schedule Caffeine less than 5 hours before bed Alcohol less than 6 hours before bed Sedentary lifestyle Maybe 90999 5 9 Pt 9 Over energized brain Esp children How to help it Reduce stress Consistent sleep schedule Regular exercise Meditation Don t live in your bed Avoid caffeinealcohol Medication maybe last resort 999P Ni Hypnosis and trancelike states These are changes in activity of certain parts of the brain amygdala cortex Probably involves an increase in GABA or endorphins calming neurotransmitters They need to be initiated by hypnosis or a mantra repeated word Changes 0 Perception 0 Memory 0 Behavior Allows some people to exert voluntary control over normally involuntary processes heart rate blood pressure and anxietydepression Stimulants Any drug that increases energy in the brain usually by an increase in dopanune General Effects Energy alert confident exhilaration Ex Caffeine cocaine crack and meth Depressants Any drug that decreases energy in the brain usually by increase GABA or endorphins Three Categories 0 Minor tranquilizers Benzo s Used for antianXiety XanaX and sleeping pills O Narcotic Opium based pain killers O Barbiturates Older depressants Putting people to sleep with no pain Hallucinogens Drugs that alter perception or euphoric effects Usually by altering serotonin EX LSD Ecstasy THC Chapter 5 Vocab Stimulus The outside thingevent that triggers a response ResponsePerson s reaction to stimulus Acquisition Learning of new response ExtinctionUnlearning of a previously conditions response Behaviorism John Watson Nurture Theory it began as an alternative to Freud s dark view of the human mind Watson s Principles 0 It s all nurture O Eugenics is pointless 0 Study only behavior Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Famous Experiment 0 Hypothesis Rate of ow is increased when food in mouth 0 Dog drooled faster when seeing food or Pavlov because he fed him OUnconditioned stimulus is the food and faster drooling due to food 0 Conditioned stimulus is the bell he used to signal food Russian psychologist lSt person to study stimulus response theory O Conditioned response is the faster drooling while hearing the bell Human Applications of Classical Conditioning L L Phobias Unconditioned stimulus dog bitewitnessing a dog bite Taste AversionsUnconditioned stimuli that make you sick still assoc pizza with nausea even if it wasn t the pizza that made you sick Operant Conditioning Conditioning of voluntary behavior skeletal muscles BF Skmner He wanted to use operant conditioning to create a utopian society Reinforcement Stimulus that increases the chance of a response 0 PositiveReward for correct behavior ONegativeCorrect behavior allows person to avoid unpleasant stimulus Punishment Stimulus that decreases the chance of an unwanted response 0 Positive Unpleasant stimulus applied when unwanted response appears Negative Remove reward that is triggering the unwanted response Shaping Rewarding the correct response Chaining Rewarding a series of responses so that later on you can 0 only reward the last response Observation Learning Albert Bandura Much of human learning is social learning Learning by watchingimitating each other Three steps 0 Observe behavior and notice reward or unpunished 0 We think Do I want the reward and do I want it enough to give the response 0 We do or don t imitate behavior Landmark Experiment 0 Bobo Doll experiment 0 Children who watched others violently play with Bobo were very violent Those in control group were much less violent Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler Learning with no direct experience indirect YES Usually involves mental trial and error An aha moment answer comes suddenly Famous Experiment 0 Chimp s name was Sultan he was put in a room full of boxes and a banana hanging on a string from the ceiling O Sultan found that if he stacked the boxes he could reach the bananas so he did just that 0 They did another experiment with Sultan where they gave him sticks of different lengths in order to reach an apple Chapter 7 Concept Formation The human tendency to put things into groups because they seem similar in the same way Two Types 0 Logical Concept Has a core property or one characteristic necessary for an item to belong in the concept Ex a thief is a person who steals 0 Natural Concept We decide if the item belongs by comparing it to out prototype our perfect example 0 Ex Is bowling a sport In your head you d compare it to other sports to make a decision Problem Solving You re given complete info You look at it and think about it You find a solution Two types O Deductive Better more logical A trial and errorset or step formula that gives a correct answer ABC 0 Inductive Less logical A study that leads to a person assuming the outcome to another problem with similar relations EX Heuristics a mental short cut to answer in a hurry case studies and anecdotes Four Types of Heuristics 1 Availability Heuristic The first answer that we can think of and we assume is correct 2 Causality Heuristic If y follows X X must have caused y EX coaching sports 3 Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic If we see some estimate of numeric value we assume the correct answer is a percent 4 Affect Heuristic is a feeling such as fear pleasure or surprise occurring rapidly and involuntarily to a stimulus EX reading the words lung cancer Mental Roadblocks to Problem Solving 1 Confirmation Bias Tendency to remember evidence that supports your belief 2 Oversight Bias Tendency to forgetdisbelieve evidence that disagrees with your belief EX people thinking small classes are better when the study showed no difference 3 Framing To present info in a question in such a way as to lead the person to one answer rather than another EX Gun control laws Components of Language Linguistics LPhonemes Basic sound in any language EX th and w It s difficult to learn new phonemes after 1011 years of age LMorphemesSmallest units of speech that have a constant meaning EX ed s past tense Development of Language in Children 6 Months Babbling 9 Months Language specific babbling 12 Months Holophrastic speech one wordidea 24 Months Telegraphic speech Has a subject predicate and an object Car go home No articles of speechpropositions the this etc amp inWith Nature vs Nurture Debate Nature Theory that humans have neural hardware that other animals don t have that allows us to learn first language easily biological blueprints Nurture Gives accents and use of adjectives Intelligence Intelligence isn t agreed upon Most people see it as a combination of O Aptitude Natural ability to learn 0 Achievement Knowledge skills gained from experience But most official definitions are similar to aptitude Intelligence Testing 1 Aptitude Testing placement test taken by a cohort similar group before a common experience to predict performance SAT 2 Achievement Testing taken by cohort group after a common experience to measure What you learned Regents tests Alfred Bret developed the first aptitude test to identify kids with special needs
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