Chapter 7 Study Guide
Chapter 7 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 1007 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Once again, detailed but some questions could have more info; also some of the early questions aren't entirely answered. Thanks.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 7 CONFORMITY LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 7 1 Explain the process and purposes of mimicry Discuss the implications of mimicry for questions concerning the automaticity of social in uence pp 255256 It39s been found that babies mimic their parents Possible reasons for this are that being in sync with other people enables people to interact more smoothly with others and that people mimic others when they are motivated to affiliate if they are similar to others or they are feeling excluded The impulse to copy others is so automatic that people don39t realize they39re doing it That means that people can show effects of social influence even if they aren39t aware of any pressure on them to act a certain way 2 Define compare and contrast conformity compliance and obedience pp 257258 Conformity is when people change their perceptions opinions or behavior in ways to match the group without anyone asking them to make this change In comparison compliance is making the same changes when someone asks you to The strongest influence to change opinions and behavior is when an authority figure tells you to do so obedience 3 Compare normative and informational in uence Explain each in the context of Sherif s and Asch s studies and in relation to public and private conformity pp 258263 Normative influence is when conformity is produced for fear that they will be seen as weird or deviant unless they conform On the other hand informational influence is when people conform because they believe others are correct in their judgements opinions or behaviors Sherif39s experiment had participants sit in a dark room an estimate how far a light moved even though it was stationary They individually gave their estimates and then were asked again how much they thought the light moved but this time in a room with 2 other participants The more times they did the experiment the more the three participants agreed even though they weren39t asked to In this experiment participants likely started to agree with each other because they thought the others were correct informational influence since they weren39t really sure themselves The Asch experiment was where a participant sat in a room of confederates and was asked to pick which line was the same length as the standard line The confederates gave the wrong answer and the participant tended to conform with the group39s answer even though participants gave the right answer when they were asked individually This is most likely normative influence since the participant was afraid to look weird in front of the others though they likely knew the others were wrong 4 Discuss the relationship between research on ostracism and the concept of conformity pp 260261 Os rracism is rela red ro norma rive influence since people rend ro conform for fear of being os rracized or simply being seen as devian r Research showed rha r individuals who s rray from a group39s norm rend To be disliked rejec red ridiculed or ou rrigh r dismissed In con rrolled s rudies people who were socially os rracized reac r wi rh various rypes of emo rional dis rress feeling alone hur r angry and lacking in selfes reem The pressure To conform comes from an individual39s desire To avoid rhese unpleasan r feelings 5 Identify and explain each of the factors that have been shown to predict levels of conformity including group size awareness of norms having an ally age and gender Explain the relationship between culture and conformity pp 263271 In his experimen rs Asch found rha r conformi ry increased with group size but only up To a poin r When a group grows beyond 4 confedera res rhe amoun r of addi rional influence exer red was negligible Social norms also give rise to conformi ry when we know the norms and focus on them Knowing how o rhers are behaving in si rua rions is necessary for conformi ry bu r rhese norms will influence us only when they are brough r in ro our awareness Having an ally can decrease conformity in Asch39s experimen r the presence one a single confedera re that agreed with the parficipanf reduced conformi ry by almos r 80 Sex differences depend on how comfor rable the individual feels wi rh a par ricular rask rhere is no difference be rween genders on genderneu rral ques rions However when par ricipan rs rhink rhey39re being observed men rended to conform less and women rended to conform more Individuals in collec rivis r cul rures rend ro conform more rhan rhose in individualis r cul rures 6 Differentiate between majority and minority in uence Explain how to account for the effects of minority in uence and how majorities and minorities exert pressure to affect people s behaVior pp 263271 Minori ry is when nonconformis rs are able ro persuade o rhers To come around To their way of rhinking Majori ries are powerful by vir rue of their sheer numbers whereas nonconformis rs gain their power from the s ryle of their behavior no r wha r They say bu r how They say if A minori ry can exer r more pressure To affec r people39s behavior is They are forceful persis ren r and unwavering in suppor r for their posi rion However they mus r also appear flexible and openminded o rherwise they will simply be seen as s rubborn 7 Describe the ways in which the discourse of making requests affects compliance with reference to mindlessness Explain the role of the norm of reciprocity in such efforts to elicit compliance pp 271273 Ellen Langer 1989 found that the mind is of ren on au ropilo r we respond mindlessly ro words wi rhou r fully processing The informa rion They were supposed ro convey A mindless s ra re can make us vulnerable to compliance but if can also have To opposiTe effecT For39 example people walk posT people begging for39 money buT if They ask for39 someThing oTypicol Can I have sevenTeen cenTsquot Then They are more likely To comply This disr39upTion in The mindless pr39ocess Tends To cause more compliance The norm of r39ecipr39ociTy dicToTes ThoT we Tr39eoT oTher39s as They have Tr39eoTed us This leads us To feel obligoTed To r39epoy oTher39s for39 ocTs of kindness This norm is one of The reasons The differ39enT complionce Techniques work 8 Define and explain the sequential request strategies known as the footinthedoor technique lowballing the doorintheface technique and the that snotall technique Explain Why each works Address strategies for resisting these strategies pp 273278 FooTinThedoor39 is when you ask for39 someThing smoll fir39sT and Then ask for39 The real r39equesT once They have agreed To The fir39sT one This Technique works because people feel commiTTed due To The consisTency nor39m people wonT oTher39s To see Them os consisTenT insTeod of flipflopper39s DoorinThefoce is when someone asks for39 o loT and Then Takes a liTTle Fir39sT They ask for39 a large r39equesT and Then They are denied They ask for39 someThing smaller and more reasonable To The individual being per39suoded iT seems like They39r39e bor39goining wiTh you which causes you To feel like you need To r39ecipr39ocoTe IT also works because The conTr39osT of The exTr39eme r39equesT makes The second one seem more reasonable The ThoT39snoToll Technique is when someone r39equesTs someThing large and Then offers a beTTer39 deal This also works due To r39ecipr39ociTy ond conTr39osT people feel like you39re doing Them a favor by offering more Thon your39 fir39sT offer Ways To r39esisT These sTr39oTegies is To recognize a TocTic for39 whoT iT is and noT feel indebTed by The norms of r39ecipr39ociTy Knowing These Techniques are used is one of The besT ways To avoid folling vicTim To Them 9 Describe the procedures used in Milgram s research on obedience to authority Compare the predictions made about how participants would behave to What actually happened Summarize how each of the following predicted levels of obedience in the study participant characteristics e g gender personality authority gure characteristics e g prestige presence and proximity of victim pp 278284 STonley Miglr39om did on exper39imenT To find ouT mor39e obouT obedience To ouThor39iTy ofTer39 The owful Things ThoT people por39TicipoTed in during The Nazi39s r39ise To power39 The por39TiciponTs were asked To odminisTer39 increasingly high volToge shocks To onoTher39 por39TiciponT in The nexT r39oom Nobody was ocTuolly r39eceiving shocks buT The por39TiciponTs didn39T know ThoT becouse They could hear a man39s voice r39eocTing To The shocks As The shock volToge increased The man begon To beg for39 The por39TiciponT To sTop shocking him buT a researcher in a lab cooT Told The por39TiciponT ThoT he needed To conTinue deliver39ing shocks for39 The exper39imenT NOT a single person ThoughT They would go all The way up To The maximum level 450 volTs ond psychioTr39isTs esTimoTed ThoT only one ouT of a Thousand people would buT 65 of The por39TiciponTs did wiTh The ouThor39iTy figur39e Telling Them To conTinue However39 por39TiciponTs ThoT wer39en39T osked To conTinue on quiT eor39ly inTo The shock sequence The lobcooTed exper39imenTer39 didn39T even pose as powerful on ouThor39iTy figure as on employer coach or member of The mili rary When The experimen rer was replaced wi rh ano rher supposed parficipan r obedience was sharply reduced When people are physically separa red from The people They are hur ring They are able ro separa re fhemselves emo rionally from rhe consequences of rheir ac rions 10 Consider the applicability of the Milgram ndings to realworld events such as the Holocaust p 279 In WWII Nazi officials participated in rhe dea rhs of millions of Jews as well as Poles Russians gypsies and homosexuals When They were fried for Their crimes all of fhem said I was following ordersquot These Nazi officials were found To be uf rerly ordinaryquot and They weren39f awful people who believed in or celebra red Their mission as was previously rhough r Milgram39s experimen r showed rha r people who never rhoughf They were capable of adminisfering ex rreme pain were obedien r To an au rhori ry figure rha r prodded fhem To go on I r39s likely rha r The same Type of fhing happened To The Nazi officials 11 Compare the ndings of Milgram to more recent studies of obedience by Meeus and Raaijmakers 1995 and Gamson et al 1982 Explain the similarities and differences in the procedures and ndings of these studies compared to those of the Milgram study pp 284 288 The Du rch researchers conduc red a differen r bu r similar experimen r ro rhe one rha r Milgram did only ins read of asking par ricipan rs ro inflic r physical pain on someone They asked fhem ro cause psychological harm The par ricipanf was asked ro dis rrac r an individual who was a confedera re by making an escala ring series of harassing remarks while rhey Took a fes r rha r would supposedly decide whe rher or no r rhey landed a job The con rrol group which lacked a prodding experimen rer did no r persis r when rhe confedera re pleaded rhe par ricipan r ro s rop However jus r like in Milgram39s experimen r when par ricipan rs were ordered ro go on by an experimen rer 92 of Them exhibi red comple re obedience 12 Summarize social impact theory Identify the factors that in uence a source s strength immediacy and number and the aspects of the target that facilitate resistance Explain the relevance of this theory to conformity compliance and obedience pp 289291 Social impac r rheory sfafes rha r social influence of any kind The fo ral impac r of o rhers on a rarge r person is a func rion of ofhers s rreng rh immediacy and number The s rreng rh of a source is defermined by his or her sfafus abili ry or rheir relafionship To The fargef The s rronger The source The grea rer The influence They have on The fargef meaning rha r They are more likely ro conform comply or obey rhe source The immediacy refers ro a source39s proximi ry in fime and space ro rhe farge r An example would be rha r par ricipan rs in Milgram39s experimen r were more likely ro obey when rhe experimen rer gave commands in person rafher rhan from a remofe locafion The number jus r refers ro how many people make up The source People are more likely ro conform comply and obey a source The bigger The group of people is People are more likely ro resisf fhese rhings when social impac r is divided among s rr39ong rar39ge rs Jus r like we saw in class people fel r mor39e confor39fable singing in front of rhe class when rhey were in a group than rhe individual who was forced to sing alone Key Terms collectivism p 270 A cul rur39al orientation in which in rer39dependence cooperation and social har39mony rake priority over39 personal goals compliance p 271 Changes in behavior39 that are elici red by direct r39eques rs compar39ed ro confor39mi ry wher39e fher39e is no explici r r39eques r of The individual To change rheir39 behavior39 conformity p 257 The rendency to change our39 perceptions opinions or39 behavior39 in ways that are consis ren r with our39 group doorinthefaee technique p 276 A rwos rep compliance 39lechnique in which an influencer39 pr39efaces rhe r39eal reques r with one so large that if is rejected bu r makes The real r39eques r seem more reasonable in comparison footinthedoor technique p 273 A rwos rep compliance 39lechnique in which an influencer39 se rs rha r s rage for39 the real reques r by first ge r ring a person to comply wi rh a much smaller39 r39eques r fir39s r idiosyncrasy credits p 268 In rerpersonal cr edil S fha139 a person earns by following group norms individualism p 270 A cul rur39al orientation in which independence au ronomy and selfr39eliance fake pr39ior39i ry over39 gr39oup allegiances informational in uence p 260 Influence rha r produces confor39mi ry when a person believes ofher39s ar39e cor39r39ec r in Their judgemen rs lowballing p 275 A rwos rep compliance fechnique in which rhe influencer39 secur39es an agr39eemen r with a reques r bu r rhen increases the size of the reques r by revealing hidden cos rs minority in uence p 267 The process by which dissen rer39s someone who disagrees with rhe gr39oup opinion pr39oduce change within a group normative in uence p 260 Influence rha r pr39oduces confor39mi ry when a person fears the nega rive social consequences of appearing devian r obedience p 279 Behavior39 change produced by The commands on au rhor39i ry private conformity p 262 The change of beliefs rha r occurs when a person pr39iva rely accep rs rhe posi rion Taken by ofher39s public conformity p 262 A superficial change in over r behavior wi rhou r a corresponding change of opinion Thai is produced by real or imagined group pressure social impact theory p 289 The Theory ThaT social influence depends on The sTrengTh immediacy and number of source persons relaTive To TargeT persons that snotall technique p 276 A Twos rep compliance Technique in which The influencer begins wi rh an infla red requesT Then decreases i rs apparenT size by offering a discounT or bonus Sample Multiple Choice Questions keyed to each Learning Objective 1 The tendency to unconsciously mimic the nonverbal behavior of others is called a reciprocation wariness b pluralistic ignorance c the ally effect d the chameleon effect ANS D REF Social In uences as quotAutomaticquot OBJ 1 KEY Factual 2 According to research by Emily Pronin and others 2007 which of the following explains why people perceive others to be more conforming than themselves a People are poor judges of others motivations b People tend to judge others by their overt behavior while judging themselves by focusing inward c People judge themselves in the same way that that they judge others d People judge others by asking them about their inner thought processes ANS B REF Conformity OBJ 2 KEY Factual 3 In comparison to obedience and compliance conformity a involves less direct pressure from others b occurs only in response to the behavior of a group of others c requires the physical presence of at least one other person d is more likely to produce destructive behaviors ANS A REF Conformity OBJ 2 KEY Conceptual 4 Sherif 1936 asked groups of participants to estimate the distance moved by a point of light He found that a participants were more accurate when they were alone than when they were in groups b participants were more accurate in groups than when they were alone c as the study progressed the participants estimates began to converge with each other d as the study progressed the participants estimates began to diverge from each other ANS C REF Conformity OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual 5 The primary difference between the research of Sherif 1936 and Asch 1951 is that a Sherif was able to demonstrate conformity whereas Asch was not b Asch was able to demonstrate conformity whereas Sherif was not c Sherif relied on an ambiguous task whereas Asch used an unambiguous task d Asch relied on an ambiguous task whereas Sherif used an unambiguous task ANS C REF Conformity OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual 6 Will and Grace have just started to attend church Will pays attention to when the rest of the congregation sits and stands because he wants to be sure to stand and sit at the appropriate times Grace stands up and sits down when the rest of the congregation does because if she doesn t the elderly couple across the aisle scowls at her Will has conformed because of whereas Grace has conformed because of a normative in uence informational in uence b informational in uence normative in uence c compliance obedience d obedience compliance ANS B REF Conformity OBJ 3 KEY Applied 7 Normative in uence tends to produce whereas informational in uence leads to a compliance obedience b conversion compliance c public conformity private conformity d pluralistic ignorance pluralistic knowledge ANS C REF Conformity OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual 8 Which of the following is not one of the emotions a person is likely to feel after being ostracized a Numbness b Anger c Sadness d Embarrassment ANS D REF Conformity OBJ 4 KEY Conceptual 9 As group size increases conformity will a increase b decrease c increase as long as each additional member of the group is perceived as an independent source of in uence d decrease as long as each additional member of the group is perceived as an independent source of in uence ANS C REF Conformity OBJ 5 KEY Conformity 10 Prentice and Miller 1996 found that most college students overestimate how comfortable their peers are with alcohol on campus This misperception is an example of a pluralistic ignorance b psychological reactance c mass psychogenic illness d the chameleon effect ANS A REF Conformity OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 11 The fact that the presence of an ally regardless of her competence reduces conformity indicates that a b c d ANS B informational social in uence typically wins out over normative social in uence in the long run it is exceedingly dif cult to hold out against the pressure to conform without one supporter in the group conformity does not occur for highstakes decisions with important repercussions men conform less in private than they do in public REF Conformity OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 12 Women conform more and men conform less when they believe they are being observed Eagly 1987 argues that this occurs because a b C d being watched makes people selfaware which brings out their underlying personalities women are easier to manipulate whereas men tend to be more independent women and men tend to be knowledgeable about different kinds of topics people feel greater pressure in public to behave in ways consistent with their gender role ANS D REF Conformity OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 13 Professor Hildebrand just gave back to his students their rst exam Many in the class are conVinced that one of the questions he asked had more than one correct answer In fact 13 students from the class show up to his of ce hours to protest the question Professor Hildebrand is conVinced that there is only one correct answer and so he tries to convince the larger group of students that he is right He will be most likely to conVince this group of his point of View if he a presents his arguments forcefully and consistently b tries to exert normative social in uence on the group of students c presents himself as an outgroup member rather than as part of their ingroup d makes salient the norms of the group ANS A REF Conformity OBJ 6 KEY Applied l4 Interpersonal credits a person earns by following group norms are called credits a idiosyncrasy b brownie c group d normative ANS A REF Conformity OBJ 6 KEY Factual 15 Research has found that when people are presented with a request accompanied by a reason that does not offer a real justi cation for the request they often respond a with skeptical reactance b by asking for a more complete explanation c with surprise followed by caution d by complying mindlessly ANS D REF Compliance OBJ 7 KEY Factual 16 The unspoken rule dictating that we should treat others as they have treated us is called the a social impact theory b norm of reciprocity c dualprocess approach d equity principle ANS B REF Compliance OBJ 7 KEY Factual 17 The compliance technique in which compliance to a desired request is increased by rst gaining compliance to a smaller but related request is called a b c d ANS C lowballing the that snotall technique the footinthedoor technique the doorintheface technique REF Compliance OBJ 8 KEY Factual 18 The technique of getting a commitment from a potential customer and then changing the terms of the agreement is best described as a b c d ANS D reciprocal concession cognitive dissonance the footinthedoor technique lowballing REF Compliance OBJ 8 KEY Factual 19 Jamie wants an extra day to write a paper for class Jamie first asks the professor for a one week extension for the paper assignment The professor refuses Jamie then asks for a oneday extension The professor agrees Jamie s behavior best illustrates a b c d ANS A the doorintheface technique the footinthedoor technique reactance the dualprocess approach REF Compliance OBJ 8 KEY Applied 20 One factor that did not seem related to the amount of obedience exhibited in the Milgram obedience study was the a b c d ANS A participant s sex proximity of the learner to the teacher location of the study physical presence of the experimenter REF Obedience OBJ 9 KEY Factual 21 The clearest and most important message of Milgram s obedience studies is a b the specific personality traits that predict destructive obedience to authority that people will typically harm another individual with little to no social pressure to do so obedience to authority is most destructive when the authority figure is particularly harsh and demanding the potential for situational in uences to lead ordinary people to commit ANS D extraordinarily destructive acts REF Obedience OBJ 9 KEY Conceptual 22 The nature of Milgram s obedience research paradigm exploited which compliance induction strategy a Lowballing b Footinthedoor technique c Doorintheface technique d That snotall technique ANS B REF Obedience OBJ 9 KEY Conceptual 23 Stan is a new student in his sixthgrade class The other students exert normative pressure on him to conform to their opinion on some issue According to social impact theory Stan will be more likely to resist this in uence if a there are 20 rather than 11 students in the class b he perceives the other students as having high status c there are three other new students in the class who are receiving the same pressures d he comes from a culture that values a collectivist orientation ANS C REF The Continuum of Social In uence
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