Final Exam Review- All Notes for Midterm 1
Final Exam Review- All Notes for Midterm 1 PSYCH 100
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Notetaker on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Tulane University taught by Thomas Herbert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Methods 4 goals of Psych Description Explanation Prediction Change how can we achieve the desired outcome 7 major perspectives of psychology Psychodynamic behavioral humanistic cognitive biological evolutionary and sociocultural The bystander effect is the diffusion of responsibility its effects weaken at numbers greater than 7 Randomness The larger the sample size the greater the randomness and the better the experiment is BIASES AND DECEPTION Placebos fake variables given to control groups to ensure the same process as the experimental group The placebo effect is the believed impact of a fake placebo on a test subject bigger pills elicit a bigger response Illusory Correlation The tendency to mistakenly see two statistically unrelated events as being correlated when in reality no such association exists Saliency Bias Focusing on noticeable factors when explaining the causes of behavior Confirmation Bias Remembering events that confirm the expectation and ignoring the misses Experimenter Bias Experimenter in uences the results to get the result he expected or should get Ethnocentrism Bias Believing ones culture is typical of all cultures Sample Bias The sample is not indicative of the population as a whole either because it is not random or not large enough Random Assignment Using chance to assign participants to test and control groups Confounding variables Extraneous variables that can jeopardize experiments Participant Bias Participants act differently because they know they are being observed Single Blind and Double Blind Studies Participants don39t know who is in the control group 2 researcher and participants don39t know who is in the control group SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD Basic Research Used to expand scientific knowledge Applied Research Used to solve practical problems both are equally important Operational definition something that we believe is real but cannot be measured or tested P value probability of chance result lt05 is considered scientifically relevant Hard vs Soft Science hard sciences more directly measure what they are studying Stable Normal Science everyone tests the variable in the same way gets the same results and is content with the same theory Revolutionary Science Enough data sets from enough different labs come in that challenge the accepted assertion A new theory emerges which encompasses the old and new data sets and the new theory becomes the theory in which stable science returns Paradigm Shift Eventually someone comes up with new technology or new ways of testing the variable eventually everyone modernizes to these new ways of studying the variable and the shift occurs Human experiments must have informed consent only justifiable deception confidentiality a debriefing and freedom to withdraw Caveats Any compensation can violate the freedom to withdraw deception can void informed consent Animal testing is more highly regulated than human testing What one studies is not necessarily what one measures Studying aggression measuring bites Technology 2 way mirrors Hidden cameras etc are used to stop participants from knowing that they are being studied Famous In uencers Wilhelm Wundt Leipzeg Germany 1879 Father of Psychology Practiced STRUCTURALISM so did Titchener William James earlier USA Practiced FUNCTIONALISM Sigmund Freud Practiced PSYCHOANALYSIS AND PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE Wertheimer Practiced GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Watson Pavlov and Skinner Practiced BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE Ebbinghaus Father of COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Rogers and Maslow Practiced the HUMANIST PERSPECTIVE and developed Rogerian therapy Where the therapist accepts the patient s feelings and talks about them Maslow created the hierarchy of names and greatly in uenced the theory of psychology Schools of thought STRUCTURALISM The use of introspection to learn about the structures of the mind by testing trained adults Focusing on perceptual experiences and sensations COGNITIVE PERCEPTION Studies thought perception and information processing by measuring reaction times and brain activity This is an expanding field because of modern technology advances NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOPSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE Studies genetics and other biological processes of the brain and nervous system EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Studies evolution adaptation and natural selection SOCIOCULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Studies sociocultural determinants and social interactions AKA SOCIOBIOLOGY growing field FUNCTIONALISM Studies how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment Investigates functions of mental processes in adapting to the environment PSYCHOANALYSIS AND PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE The study of unconscious processes and unresolved past con icts This practice is far less common now and has in uenced society more than it has in uenced psychology GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY The Whole is more than the sum of its parts BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE Observing environmental in uences on overt behavior This has a continuing in uence on modern psychology HUMANIST PERSPECTIVE Emphasizes inner health and the importance of feelings and counters Freud in saying that humans have free Will and that unhealthy people merely have their natural potential locked and they can achieve greatness by unlocking it COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Focuses on mental functioning and reasoning 4 Major Research Methods EXPERIMENTAL Manipulation and control of variables to identify cause and effect DESCRIPTIVE Naturalistic observation surveys and case studies to observe collect and record data Naturalistic observation surveys and case studies Surveys can be of representative groups or random samples of large populations The more options there are the less likely one is to pick an extreme Case Studies are in depth studies of a few individuals usually done when there are few test subjects CORRELOGICAL Statistical analysis of relationships between variables to identify relationships and how well one variable in uences another Helpful when unethical or improbable to do an experiment BIOLOGICAL Studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system to identify causation be descriptive and make predictions CHAPTER 2 Neuroscience and Biological Foundations Neuroglia Cells Glia Cells Control biological rhythms such as circadian rhythms and are involved in REM sleep Dendrites change a lot thicker and thinner and more or less branchy The more connections by dendrites that one has the quicker they can process information Initial axon is called the initial segment or the axon hillock Bigger muscles have bigger axons Input to the neuron is analog the output is in binomials SodiumPotassium pump only counteracts the leak of the neuronal membrane it does not reset graded or action potential Concentration gradients and electrostatic pressure cause the sodium and potassium to move back and forth so quickly Charge goes positive because sodium moves in before potassium moves out Graded potentials reflect the input and they are variable Action potentials on axons are all or nothing the strength of signal remains constant Ligand neuron transmitter Neuron transmitters are everywhere on the cell body and the more ligand channels that are open the larger the effect will be Saltitory Conduction action potential jumps fro node to node to node The Synapse is the place where we can manipulate the system Major Neurotransmitters Serotonin is unique in that it can be effected by the food that you eat Acetylcholine is both a fast and slow synapse fast in muscles and slow in the brain Serotonin 5HT depression sensory experiences 0 Acetylcholine ACh movement learning memory Dopamine DA mood movement reward pathway 0 Norepinephrine NE emotion arousal Glutamate excitatory memory 0 GABA gamma amino butyric acid inhibitory movement anxiety The more mitochondria in an area the more active that area is Behavioral Genetics The study of the relative effects of heredity and the environment on behavior and mental processes Clinical and Counseling are the most common Psychology degrees The male and female brain are very similar but the female brain has a thicker central bridge and crosscommunicates better therefore women are more capable of thinking with their whole brain than men are Evolutionary Psychology The branch of psychology that studies the application of the principles of evolution to explain behavior and mental processes Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Bottom up Processing Perceptual analysis that moves from parts to a whole and starts at the bottom with raw sensory data being sent up through the brain for higher level analysis Reading Top down processing Perceptual analysis that moves from the whole to parts by starting with higher level cognitive processes and then works down Muscle memory Processing Specialized cells inside the sense organs respond to a stimulus Transduction Sensory receptors convert stimuli into neural impulses to be sent to the brain Coding Neural impulses travel by different routes to different parts of the brain allowing us to detect various physical stimuli as distinct sensations Sensory Reduction We purposefully reduce the amount of sensory information that we receive to tune out stimuli we don39t need Psychophysics The study and measurement the link between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensory experience of them Difference Threshold The smallest physical difference between two stimuli that is consciously detectable 50 of the time aka the Just Noticeable Difference JND Ernst WeberGermany Absolute Threshold The minimum amount of stimulation necessary to consciously detect a stimulus 50 of the time Gustav Fenchner Sensory Adaptation The process by which receptor cells become less sensitive due to constant stimulation Can39t smell your own house GateControl Theory of Pain Pain sensations are altered and processed by certain cells in the spinal cord which act as gates to interrupt and block some signals while sending others to the brain Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall Subliminal perception does occur but does not have a great effect on persuasion COLOR VISION Trichromatic Theory of Color Color perception results from three types of cones in the retina each most sensitive to either red green or blue and all other colors result from a mixture of these 3 Opponent Process Theory of Color All color perception is based on three systems of each of which contains two color opposites red vs green blue vs yellow and black vs white Depth Perception The ability to perceive 3D space and accurately judge distance Binocular Cues Visual input from two eyes that allows perception of depth or distance Retinal Disparity the binocular cue of distance in which the separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina Convergence The binocular depth clue in which the eyes turn inward to fixate on an object Monocular Cues Visual input from a single eye that contributes to the perception of depth or distance Accommodation The process by which the eyes ciliary muscles change the shape of the lens so that light is focused on the retina adjustment of the eyes39 lenses permitting focus on nearby and distant objects Perceptual and Size Consistency The learned tendency to perceive the environment as stable and objects as the same size despite changes in distance color brightness and size Perceptual Set The readiness to perceive in a particular manner based on expectations HEARING Place Theory Hair cells are stimulated at different locations on basilar membrane Explains high frequency and pitch sounds Frequency Theory Hair cells fire at the same rate as the frequency for the sound Explains low frequency and pitch sounds Amplitude determines how loud the sound is Conduction Hearing Loss Result of damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea aka conduction deafness Sensorineural Hearing Loss Result of damage to the cochlea39s receptor hearing cells or the auditory nerve Aka nerve deafness Pheromones Chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with others may effect behavior such as recognition of family members aggression territorial marking and sexual mating Vestibular Sense Aka sense of balance located in the inner ear Kinesthesis The sense that detects bodily posture orientation and movement of body parts relative to each other Located in muscles joints and tendons Selective Attention Focusing conscious awareness on a specific stimulus while filtering out other stimuli Feature Detectors Specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information Habituation The brains reduced responsiveness due to repeated stimulation of the same receptors Chapter 5 States of Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness Awareness of ourselves and the environment Consciousness is a spectrum Continuum is associated with activity in the cerebral cortex which is bigger in humans than all other animals Alternate State of Consciousness Any mental state other than ordinary waking consciousness lnattentional Blindness The failure to notice an unexpected stimulus when our attention is directed elsewhere also known as perceptual blindness Consciousness Continuum Controlled Processes mental activities that require focused attention and generally interfere with other ongoing activities Automatic Processes mental activities that require minimal attention and generally have little impact on other activities subconscious dreaming little or no awareness concussion Alternate States of Consciousness LSD Circadian Rhythms A consistent pattern of cyclical bodily activities governed by an internal biological clock that generally occur son a 245 hour cycle Stages of Sleep NonREM Sleep Stages 13 of sleep REM Sleep Stage 4 rapid eye movements highfrequency brain waves paralysis of large muscles and often dreaming Theories on Sleep AdaptationProtection RepairRestoration GrowthDevelopment LearningMemory Theories on Dreaming Freud39s Wish Fulfilment Theory Manifest masks dreams latent content dream we remember masks the forbidden unconscious needs Activation Synthesis Hypothesis Dreams are the products of random brain cell firing that we attempt to make sense of Cognitive View of Dreams Dreams are a type of information processing that helps us interpret daily experiences and turn them into memories Sleep Disorders lnsomnia Difficulty falling asleep staying asleep or waking up to early Narcolepsy Sudden irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours Sleep Apnea Repeated interruption of breathing during sleep causing snoring poor quality sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness Nightmare Bad dream that significantly disrupts REM sleep Night Terror Abrupt awakening with feelings of panic that significantly disrupts REM sleep Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs A chemical that changes mental processes and conscious awareness mood andor perception How Psychoactive Drugs Work Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters Alter the reception of neurotransmitters Alter the deactivation of neurotransmitters Agonist Drug A drug that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell that mimics or enhances a neurotransmitters effect Antagonistic Drug A drug that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell that blocks a neurotransmitters effect Drug Abuse Drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others Psychological and Physical Dependence The psychological desire or craving to achieve a drugs effect vs changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimal functioning 4 drug categories Depressants Act on the Central Nervous System GABBA to suppress bodily processes Alcohol Valium All antianxiety drugs work by binding to the GABBA receptor Slow activity Stimulants Act on the Central Nervous System Dopamine Norepinephrine to increase bodily processes Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Associated with euphoria and increased alertness OpiatesNarcotics Act as an analgesic or pain reliever act on the Dopamine system Morphine Heroine Sense of euphoria HallucinogensPsychedelics Produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations LSD Marijuana Cause hallucinations or visual distortions Meditation Meditation A group of techniques designed to alter consciousness believed to enhance selfknowledge and wellbeing through reduced selfawareness Hypnosis An ASC characterized by deep relaxation and a trancelike state of heightened suggestibility and intense focus Not everyone can be readily hypnotized Therapeutic uses of Hypnosis Treatment of chronic pain severe burns dentistry childbirth psychotherapy
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