Ch 12 - Ch 14
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kameron Salings on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 313 at Ball State University taught by Metzler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 402 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Exam 2 Studv Guide Kameron Salinas Cha ter 12 1 Discuss the basic timeline of Earth s history and the important role of microbes in the process 0 46 billion years ago when earth started it was made of crust oceans volcanoes lava and water vapor formed on the Earth because it was so hot and when it started to cool down the water became the oceans 38 billion years ago LIFE developed mostly prokaryotes no oxygen around 0 35 archaea and bacteria diverged and anoxygenic photosynthesis originated 30 billion years ago the Great Oxidation event occurred and ozone shield formed cyanobacteria developed oxygenic photosynthesis 15 billion years ago multicellular eukaryotes lived Side note dinosaurs had more oxygen which is why they were so big Describe the development of cellular life 0 Life probably originated in water and on the sea floor because it allows organic molecules to form The surface had ultra violet and extreme environment conditions which are not suitable for life 0 Cellular life originated within clay structures that had compartmentalization like a cellular membrane The compartments allow molecules to develop and move forward This place is where substances bind to the clay or carbonate Define the endosymbiotic theory and provide evidence to support it Endosymbiotic theory comes from the Last Common Ancestor which diverge into bacteria and archaea and then divergences of eukarya and archaea For this theory after DNA formed cells engulfed other cell which deals mostly with organelle development Evidence to support this theory is the chloroplast and mitochondrion because these organelles have membranes within membranes Describe the hydrogen hypothesis 0 Hydrogen hypothesis is about the development of the nucleus When the archaea and eukarya diverged there was an engulfment of a hydrogen producing bacteria by a hydrogen consuming cell of archaea This hydrogen metabolism allowed the bacteria to pick of genes to lipid synthesis or internal membrane synthesis Compare and contrast endosymbiosis with the hydrogen hypothesis 0 Identify the three domains of life and provide basic defining characteristics of each domain Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya LUCA is the origin of life and Bacteria and Archaea is the first to split form each other and then bacteria species bloomed with 84 different linkages Bacteria has so much diversity when looking at RNA sequence by horizontal gene transfers Archaea only as 7 diversifications which is the smallest of the three Then Eukarya split off of archaea but still does not have as much diversity as bacteria does Table 12J Major structural and physiological characteristics of Bacteria Archaea anti EukaryaEl Characteristic Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Prokaryotic cell structure Yes Yes No Cell wall Peptidoglycan present No peptiooglycan No peptidoglycan Membrane lipids Esterlinked Etherlinked Ester39mlzinlged Membrane enclosed nucleus Absent Absent Present Flagelia mechanism Flotation Rotation Whiplike Sensitivity to chloramphenicoi streptomycin Yes No No kanamycin and penicillin Physiologicallspeciali structures Dissimiiatiye reduction of 8393 or Yes Yes No 8042 to H28 or Fe3 to Fe2 Nitrification ammonia oxidation Yes Yes No Chlorophyllbased photosynthesis Yes No Yes in chloroplasts Denitrifioation Yes Yes No Nitrogen fixation Yes Yes No Rhooopsinbased energy metabolism Yes Yes No Chemolithotrophy Feg NH3 s H2 Yes Yes No Endospores Yes No No Gas vesicles Yes Yes No Storage granules of poly B hydroxyallranoates Yes V95 N0 Growth above WC Yes Yes No Growth above 100 C No Yes No 3Note that for many features only particular representatives within a domain show the property 2015 Pearson Education Inc Interpret and draw phylogenetic trees L I PP Phylogenetic trees show the relatedness of organisms Rooted trees shows the ancestor Unrooted trees just show the relationship between organisms not the ancestors Branches show the last common relationship with nodes The more different the two DNA strands are the farther their last common ancestor was and these difference let us know how to place them on the phylogenetic tree The smaller the difference means the more similar the organisms are and the closer they are on the tree First alight the sequences Second count the number of different base pairs in the different sequences Then construct the tree by how different and similar the organism are The first step A distance matrix is The tree is constructed in making a calculated from the by adding nodes to tree Is to align number of sequence jom lineages that have sequences differences the fewest differences 1 2 3 4 i 1 1 ACTGAC 1 a T 2 2 acre 2 2 4 1 3 3 AGATGG 3 44 1 1 quot 4 AGAAGA 4 44 2 1 4 3a b c 10 Describe evolutionary mechanisms used in bacteria Mutation primary driving force for evolution can be neutral beneficial drive evolution or detrimental Recombination gene transfer Allele different versions of genes selection some are more beneficial than the others Selection if you survive you are most likely to have offspring Fitness better trait for survival Genetic Drift random changes in allele frequencies in different populations due to random fluctuations in gene frequencies Natural selection whoever lives reproduces Define the concept of a species and why it does not work in prokaryotes Defining species is difficult and knowing the amount of a species is difficult Species a group of strains that share traits with each other sequence is similar and they share a unique common ancestor It does not work in prokaryotes because the species are so complex it is hard to group together so many different species and link in order where they came from Linking ancestral relationships by phylogeny genotypes and taxonomy naming in groups Describe phenotypic analysis and genome fingerprinting as means of identifying microbes Genome fingerprinting at the DNA level or ribotyping RNA level take genetic material then cut it up with restriction enzymes then run the DNA on a gel If the results have more bands that are the same then the more closely related the sequences are The more mismatches the bands are the less likely the DNA is related By doing this we can identify which microbes are closer related and can therefore be grouped together Phenotypic Analysis characteristic traits that can be seen with the naked eye This is beneficial because its faster but also not a very accurate analysis 11 Interpret strain relatedness based on DNA fingerprinting gel or ribotyping At the DNA level or ribotyping RNA level take genetic material then cut it up with restriction enzymes then run the DNA on a gel If the results have more bands that are the same then the more closely related the sequences are The more mismatches the bands are the less likely the DNA is related Chapter 13 1 Compare and contrast ATP synthesis mechanisms in microbial metabolism 2 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration fermentation and anaerobic respiration Aerobic Respiration Fermentation occurs when absolutely no alternate electron acceptors are available and does not make nearly as much ATP as respiration but tries to make some if possible 0 O O Fermentation happens when oxygen is not available Fermenters do NOT have the substratelevel phosphorylation process to make ATP and NADH So they have to keep recycling NAD to NADH then back to NAD The fermenters see alcohol or acid product they excrete as waste whereas we are able to use their products Anaerobic Respiration This respiration still used the Electron Transport Chain but since its in an anaerobic environment then oxygen can not be our terminal electron acceptor O 0 Many other compounds are used for the final electron acceptor instead The more negative the more likely it is required for anaerobic respiration When observing the chat in the notes the best acceptors are at the bottom and the worst acceptors are at the top hydrogen This is a dissimulative process meaning it is generating large amounts of waste that is NOT being used for anything and is excreted 3 Compare and contrast anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis Anoxygenic Photosynthesis occurs in green and purple bacteria 0 Uses a cyclical electron flow 0 Electrons get passed up through series of electron carriers and the electrons end up back where they started therefore you don t have to worry about replacing the electrons Light is brought into the reaction center where light energy is converted to chemical energy These electrons get passed along into the Quinone pool which acids the proton motive force of hydrogens passing across the membrane to produce ATP o Oxygenic Photosynthesis occurs in cyanobacteriaplants O 0 Uses a Noncyclical electron flow electrons do not return to where they started unlike anoxygenic Photo light comes in electrons get excited and leave never come back therefore water has to split to replace these electrons First half Photosystem ll produces ATP creates oxygen as a byproduct when it splits water When this photosystem is blocked they carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with water Second half Photosystem l produces the electron carrier NADPH 4 Compare and contrast autotrophic pathways 0 Photoautotrophy Uses Light to generate their own food 0 0 Some use chlorophyll or bacteriophyll because prokaryotes do NOT have chloroplasts The chlorophyll and bacteriophyll have have the same reaction and do the same function as chloroplasts would do Carotenoids and phycobilins help them cover as much of light spectrum as possible and to take in as much light as possible Anoxygenic photoautotrophy pathway still harness power with no oxygen to create food EX purple and green bacteria Oxygenic photoautotrophy pathway converts light energy to chemical energy with oxygen to form ATP EX cyanobacteria o Autotrophy Calvin Cycle most prevalent O L O 0 Some simple form of carbon is make into a more energydense molecule by using energy from the form the sun when we use for food or biosynthetic pathways 3 Steps of the Calvin Cycle Carbon dioxide undergoes carob fixation by an enzyme called RubisCO very important Reducing stage ATP and other molecules are oxygenized inorder to reduce carbon Then regeneration of RuBP which is what Carbon dioxide interacts with at the beginning of the cycle Carboxysome store Carbon dioxide for this cycle Have 250 molecules of RubisCO in the cycle 0 Reverse Citric acid cycle used in green sulfur bacteria 0 O The cycle starts with the end product and then moves in the opposite direction towards citrate The goal of this cycle is to get G3P to make glucose reverse of the Citric Acid Cycle Hydroxypropionate Pathway used in green Nonsulfur bacteria 0 This cycle uses acetyl COA the whole time instead of breaking it until we get to cyclic oxalate which can be used for cellular material or food 5 Given an energy source and a carbon source determine the metabolic lifestyle of an organism troph type 0 Chemotrophs use inorganic or organic chemicals as energy sources 10 11 o Mixotrophs use inorganic compounds for energy and organic compounds as a carbon sources Phototrophs use light as an energy source and 002 as a carbon source Chemolithotrophs use inorganic electron donors and 002 as a carbon source Hetertrophs use organic carbon as their carbon source Syntrophs Are organisms that accomplish the catabolism and degradation of a substance through a cooperative effort with one or more other microorganisms Autotrophs perform 002 fixation and utilize 002 as their sole carbon source Given energy demands and available substrates predict which metabolic pathways discussed a cell could use 0 Given major components of an ETC explain how it could generate a PMF and what metabolic pathway it is used in 0 Describe the metabolic pathways discussed in terms of electron transport and energy generation 0 Give two examples of how microbial metabolism alters the surrounding physical environment 0 Give an example and explain how microbial metabolism is relevant to humans ie bioremediation agriculture etc o Microbial metabolism is revelant to humans because our waste products act as food for these microbes and therefore they take up our waste to get rid of it this is known as bioremediation o In agriculture we use microbes in order to grow our plants they help fixate nitrogen to make it into its usable form Also we have microbes in our digestive tract and these make vitamins and nutrients for us as we digest our food Not to mention our human diet is directly proportional to photosynthesis constructed by these microbes 0 Use to ferment our food products and using a cheaper cleaner source of energy from plants they have helped play a role in how humans control bacterial diseases with vaccinations and antibiotics Give an example where the waste product of one organism is the substrate for another 0 Microbes take up our nuclear waste or oil spills as food via bioremediation and produces CO2 and waster 0 During fermentation organisms are producing alcohol as a waste whereas we do not see the alcohol as a waste Chapter 14 1 Describe the key functional diverse features of the groups of organisms discussed 0 Bacteria are grouped based on their function and form 0 Phototrophic Bacteria O O O 0 Perform anoxygenicoxygenic photosynthesis typically inked to autotrophy Use pigments and light harvesting complexes reaction centers to trap photons Complexes are membrane associated Groups Cyanobacteria Purple sulfur bacteria purple nonsulfur bacteria green sulfur bacteria and green nonsulfur bacteria 0 Cyanobacteria O O OO O Job Oxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation This group large diversity in their shape but most take on the filamentous structure They use thylakoids which are stacks of membrane that s NOT an organelle but a place to store light harvesting complexes Phycobilins amp chlorophyll store light Gas vesicles are not only used for gliding motility but also buoyancy Cyanobacteria is responsible for 80 of all photosynthesis in the ocean and 30 of all photosynthesis on land Cyanobacteria have 3 common structures Hormogonium Cyanobacteria forms a separation point where it breaks off and is able to be dispersed to another environment during stressful surrounding conditions Akinete A resting structure for when the environment gets dark dry and cold and the cyanobacteria is no longer able to do their function Akinete have thick cell wall for protection and during this resting stage not a lot of metabolic processes are occurring Heterocysts in charge of nitrogen fixation nitrogenase does not perform in the presence of oxygen which is difficult because cyanobacteria make oxygen therefore these heterocysts protect the nitrogenases from the oxygen 0 Purple Sulfur O O Anoxygenic photosynthesis These bacteria have a sulfur metabolism and are able to utilized hydrogen sulfide These bacteria live in microbial maps which are slime structures on the surfaces of water or rocks o Lamellae are membrane stacks that form vesicle structures for light harvesting structures where stockpile elemental SULFUR so they can metabolize it later when needed 0 These bacteria perform photosynthesis in lamellae structures or vesicles 0 Purble Nonsulfur 0 Most metabolically diverse Do NOT have a sulfur metabolism 0 W o Anoxygenic photosynthesis 0 Not motile 0 Contain chlorosomes with lots of chlorophylls so they can live in low light intensity environments that can grasp light easier 0 Chemoorganotroph located in middle and the green sulfur bacteria surrounds a ring around it so the green sulfur bacteria can get the byproducts of the metabolic pathways of the chemoorganotrophs 0 Green Nonsulfur o Anoxygenic photosynthesis 0 Lives in large groups hard to separate individual bacteria have filamentous structure and perform gliding motility 0 Also have chlorosomes therefore live in low light environments 0 Do not know a lot about this bacteria because it can not isolate them 0 They are connected to the hydropropionate cycle NOT Calvin cycle 2 Describe predatory bacteria their behavior and give examples 0 Predatory Bacteria Bdellovibrio are periplasmic predators and obligate areobes o Myxococcus are a social predator and have the most complex life cycle these form multicellular fruiting bodies 3 Describe the key morphological diverse features of spirochetes non binary fission dividers magnetic and bioluminescent bacteria Spiochetes o Gram negative motile coiled flexible and thin 0 Contain endoflagella Non binary fission dividers Magnetic bacteria 0 Contain magentosomes o Microaerophilic or anaerobic 0 Found near anoxicoxic interface in sediments and lakes Bioluminescent Bacteria 0 Live in marine environments 0 Sometimes colonize light organs 0 Requires luciferase gene and oxygen 0 Triggered by quorum sensing
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