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BIO326R Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Mallory Dobias

BIO326R Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 326R

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Biology > BIO 326R > BIO326R Exam 2 Study Guide
Mallory Dobias
GPA 4.0
General Microbiology (Dr. Whiteley)
Dr. Whiteley

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This study guide for exam 2 includes: detailed visual diagrams/overviews of replication, transcription, and translation with step-by-step processes and labeled enzymes (as well as key terms and def...
General Microbiology (Dr. Whiteley)
Dr. Whiteley
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory Dobias on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 326R at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Whiteley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology (Dr. Whiteley) in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
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1 1 e 039 0 INITIATIoN DnaA D aABox m 2 1 fl l I39 F 3 3 5 On C DnaB 71 l 2451 DNA 0 n C Com Flex Dna C 39 I Q loadz nj profella 5quot 3 3 IV 5 Eton aAnoN 553 3 0W Shad 9quotquot 4quot quot83 A DNA R lymemSe aner naclc by RNA ana ceb A 5 GM Lgadzhjg39l39mno 51 24lon Fork 2 3 a I 39 39 l39 NewDNA DNA Pol JIE NA Crave Puke nsion m Poti v SuPe r ca ls 0 mjm tn 5 RNA Prfmers NA Blymerascr rcmw RNA primers 539 3 39 3 5 39 434 1Cth DNA fr menls K q DRAW I sealsgaps TERMINATION 39 39To Fvc Ven l 152th lk 39 39 quot39 quot pm o DnaA 50quot 5quot gquot acquot Z 1quot l Paws Drum 9 mm 3 3 5 f H M Mckqued DNA 73 emfnqo rePIt CA Han Onc 0 0 ya WA 56 r I 54 2 Id Tam3ha4lh1ectuencc 39 l z esir p N PROOFRgA 9 Via manualcode 4cla w39iy 0 DNA Pol 3cm 2 VAA m3ch Refm r39fys fcm nuHR gt H39l and p raking Vdajnfa Mg39s39mdchcs DNA 9 Place M15 quothtMics originally quotMM by eXonuckaue etcIIVrfy Replication Key Terms OriC start site of DNA replication aka quotorigin of replicationquot DnaA enzyme that binds to speci c sequences in OriC called DnaA boxes in order to attract helicase protein DnaB and initiate DNA replication Requires ATP DnaA Boxes speci c sequences in OriC to which DnaA proteins bind DnaB helicase protein that binds to OriCDnaA complex and begins unwinding doublestranded DNA at start of replication Requires ATP DnaC loading protein that helps load DnaB protein onto OriCDnaA complex Singlestranded Binding Proteins proteins that bind to each strand of DNA once unwound to prevent the reformation of hydrogen bonds between bases of strands prevents reannealing DNA Polymerase Ill enzyme primarily responsible for synthesisextension of new DNA strand in 5 3 direction cannot directly bind to the DNA needs an RNA primer DNA G Primase RNA Primase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of RNA primers used by DNA Polymerase RNA Primers short segments of RNA used to allow DNA Pol III to bind to DNA strand and begin nucleotide extension DNA Polymerase I enzyme responsible for removing the RNA primers from the DNA once elongation has occurred in that speci c region Leading Strand strand that experiences continuous replication in the 5 3 direction Lagging Strand Strand that experiences discontinuous replication multiple primers needed to elongate DNA fragments called okazaki fragments in the direction of the replication fork Okazaki Fragments fragments of DNA created by discontinuous replication in lagging strand during DNA replication DNA Gyrase enzyme responsible for xing the tension in positive supercoils ahead of replication forks by cleaving twisting and re ligating the DNA Ligase enzyme responsible for binding together DNA fragments sealing gaps where primers might have been Topoisomerase enzyme responsible for cleaving the 2 daughter chromosomes apart once termination of replication is complete Termination Sequence sequence opposite OriC on chromosome 180 degrees away that signals for the end of replication and slowsstops DNA Polymerase Hemimethylated DNA doublestranded DNA with only one of its strands methylated on A residues typically the old strand of DNA is methylated right after replication has been completed while the new strand is not DNA Adenosine Methyltransferase enzyme responsible for methylating speci c sequencesresidues on DNA Squ enzyme that recognizesbinds to hemimethylated DNA and prevents replication initiation DnaA can no longer bind to DnaA boxes Once both strands have been methylated squ will no longer bind to the strands and replication initiation can begin again Exonuclease Activity ability present in DNA Pol l and Ill both enzymes can back up in the synthesized sequence if there is a mismatch in base pairing remove the incorrect base and based on the sequence present in the old strand the already methylated strand will replace the incorrect base with the correct one Mismatch Repair System system that repairs mismatched base pairs that exonuclease activity in DNA Pol l and Ill might have missed Transcription Key Terms Transcript mRNA strand produced from DNA via transcription TemplateNoncoding Strand DNA strand read by RNAP in the 3 5 direction used as a guide to create mRNA transcript Has sequence that is complementary to mRNA transcript NontemplateCoding Strand DNA strand oriented in the 5 3 direction therefore not used as template by RNAP Shares exact sequence with mRNA transcript using uracil rather than thymine Promoter Region region in the DNA to which RNAP binds to initiate transcription 35 and 10 Consensus Sequences speci c sequences in the promoter region that RNAP binds to These sequences can be strongweak depending on how closely they match the ideal consensus sequence affects how tightly RNAP is bound 35 39ITGACAT 10 TATAAT 1 Site site at which transcription actually starts produced mRNA strand starts here RNAP RNA Polymerase Core Enzyme enzyme responsible for the synthesis of mRNA during transcription Contains 5 subunits a 2 B B and omega Sigma Factor transcriptional protein that binds to RNAP and helps navigate it to the promoter regions Necessary for transcription Holoenzyme RNAP and sigma factor combined RhoIndependent Termination type of transcriptional termination where a GC rich region in the mRNA forms a stemloop followed by a UUUU repeat region When RNAP hits the stemloop it pauses the UUUU repeat region then causes it to become unstable and the enzyme falls off of the DNA Stemloop mRNA structure formed by RNA strand base pairing with itself seen in GC rich regions RhoDependent Termination type of transcriptional termination where Rho Protein binds to a termination region in the mRNA strand and uses ATP to move up the molecule until it quotcatches upquot with the RNAP Once it does the RNAP falls off of the strand and releases the transcript Rho Protein protein used in rhodependent termination method Translation Key Terms ShineDelgarno Sequence sequence in mRNA transcript approximately 710 base pairs upstream of the start codon to which the 3 end of the 16S rRNA in the 305 ribosomal subunit binds Helps the ribosome locate the start codon strength determined by how closely in matches the ideal consensus sequence Start Codon AUG codon codes for f Met tRNA the rst tRNA to bring in an amino acid and start the peptide chain Beginning point of translation on mRNA strand tRNA type of RNA in cell with a 3 acceptor stem CCA tail that accepts amino acids and brings them to the mRNAribosome to be added to the peptide chain The anticodon loop of the tRNA binds to the speci c codon in the mRNA sequence Anticodon nucleotide triplet on tRNA molecule that is complementary to mRNA codon to which it base pairs Aminoacyl tRNA Synthase enzyme speci c to each amino acid that combines the amino acid with its respective tRNA molecule at the tRNA acceptor stem Requires ATP Initiation tRNA fMet attached 1st charged tRNA to bind to the mRNA brings rst amino acid f Met to start the peptide chain 305 Ribosomal Subunit small ribosomal subunit consisting of 16S rRNA and 21 ribosomal proteins 3 end of 16S rRNA binds to the Shine Delgarno Sequence in the mRNA strand Initiation Factors IF1 IF2 IF3 proteins that aid in the formation of the initiation complex help bring in initiation tRNA along with GTP and SOS subunit SOS Ribosomal Subunit large ribosomal subunit consists of 23S rRNA SS rRNA and 34 ribosomal proteins 705 Initiation Complex complete translation initiation complex including both the 305 and SOS ribosomal subunits initiator tRNA and start codon of mRNA strand Elongation Factors EFTu EFTs proteins aiding the process of elongation in transcription help with bringing in second charged tRNA with second amino acid in order to start elongation phase ASite ribosomal site in which new tRNA s with attached amino acids are introduced PSite ribosomal site that usually holds tRNA with growing peptide chain attached ESite ribosomal site that allows exit for newly uncharged tRNA molecules Peptidyl Transferase 235 rRNA of SOS Subunit enzyme responsible for forming peptide bonds between amino acids Release Factors RF1 RF2 proteins that bind to the mRNA strand once stop codon has been reached initiates the termination of translation TerminationStopNonsense Codon codon in mRNA strand that does not code for a corresponding tRNAamino acid Signals the end of translation Chaperones fold proteins into their functional shapes located in periplasm of gramnegative bacteria and in the cytoplasm of gram positive bacteria Signal Sequences sequences on newly made proteins that signal for translocation to speci c regions throughout the cell ex quotthis protein should be sent to the outer membrane of a gram negative cellquot A WA 5 239 4 l t V Promofer ltd OrgN ya mfs 062 5 5 w 1 quot quot 4 39 0 1 1 DNA 3 WM M 5 9 432 RNA b Furno39k 339 Holoeuzymc auswus 94W Twpld nonc0413 3v HIW 5 35 Cooling nonMFH39QSI A 3 153 IMels DNA a 6F 3 i 3 3 m KNA hamscvi 9 3 EUNQAT 05139 4 2 019 def Wfi if d a I 45 duff 3 Mad d m TERMINATloN 6 an a39nale 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