Review Exam 2
Review Exam 2 Psych 1301
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
List of things you may want to know about for exam 2 see disclaimer from exam 1 document Learning Classical conditioning What is it What are NS US CS UR CR Pavlov and little albert experiment 0 Types of Learning 0 Classical conditioning learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an events to which we have a reaction 0 Operant conditioning changing behavior chocies in response to consequesnces O Congitive learning acquiring new behavior and information through observation and information rather than by direct experience Ivan Pavlov39s Discovery 0 While studying salivation in dogs Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli such as I Just seeing the food I Seeing the dish I Seeing the person who brought the food I Just hearing the persons footsteps Before Conditioning 0 Neutral stimulus I A stimulus which does not trigger a response Before Conditioning 0 Unconditioned stimulus and response I A stmulus which triggers a response naturally before Without any conditioning After conditioning Conditioned stimulus is after association with and unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a unconditioned response John B watson and Classical Conditiong Playing with Fear 0 In 1920 9 month old little Albert was not afraid of rats 0 John B Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar everytime a rat was present to albert 0 Albert acquired a fear of rats and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things Before Conditiong 0 NS Rat no fear 0 US Steel bar bit with hammer UR fear 0 NS US Natural reflex fear 0 CS Conditioned reflex fear Higherorder Conditioning 0 The learned association NS US can be transferred to a similar stimulus CS CS 0 Little Albert generalized his fear response from the rat to other furry animals Operant conditioning What is it difference from classical Reinforcement vs punishment Positive vs negative 0 Operant Conditioning 0 Involves adjusting to the consequences of our behaviors 0 So we can easily learn to do more of what works and less or what doesn39t work 0 We may smile more at work after this repeatedly gets us bigger tips 0 We learn how to ride a bike using the strategies that dot make us crash 0 Operant and Classical Conditioning are different formas of associative Learning 0 Classical conditiong o Involves respondent behavior reflexive auto reactions such as fear or craving 0 These reactions to unconditioned stimuli US become associated with neutral thengtgtgt conditioned stimuli o The experimental neutral stimulus repeatedly presesdes the respondent behavior and eventually triggers that behaviors O Operant conditioning o Involves operant behavior chosen behaviors which quotoperatequot on the enrironment 0 These behaviors become associated with consequences which punish increase the operant behavior 0 The experiment consequence stimulus repeatedly follows the operant behaviors and eventually punishes or reinforces that behavior 0 Reinforcement O Refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to recur o Reinforcers 0 Positive reinforcement o Encourages behavior by adding a desirable O Negative reinforcement o Encourages behavior by removing an aversive unpleasant stimulus 0 Positive example You drink a couple beets and feel happy and relaxed o The addition of the happyrelaxed feeling makes you more likely to drink beer in the future Negative example You take an aspirin your headache goes away 0 The removal of pain makes you more likely to take aspirin again 0 In both cases the behavior is likely to reoccur 0 Why we might work for money 0 If we repeatedly introduce a neutral stimulus beofre a reinforcer this stimulus acquires the power to be used as a reinforcer O A primary reinforcer is a timulus that meets a basic need or otherise is intrinsically desirable such as food sex fun attention or power 0 A secondary conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus such as money which has become associated with a primary reinforcer money buys foods builds power 0 A Human Talent Responding to Delayed Reinforces o If you give a dog a treat ten minutes after they did a trick you ll be reinforcing whatever they did right before the treat Dogs respond to immediate reinforcement o Humans can link a consequence to a behavior even if they aren t linked sequentially in time The piece of paper money can be a delayed reinforce paid a month later yet still reinforcing if we link it to our performance 0 Delaying gratification a skill related to impulse control enables longerterm goal setting How often should we reinforce 0 Do we need to give a reward every single time Or is that even best 0 In continuous reinforcement giving a reward after the target every single time o The subject acquires the desired behavior quickly In partialintermittent reinforcement giving rewards part of the time o The target behavior takes longer to be acquired but persists longer without reward less prone to extinction Which Schedule of Reinforcement is this Ratio or Interval Fixed or Variable o Rat gets food every third time it presses the lever 0 Getting paid weekly no matter how much work is done 0 Getting paid for every ten boxes you make 0 Hitting a jackpot sometimes on the slot machine 0 Winning sometimes on the lottery you play once a day Checking cell phone all day sometimes getting a text Buy eight pizzas get the next one free Fundraiser averages one donation for every eight houses visited Kid has tantrum parents sometimes give in o Repeatedly checking mail until paycheck arrives Operant Effect Punishment Punishments have the opposite effects of reinforcement These consequences make the target behavior less likely to occur in the future When is punishment effective 0 Punishment works best in natural settings when we encounter punishing consequences from actions such as reaching into a fire 9everity of punishments is not as helpful as making the punishments immediate and certain Summary Types of Consequences 0 Cognitive Learning 0 Latent Learning 0 Rats appear to form cognitive maps They can learn a maze just by wandering o Latent learning refers to skills or knowledge gained from experience but not apparent in behavior until rewards are given 0 Latent learning Observational learning bobo doll experiment 0 Learning Rewards and Motivation 0 Intrinsic motivation refers to the desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake The reward is internalized as a feeling of satisfaction 0 Extrinsic motivation refers to doing a behavior to receive rewards from others 0 Intrinsic motivation can be reduced by external rewards 0 Learning by Observation 0 Can we like the rats exploring the maze with no reward learn new behaviors and skills without a direct experience of conditioning 0 Yes and one of the ways we do so is by observational learning watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experience 0 Skills required mirroring being able to picture ourselves doing the same action and cognition noticing consequences and association 0 Albert Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 1961 0 Children watched adults behave aggressively with an inflated doll 0 These kids were then put in a room with toys and acted out the same behaviors they had seen 0 Children who saw adults being non aggressive or be punished for their aggression were less likely to copy the behaviors o Mirroring in the Brain 0 When we watch others doing or feeling something neurons fire in patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves 0 These neurons are referred to as mirror neurons and they fire only to reflect the actions or feelings of others 0 Mirroring Plus Vicarious Reinforcement o Mirroring enables observational learning we cognitively practice a behaviorjust by watching it o If you combine this with vicarious reinforcement we are even more likely to get imitation 0 Monkey a saw Monkey B getting a banana after pressing four symbols Monkey A then pressed the same four symbols even though the symbols were in different locations Memory Recall vs recognition vs relearning Atkinson Shiffrin model what is it What are components Alan Baddeley model of working memory what is it Components Effortful processing what is it Examples HM what happened What did we learn from it 0 Models of memory formation 0 The AtkinsonShiffrin Model 0 Stimulis is record and held in our sensory memory 0 Some of it is put into the short term memory 0 Info moves inot long term memory 0 Working Memory 0 Visual and auditory repeating of the info 0 Certain executive focuses parts and pulls it into the long term memory 0 DualTrack ProcessingExplicit and implicit memories 0 Explicit are fast esperiences that we can consciously know and recall 0 Implicit are memoires that are formed without going through all of the stages We are not fully aware of them 0 Automatic Processing 0 Some memoires go straight into IM that icnulde 0 Procedural memory Conditioned associations Space 0 Time Frequency 0 The encoding and processing memory 0 Sensory memory 0 Refers to instant very brief recording of info I Echo or image 0 34 second echo 0 129th ofa second image 0 Evidence of Visual Sensory Memory 0 George Speling Experimwent39s 0 Shows that 120th of a second view of a grid 0 Encoding Memory Capacity of Short Term and Working Memory 0 George Miller 0 We hold info for 72 seconds 0 Varies from person to person 0 Duration of short Term Memory STM 0 Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson wanted to know the duration of short term memory 0 People were triples of consonants eg VMF 0 To prevent rehearsing the subjects had to do a distracting task 0 People were then tested at various times to recall 0 Result after 12 seconds most memory of the consonants had decay and could not be retrieved o Encoding Effortful Processing strategies 0 A way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve O Effortful processing is known as studying o Chunking Why are credit card number broken into groups of four digits Four chucks are easier to encode memorize and recall than individual digits Organizing data into manageable units Works even better if we can assemble information into meaningful groups 0 Mnemonics What are the order of operations 0 Think back to math class 0 Please excuse my dear aunt sally o Is a memory trick that connects information to exhibition memory strengths such as imagery or structure 0 HierarchiesCategories We are more likely to recall a concept if we encode it in a hierarchy branchingnested set of categories and sub categories Below is an example of a hierarchy using some of the concepts we have just seen 0 Rehearsal and distributed practice Massed practice refers to cramming information all at once o It is not time effective The spacing effect You will develop better retention and recall if you use the same amount of study time spread out over many short sessions The testing effect Henry roediger found that if you distributed practice includes testing having two answer questions about the martial you will learn more and retain more than if you merely reared o DeepSemantic Processing when encoding information we are more like to retain it if we deeply process even a simple word list by focusing on the semantics meaning of the words 0 Making Information personally meaningful We can memorize a set of instruction more easily if we figure out what they mean rather than seeing them as set of words Actors memorize lines and students memorize poems more easily by deciding on the feelings and meanings behind the words so one line flows naturally to the next In self reference effect relating matieral to ourselves aids encoding and retention Now try again but this time consider how each word relates to you 0 Memory storage Capacity and location The brain is not like a hard drive The brains long term memory storage does not get full it gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected Process known as long term potentiation o Emory of a particular kitchen table may be a linkage among networks for kitchen meal wooden home legs sit o The end of long term memory is death 0 Double receptor sites I Electron microscope image a shows just one receptor site grey reaching toward a sending neuron before long term potentiation I Image b shows that after LTP the receptor sites have double This means that the receiving neuron has increased sensitivity for detecting the presence of the neurotransmitter molecules that may be released by the sending neuron o Explicit Memory Processing I Retrieval and use of explicit memories is directed by the frontal lobes I Encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the hippocampus Held here to be viewed before moved to other parts of the brain during sleep 0 Implicit memory processing I The cerebellum 39little brain39 Formats and stores our condition responses I We can store a phobic response even if we can39t recall how we acquired the fear I The basal ganglia next to the thalamus controls movement and forms and stores procedural memory and motor skills We can learn to ride a bicycle even if we can39t recall having the lesson 0 Emotions and Memory I Strong emotions especially stress can strengthen memory formation I Flashbulb memories refer to emotional intense events that become burned in as a vividseeming memory I Note that flashbulb memories are not as accurate as they feel 0 Memory retrieval I Recall Short term memory capacity abt 72 bit of information decays rapidly long term recall can be aided through effortful processing I Recognition the average person can view 2500 new faces places later can notice 90 percent accuracy which ones they39ve seen before I Relearning some people are unable to form new memories especially of episodes although they would not recall a puzzle solving lesson they might sight solve the puzzle faster each lesson 0 Retrieval Cues I Retrieval challenge memory is not stored as a file that can be retrieved by search alphabetically I Instead it is stored as a web of association 0 Conceptual o Contextual o Emotional I Memory involves a web of associated concepts 0 Retrieval is affected by activating our associations I Priming is the activation unconsciously of a particular associations in memory 0 Triggers a thread of associations that bring us to a concept 0 Our minds work by having one idea trigger another this maintains a flow ofthought o The power of Priming I Priming has been called quotinvisible memoryquot because it affects us In the case of tree bark vs dog bark The path we follow in our thoughts can be channeled by priming We may have biases and associations stored in memory that also influence our choices 0 Primed with money people do not share 0 Primed with Santa Claus led kids to share 0 Primed with a missing child poster more liking to see adult to child talking afar would be considered kidnapping Context dependent memory Part of the web of associations of a memory is the context 0 AKA more than just the info itself We retrieve a memory more easily when in the dame context as when we formed the memory StateDependent Memory Memories can also be tied to the emotional state we were in when we formed the memory Mood congruent memory refers to the tendency to selectively recall details that are consistent with one current mood 0 When mad at your romantic partner you remember all the things they ve done to annoy you 0 When happy with your partner you remember all the good times you ve had The serial position effect Priming context cues are not only the factors which make memory retrieval selective o The serial position effect 0 Refers to the tendency when learning information in a long list to more likely recall the first items and the last items The brain and the two track Mind the case of henry malison 39HMquot The removal og HM39s hippocampus ended his seizures bnut also ended his ability to form new explicit memories HM could learn new skills procedures locations of objects and games but had no memory of the lessons or the instructors o What is the important difference here The Two Types of Amnesia Retorgrade amnesia refers to an inability to retrieve memory of the past 0 Head injury 0 Temporary Anterograde amensia refers to an inability to form new long term declarative explicit memories 0 Brain damage 0 Will not get better RA old memories inaccesiblegtgtgtgtgtgtgt AA No post trauma memories Storage Decay 1022015 1248 AM Material encoded into long term memory will decay if the meory is never used recall and restored Decay is LTP in reverse or like pruning Unused connecions and networks wither while well used memory traces are kept I Decay tends to level off 0 Memory for both nonsense syllables and spanish lesson decays rapidly o What hasn t decayed quickly tends to stay intact long term 0 Tip of the tongue Retrieval Failure I Sometimes the memory does not decay but what does are the assoications to the memory I quotI know what namequot I To prevent retreval failure when storing you build multiple associations and linking images to it 0 Why is our memory full of errors I Memory gets forgotten and constructed I They are altered when we recall them 0 Reconsolidate I Later infor alters earlier memories I No matter have accurate you think it is it is full of alterations o The misinformation effect I ncoporation misleading info into ones memory of an event 0 Implanted memories I In elzabeth loftus people were asaked to provide details of a incident in child when they had been lost at the mall I Even though no incident actually happened most people believe that it happened 0 d ja vu I Already seen 0 The feeling that you39re in a situation that you39ve seen or have been in before 0 We feel certain a source of amnesia o A memory the we think is from our long term memory 0 Familiarity and recognition kick in and our brain tells us that this is a past experinceor it kicks in too soon 0 Constructed memories and Children I Kids have underdeveloped frontal lobes more prone to implanted memories I Imagined events are hard to differentiate from experienced events I When interviewing kids don t LEAD them be nonsuggestive in questions 0 Recovered memories of past abuse I Can people recover repressed memories I Abused memoires are more like burned in I Forgotten memories can reappear spontaneously through cues o Improveing memory to improve grades I RETRIEVAL CUES I Meaningful depth I Mnemoics I Multpie study sessions I Space further and further apart I Activating your retrieval cues I Test yourself Thinking language Problem solving what are strategies we use What are obstacles in the way we think language what is it What are components How does it develop Characteristics of chimp language ability Confirmation Bias 0 Confirmation bias refers to our tendency to search for information which confirms our current theory disregarding contradictory evidence 0 Natural tendency quotIf I m right then fact C will confirm my theory I must look for fact quotCquot 0 Scientific practice quotIf I m right then fact D will disprove or at least disconfirm my theory I must search for fact D 0 Confirmation Bias Test Hypothesized rulefact everyone who drinks alcohol at this party is at least 21 years of age Other problem Solving Habits 0 Mental Set 0 The tendency to approach problems using a mindset procedures and methods that has worked previously 0 Fixation o The tendency to get stuck in one way thinking an inability to see a problem from a new perspective The availability heuristic 0 We use to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how much it stands out in our mind how much it is available as a mental reference The overconfidence error 0 In judgements refers to our tendency to be more confident than correct 0 We over estimate the accuracy of our estimates predictions and knowledge Belief Perseverance Error quotMy mind is made up do not confuse me with the facts 0 Belief perseverance is the tendency to hold onto our beliefs when facing contrary evidence 0 We interpret information in a way that fits our beliefs We disregard contrary information as wrong or biased O Stereotypes are maintained by this error people often disregard examples contradicting stereotypes 0 Framing 0 Is focus emphasis or perspective that affects our judgements and decisions 0 Do other species think If thinking consists of understanding concepts including words numbers and qualities then many creatures can memorize the names of many objects Parrots can speak the names birds can sort objects by shape color and type Alex the African parrot could add numbers and answer complex questions such as quotwhat color bigger quotTell me the color of the object that is the bigger of these two If thinking consists of solving problems with insight devising behaviors that were not trained and putting strategies together in new combinations then chimpanzees demonstrate advanced problemsolving After putting down a short stick that could not reach a fruit a chimp jumped up suddenly to use that short stick to reach a longer stick Do Animals Use LANGUAGE Language consists of the use of symbols to represent transmit and store meaninginformation Symbols include organized patterns of sounds visual representations and movements Meaning includes concepts quantities plans identity feelings ideas facts and customs Uses of Language We can hear about and understand phenomena we have never expe enced We can make plans and have others carry them out We can know what another person is thinking more directly than just by observing their behavior How do we learn language Language Development Language Development is an Amazing Process Around 1824 months old human children experience a vocabulary boom From a handful of words mom dad hungry etc to thousands of words o This vocab acquisition is not only massive it is rapid Children may learn a word by hearing it only once Children can learn words and meanings while simultaneously following social rules for speaking and listening Learning not to say bad words Explaining Language Acquisition Nature and Nurture The Role of Genes We seem to have an inborn genetic talent for acquiring language though no particular kind of language is in the genes The Role of Experience We also seem to have a quotstatisticalquot pattern recognition talent Infants quickly recognize patterns in syllable frequency and sequence preparing them to later learn words and syntax
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