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Exam 2 Review

by: Leyla Notetaker

Exam 2 Review soc 302

Leyla Notetaker
GPA 3.3
Introduction to the Study of Society
Dr. Haghshenas

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About this Document

These are my review notes and study guide for the exam covering topics including bureaucracy, social/global stratification, and macro/microsociology.
Introduction to the Study of Society
Dr. Haghshenas
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leyla Notetaker on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to soc 302 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Haghshenas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Study of Society in Sociology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Tuesday April 7 2015 Sociology Review Bureaucracy goal oriented organizations with rational principles in order to efficiently attain their goals information flows up the chain of command and directives flow down 0 Rationalization organization of socialeconomic life based on efficiency and technical knowledge gt McDonaldization 0 Characterisitics hierarchy of authority impersonality replaceable members written rules of conduct efficiency promotion based on achievement specialized division of labor whighly specific tasks authority attached to position record keeping positions filled based on technical knowledgeobjective criteria real vs ideal 0 Pros efficient replicable organized durable and resistant Tuesday April 7 2015 0 Cons escape proof red tape internal communication alienation gt no individualization Weber promotion until level of incompetence Leslie Knope encounters red tape as an obstacle wants to do all these cool projects but cannot bc other bureaucrats want to do other things with the same pit THE PIT lron cage no one can escape it is everywhere Bohemian Grove group of capitalists who meet to discuss similar interests oligarchy McDonaIdization of Society efficient fast little human involvement cater to audience the system successfully fits Weber s model of classical bureaucracy other organizations adopted McDonald s model of efficiency hospitals 0 Advantages efficient choosing optimum means to given end consumers get what they wantneed workers perform tasks quickly and easily managers profit maximized Tuesday April 7 2015 Applying to higher education most courses run a standard of weeks GPA test results emphasis on class sizefinal grades Applying to healthcare limiting time with patients increasing profitability Predictability consumers know what they will get gt peace of mind workers perform effortless mindless repetitive work Changes that parallel McDonaldization new technologies culturally desirable process mass production of homogenous products increased productivity equal treatment race gender etc availability of goodsservices Disadvantages trapped in Weber s iron cage bureaucracies become a growing and increasingly inescapable facet of our lives they are everywhere we are always in one homogeneity less personalspontaneous more rigid Ronald Talaki rationalized settings efficient system may become antithesis to enchantment inherent nature of the expenence the self is placed in confinement emotions are controlled gt no individualism Tuesday April 7 2015 0 Japanese model less hierarchical teamwork group oriented lifetime job security group decision making horizontal power structure promotion of collaboration amongst employees humanizes work setting Alternatives to Bureaucracy less rigid rules and control more equal distribution of power and labor virtual organization members are linked electronically to foster easier communication gt less socialization Ritzer efficiency predictability control calculability Modernity break from tradition rationalization of socialization logic science technology causes Marxcapitalism gt decay of rationalization Weber rationalityreligion capitalist mindsent Protestant Ethic gt capitalism Tuesday April 7 2015 Weberian Disenchantment rise of rationalitybureaucracy mainly caused by rise of science we do not have all knowledge we have less but all knowledge is available all knowledge can be known religion seen defined as intellectual sacrifice Voluntary Associations offer identity advance particular interests maintain order comprised of individuals with mutual interests Michel s lron Law of Oligarchy gt rule of many by an elite few who keep control amongst themselvesmembers exclusively FoucauH surveillance supervision of activities in organizations information about us is gathered constantly a product of bureaucracy keeping tabs keeping control keeping records Social Stratification existence of structure of inequality ranking and categorization of entire groups sensitively linked to the life chances Openclosed boundaries clan familyblood relationships each person linked to the large network of relatives Tuesday April 7 2015 estate feudal system high status groups own landhold power aristocracy clergy commonerspeasantsserfs slavery economic inequality people ownedcontrolledrestrictedcoerced caste system fixed status at birth determines one s lifestyle center to Hindu religion karma and reincarnation ritual purity Brahminsuntouchables class system social classgroup of people who share common economic position Weber life chancesopportunity for economic prosperity 0 Why inequality exists Structural functionalist Davis and Moore 88 somehow necessary society must fill vital positions with skilled talented people in order to fill important positions rewards social or monetarymaterial must be offered to skilled people based on a meritocracy some positions are more valuable than others supplydemand ex doctorsgtgarbage collectors Conflict perspective societyconflicting groups with different ideasvalues those who own means of production vs workers capitalists vs workers built into system unequal distribution of powerresources struggle to gain economic advantages society constructed around ruling class s interests DeBeers Diamond Empire Power Elite Mills top people in US corporations military politicians Lenski idea of surplus occurs in societies with a surplus of materials gt competition for the elite to have more than the working class Tuesday April 7 2015 Social construction of reality reality does not simply emerge out of social interaction reality visions of powerful individuals groups organizations nations Mass media images of class immature irresponsible macho exhibitions 0 Marxian class model ownership of means of production ability to purchasecontrol labor of others false consciousness subjective awareness that does not correspond to objective facts workers identify with the interests of capitalists class consciousness objective awareness Contradictory Class Location Wright position in class structure that generates contradictory interests 0 Weber s concept of class economic status propertywealth political status power social status prestige Global Stratification Imperialism transferring western ideas religion language etc positive economic development of western societies negative impoverished much of the rest of the world resources drained off from nonindustrial nations dependency approach Colonialization powerful nation invades and establishes control over a weaker country to expand markets Neocolonialism economic and political dominance over least industrialized nations by most industrialized often through ever mounting debt with ever mounting interest Tuesday April 7 2015 Dramaturgy social interaction as theater impression management presenting a favorable public image so others will form positive judgments Goffman people are like actors on a stage the audience are observing behavior the more one performs the easier it is to predict future performancesbehaviors Face saving study nonobservance ignoring embarrassing actionswords role conflict between roles role strain within a role when in front of an audience Macro Micro Sociology Micro bottom up state of being gtbecoming work in progress agency the actorchoices you make exercising power to make something happen modifying expectations attitudes behaviorsposition meaningwe give to history changes the message social interaction Macro focuses on society as a whole between social systems and social structures on a mass level the big picture Social structure patterns of relationship among basic components in a given society institutions social classes social status framework for society ldeology beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements Relational polyphony different relational forms not just individualism simultaneously constitute US society we occupy our status and act out our roles behaviors obligations privileges attached to status ascribed status inherited at birthreceives involuntarily later Tuesday April 7 2015 achieved status earned accomplished 0 Zimbardo s mock prison individual behavior is mainly influenced by social forcessituational contingencies given proper environmental circumstances we create the very social forces that shape our behavior individualsthe self quickly take on roles we are always being watched so behave not actually always being watched but behave anyway as if you were ex large scale ethnic hatred Bystander effect we are less likely to do anything the more people are present distributes the responsibility to act within a certain situation especially an emergency Durkheim s Social Solidarity Mechanical simple preliterate societies moralsocial similarity conformity to tradition personal relationship based on loyalty and trust kinship communal Organic complex industrial societies individuals emphasized not religious largely secular worldly values less traditional property privately owned nuclear family contracts Tuesday April 7 2015 diverse morality Tonnies Gemeinschaft intimate community primary group mechanical solidarity Gesellsohaft impersonal relationships secondary group organic solidarity self interests and individual achievements


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