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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Cole Klopfer

Exam 1 Study Guide SOC 221

Cole Klopfer
Social Problems
Whitaker, Elizabeth

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The complete study guide all filled out for exam 1.
Social Problems
Whitaker, Elizabeth
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cole Klopfer on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 221 at Central Michigan University taught by Whitaker, Elizabeth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Central Michigan University.

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Date Created: 10/06/15
Exam 1 Study Guide This is just an outline to help organize and facilitate your studying Hope it39s helpful Readings Joel Best Blackboard American Society Blackboard Text pp27 Text pp 174184 194end of chapter Seriously Do the Readings Sociological Concepts Social Institutions what they are what they are NOT Know and define the 6 universal social institutions The social Institution are guides to the norms of which most societies live by Each of them have a speci c role in helping with a society They are not just blocks but rather structures that con ict with each other They can change their form to help society at any time 1 Family A unit by which one can help take care of a child have companionships and ful lling money needs 2 Economy The way different resources are gather and distributed in a society 3 Education The way skills and beliefs are passed down from generate to generation 4 Political System The way power is distributed for the purpose of rule making and deception making for the whole society 5 Religion a guideline for ethical behavior and a example for life And the explanation for human problems that cannot be understood with the knowledge that humans posses Social norms formal and informal Formal An example of formal norms are laws university rules that must be followed and driving on the right side of the road InformalInformal laws on the other hand are walking on the right side of a sidewalk chewing with you mouth closed and not picking your nose Powe r The ability to exercise one s own will over another Life Chances A person s opportunity to provide themselves with needs material good positive living conditions and favorable life chances Culture material and nonmaterial Culture Patterns to our way of life including beliefs and values Material Dress Foods and Architecture NonMaterial Norms Values and Beliefs Values and Beliefs Values Beliefs about what is goodbad rightwrongimportantunimportant desirable undesirable Beliefs Definitions and examples of what is assumed to be true What are the prerequisites to solving social problems that we discussed in class The prerequisites to solving social problems are believing that we should try to solve the problem And seeking social change noting that noticing social problems is not unpatriotic as some people might think They existSubjective VS Objective We should solve them Structure VS Agency Human Agency what it is and how this impacts how we proceed in addressing social problems Human Agency is the ability to chose a response to social conditions Though this cause constraint to the choices that you do have So sociologist see the interweaving of both choice and constraint Interaction between social structure and human agency Human agency are the decisions that people can make with their free will while social structure are the limits of the decision making due to things like gender class ethnicityext The subjectivist approach to viewing social problems It is as interactive process of which some individuals or groups of people stating some claims in order to bring the attention of troubling conditions to policy makers and people in general to make change Social Construction of reality social interactionism Joel Best Reading Social Construction of reality A theory that states a subject like social interactions only eXists because we want them to eXist And this also can go to things that we find important like books or money but with our human being they would not eXist Social Interactionism Is a theory that looks at not the big picture but a individual level It looks at how the little things like swimming when it is hot outside all the time when one is a child in uences a person So if this person were to see water on a hot day as an adult one might think of going swimming But this can change if one has a bad experience with water that has happened in one life one might not want to go swimming after that experience Six steps in the Social Problems Process Understand what these 6 things mean Stage 1 claimsmaking When an individual or group says that a condition should be preserved as troubling in other word a social problem grounds typifying example statistics naming the problem Grounds Information and evidence about the troubling condition warrantsWhy we should be concerned about the troubling condition focuses why ought to care Know definition of ideology Ideology A set of cultural beliefs values and attitude that justify the norms or trying to make movements to make changes conclusionsWhat should be done about the social problem the solution Stage 2 media coverage Reports on claims makers so that the new can reach a broader audience EX The broadcasting networks and the new papers report on con icts with the civil rights campaign Stage 3 public reactions Public opinion focuses on the problem identified by the claims makers EX People became more concerned about racial segregation and more supportive of the campaign against it Stage 4 policymaking who can implement policies and programs govt only The Congress is one of many places where policies and problems can be worked on and solved Stage 5 social problems work implementation This is mostly on microscopic interactive level Doing the work Stage 6 policy outcomes Social Movement v Social Movement Organization Social Movement A group of diffusely organized people or organizations striving towards a common goal relating to human or social change or the organized activities of such a group Movements often have many SMOs pursuing change agendas Social Movement Organized Named formal organization engaged in actions to advance a movement s goals Countermovementscounterclaims position issue v valance issue Countermovements A group of people who have the same ideology who come together to try and complete certain goals So a group of people come together to fight against what they think need to be changed More physical but could also be logical Counter claims Opposite of a claim Someone who does not agree with what you are away and so pull facts and reasons to prove that you are wrong So this is more of a logical battle rather than a physical one Position issue something that will unlikely make everyone agree to It is difficult for claims makers to persuade people to calm over to their side And they target people who relatively think the same Valence issue Something that most people will agree to It is much easier for claims makers to make certain claims about theses social problems Types of Claimsmakers Activists experts official Activist These people are advocated for a cause And campaigns for some kind of social change such as marching in certain protests ExpertsThe are people who believed to have specialized knowledge about a particular subject such that others in the social process defer to them about this topic or closely related topics The focus on more factual evidence and involves generated falsifiable hypotheses that are then tested and if proven wrong rejected Of cials These people have substantial resources especially for data collection Role of Resources financial v cultural Financial You need money to function in this society So people are more likely to fight for a claim if the people who are making the claims can make and give the money well Cultural The different type of cultural difference could actually have more power over people Take our society if someone claimed that they were in need we would feel like there is more of a people if a child was talking to us about needing food rather than an adult telling us that Role of Media in Claimsmaking process factors that affect what is reported and by whom There is work to be done but there will be constraint of what is shown and what is covered in certain claims Such as one that they might think are less interesting are the ones that might be let go but it might actually be important to know in the future American Society Reading What are the 6 values Olin and Rodgers say we care about as a society How do they define these 5 things If there is a list of 39values39 that we would generally agree on why so much fighting and disagreement What are the kinds of disagreements we have over these values 1 Rule are enforcedThe real arguments for this begin with some rules being more harsh enforced than others Giving people leaned with one thing but then have strict rules on another cause con icts 2 Rule take on different forms There are two main ones the rst is laws which are enforce by the government and the states once caught the punishment could be a ticket or jail The other is social norms which are a bit more leant when it come to breaking them The worst that will happen is one might not get a job or lose a few friends Some might say that it is good to break a few rule every once in a while or to break the law for fun While for other the rules are meant to be ooded to the key which might cause con ict with different people 3 Rules are frequently not neutral This rule simply states that the world is not fair there are always going to be unbalanced pay and unfair advantages But this is where one might find con ict America is supposed to be the land of the free where anyone can climb to the top with hard work and determination But we are not that country the poor stay poor while the rich get even more rich which then causes mention with the lower level class 4 Power and rule interact People who like to stay in power are much more likely to agree with rule that keep it that way Again America is not supposed to be that way We here try and fight for equality but when the rich are in control they have more power to crate rule that keep them at the top Which then causes the lower class to become more irritable 5 Rules can be inconsistent They might not make any sense and can con ict with each other And is generally impossible to follow all social rules Well this one speaks for itself when you have rule that con ict with each other and you have people who strongly agree with said rule you have yourself a breeding ground for pure agreements to form 6 Rules can change Rules are very unstable and need to be redone every so often What the problem with this is that people do not like change so the people who think the rule is fine just the way it is and does not need to be changed with argue to keep it the way it is Which then causes con ict with the people who think it does need to be changed Social StratificationInequality Social Strati cation A system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy what is it Be able to list at least three categories that affect your position in the social hierarchy in the US today ie race There is gender how old one is and sexual orientation Difference between wealth and income Wealth Is what you are worth how much property do you own the amount of house you have how many cars do you have What they are worth determines your wealth Income The total amount you earn in a year Not looking at your cars or your house the income is what you earn for your job annually what is SES What is it comprised of This stands for socioeconomic status and it is comprised of class income and wealth occupation prestige and how educated you are More inequality on wealth or income Wealth has more inequality then income This is due to the fact that people could have much more luxury items and stock which increase one s overall wealth Functionalist view on inequality Davis and Moore They state that social strati cation is a universal pattern because it has bene cial consequences of the operation of society what is a meritocracy A system of social strati cation based on personal merit Conflict perspective on inequality Individuals who start out on top are more likely to stay at the top Groups at the top have the power to shape and de ne institutions and spread information to create ideologies that perpetuate their power and advantage Forms of capital be able to give an example of each financial social cultural human Financial investing in the community to underwrite the other companies to get more money into one s own bank account Social The connections that one has to get places Such as nding jobs or internship that would have been otherwise impossible to get Cultural How much one know about the world What type of heritage do you know about Types of gestures that might be offensive to other countries but in others it is a complement Human One s own skill sets and experience that help out in different circumstances Like knowing how to cook when you have little to no food Poverty absolute v relative Absolute Unable to have basic needs met that will allow from sustaining a healthy and living body Relative Living in deprivation compared to how the majority in one s society live Living in a way that does not allow for selfrespect when perceived relative to others Poverty line how is it computed by whom why do we define a 39poverty line Poverty Line The amount of money needed to support the basic need of a household It is based of three time as much as a low cost food budget And it computed by the government themselves Be able to give one reason why the formula for the poverty line is potentially problematic The cost of living has gone up from when it was rst introduced in the 1930 s Things have gotten more expensive with the cost of a house transportation the cost of raising a child and the cost of food Three time the budget might have worked in the 1930 s but nowa days you need more than just food to relatively well What is the overall poverty rate in the US rate provided in class 15 in 2012 What is the rate for children african americans and women per your book 248 of the US poor are children 185 of women are below the poverty line And for African American s it is 274 are in poverty Define extreme or deep poverty Deep poverty Having half the income below the poverty line Extreme poverty An average daily consumption of 125 or less and means living on the edge of subsistence Be able to identify at least one category of Americans who experience disproportionate levels of poverty overall What do we mean by the term 39working poor People who are either working 27 week out of the year in the labor force this could also mean looking for a job as well but who39s income fall below the national poverty line Examples of Safety Net Policies in the past and currently Actions of Roosevelt Johnson Clinton Buch as discussed in class AFDC V TANF AFDC Aid to Family with Dependent Children was introduced in the 1930 s by Roosevelt to help with families during the great depression Started as part of the Social Security Act the new deal While TNAF Temporary Assistance to Needy Families was introduced to combat the perverse Motives for poverty SNAP Stands for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Or as it was once called food stamps The goal is to provide women infants and children with a electronic debit card once per month rought equaling 13341 dollars What is diff bw public housing and section 8 housing assistance Public housing Provides federally subsidized housing that s owned and operated by local public housing authorities Section 8 Housing Involves federal rent that that subsides either with the tenant in the form of certificates or vouchers or given to the private landlords The difference is instead of putting people in p high poverty neighborhoods they try to spread out the low income families through the community Be able to identify at least 1 Myth Americans generally believe about individuals who receive some form of public assistance and be able to explain some facts that demonstrate the belief is a myth See Text Storied Streets Documentary a question that shows you were there when it was shown Food Insecuritv What is it The state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable nutritious food Food Insecurity v Hunger Food Security A household level economic and social condition of limited or unbeaten access to adequate food Hunger An individuallevel physiological condition that may result from food insecurity Factors that make low income and food insecure people more vulnerable to obesity When you have a budget and that budget is very small and for full fatty foods for 1000 calories cost 176 Now lets compare the less fatty and more nutritious foods for 1000 calories cost 1816 there is a reason why people with less money would go with the fattier foods Food Deserts what where are they likely to occur why do they develop Food desert is where people have little to no access to healthy and nutritious food or even food in general They are most likely to occur in rural areas where there are few people who could eat all the fresh produce that big markets have to stock And it develops because no super market want to put in a store where they are not making any money in fact would be losing money due to the fact that they would have to throw away most of the fresh produce because there were not enough people to buy said produce


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