Bio Exam2 Study Guide
Bio Exam2 Study Guide BIOL 160 - 018
Popular in Cellular and Molecular Biology
BIOL 160 - 018
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Emery on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 160 - 018 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by John W Koontz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
Reviews for Bio Exam2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/06/15
BioExam 2 Study Guide Chapter 7 Inside the Cell Prokaryotes No membrane bound nucleus Vary in size and shape 0 All contain 0 Plasma membrane 0 Single circular chromosome Found in the nucleoid o Ribosomes Protein synthesis 0 Stiff cell wall 0 May contain 0 Photosynthetic membranes 0 Plasmids sometimes Supercoiled DNA molecules Genes for survival in an unusual environment drug resistance 0 Cytoskeleton Long thin protein laments o Flagella Taillike xture on the cell wall spins to create movement 0 Glycolipids Can form an additional layer outside the cell wall Eukaryotes Usually larger than prokaryotes Organelles membrane bound cell compartments with speci c jobs 0 Separation of incompatible chemical reactions 0 Increases ef ciency of chemical reactions Nucleus Surrounded by double membrane nuclear envelope 0 Lipid bilayers 0 Continuous with ER 0 Inside surfacenuclear lamina 0 Nuclear pores allow things to move in and out Distinct nucleolus o Ribosomal RNA synthesis 0 Information storage and processing 0 Contains chromosomes Ribosomes No membrane not considered an organelle Large and small subunits Synthesize proteins Endomembrane System 0 Rough ER 0 Attached ribosomes o Synthesize proteins 0 New proteins folded and processed in RER lumen Smooth ER 0 Enzymes synthesize fatty acids and phospholipids o Breakdown poisons 0 Holds calcium ions Golgi apparatus 0 Processes sorts ships proteins 0 Membranous vesicles carry materials between organelles New cisternae form on cis face Old cisternae break off trans face 000 Carbs are added between the faces 0 Every protein has a tag that places it speci cally Proteins are packed into vesicles when they move from the RER to the golgi and out of the cell Into and Out of the Cell Exocytosis sending to the cell surface in vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane and release contents outside the cell Endocytosis cell membrane pinches off to bring outside material into the cell Phagocytosis something large grabbed by the cell membrane Pinocytosis brings uid into the cell Autophagy a ysosome eats an organee Receptor Mediated Endocytosis endocytosis with receptors on the outside of the cell forms ysosomes Signal Hypothesis 20amino acid long ER signal sequence Binds to signal recognition particle SRP that binds to ER receptor In RER lumen proteins folded an glycosated Pulsechase experiment helped us learn about inner cell movement Lysosomes Single membrane 40 digestive enzymes used for digestion and waste processing found in animal cells Mitochondria Inner and outer membrane folded into cristae Inside cristae is mitochondrial matrix ATP production Contain their own DNA Chloroplasts Double membrane Contain their own DNA Flattened vesicles called thylakoids stacked into grana surrounded by stroma Convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis Cell Wall 0 Plants and algae cellulose Fungi chitin Some have a secondary cell wall made of Iignin Cytoskeleton Protein bers 0 Shape and stability to the cell 0 Aids cell movement 0 Dynamic 0 Three elements 0 Actin laments 0 Intermediate laments o Microtubules Peroxisomes Globular organelles with a single membrane 0 Center of oxidation reactions Glyoxysomes in plant cells oxidize fats that can be used to story energy Vacuoles Large membrane bound structure found in plants and fungi Can contain digestive enzymes Specialized for digestion Usually store water Chapter 8 Energy and Enzymes Metabolism Thermodynamics First law energy cannot be created or destroyed Second isolated systems move towards thermodynamic equilibrium Entropy increases without an input of energy Energy Kinetic energy of motion Potential energy of potential Enthalpy heat H Entropy disorder S Gibbs energy equation AG 2 AH TAS If change in G is o lt O spontaneous and exergonic o gt 0 non spontaneous and endergonic o O at equilibrium Catalysis Catalyze one type of reaction Reactions take place 0 Particles collide precisely o Reactants have enough energy to overcome electron repulsion Enzymes protein catalyst and very speci c one reaction 0 Bring substrates together precisely o Decrease kinetic energy needed for reaction Activation energy is the energy needed to get a reaction into its transition state Catalysts lower activation energy Redox Reactions Atom gains an electron reduced oxidizing agent electron acceptor Atom loses an electron oxidizes reducing agent electron donor Always paired Electrons can be transferred completely from one atom to another or they can simply shift their position in covalent bonds The transferred electron can have an accompanying proton Electrons are a source of chemical potential energy 106 Photosynthesis Process of using sunlight to produce carbohydrates Requires sunlight carbon dioxide and water 0 Oxygen is a by product Contrasts with cellular respiration o Photosythesis is endergonic Reduced C02 to sugar 0 Respiration is exergonic Oxidizes sugar to C02 0 Two sets of reactions 0 Light dependent reactions 0 Calvin cycle 0 Linked by electrons Structure of Chloroplast Inner and outer membrane 0 Internal membranes form thylakoids Which are stacked in grana Stroma is the uid lled space Antenna Complex Reaction Center Excited electrons are transferred to specialized chlorophyll Fluoresce is the emission of light when an excited electron falls back to its ground state Photosystem 1 Photosystem 2 Light Dependent Reactions 101 Citric Acid Cycle Third step of glucose oxidation The CoA produced in pyruvate processing enter the CAC Each acetyl CoA oxidizes into two molecules of C02 Some potential energy is released to 0 Reduce NAD to NADH 0 Reduce FAD to FADH2 an electron carrier 0 Phosphorylate GDP to GTP later converted into ATP Substrates 0 Series of carboxylic acids is oxidized and recycled in the CAC o Citrate rst molecule in the cycle is formed from pyruvate and oxaoacetate last molecule in the cycle Each glucose molecule that is oxidized to 6 C02 molecules 0 10 NAD to NADH o 2 FAD to FADH2 o 4 ATP via substrate level phosphorylation ATP can be directly used for cellular work Most of glucose s original energy in contained in the electrons transferred from NADH to FADH2 which take them to Oxygen Electron Transport Chain ETC Fourth step in respiration Energy released as electrons move through ETC used to pump protons across inner membrane into intermembrane space 0 Makes electrochemical gradient Most ETC molecules are embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane 0 Only one isn t which is it o Coenzyme Q lipid biayer ETC proteins organized into more mulitprotein complexes and cofactors Protons are pumped into intermembrane space from mitochondrial matrix by complexes I III and IV Q and cytochrome C transfer electrons between complexes Q also carries protons across the membrane Chemiosmostic Hypothesis Bacteriorhopdopsin acts as a proton pump 0 captures light energy 0 used to move protons across membrane out of the cell 0 proton gradient created is converted into chemical energy ATP ATP Synthase Enzyme complex with two components 0 ATPase knob F1 Unit 0 Membrane bound proton transporting base F0 Unit Connected by a rotor spins F1 929 Redox Reaction Reduced gaining an electron o This molecule has higher potential energy Oxidized losing an electron o This molecule has lower potential energy The molecule that receives the electron is the reducing agents The molecule that donates the electron in the oxidizing agent They always come in pairs Metabolism Glucose can be metabolized without oxygen through fermentation The carbons in glucose start as CHZO and end as C02 The electron transferred during redox is usually accompanied by a proton Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD is reduced to form NADH o NADH easily donates electrons and is known as an quotelectron carrierquot and has quotreducing powerquot All the endergonic reactions in a cell are paired with exergonic reactions in reaction coupling Respiration Most steps occur in mitochondria o Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm 0 Two in outermembrane 0 One in inner matrix 0 Steps 0 Glycolysis 10 chemical reactions all needed enzymes are n the cytosol Glucose is broken down into two 3carbon molecules called pyruvate and potential energy released in used to change ADP to ATP Parts 0 Energy investment phase 0 Energy payoff phase 0 Pyruvate processing 0 0 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Three phosphate groups ribose adenine 0 Alpha beta gamma phosphates moving outwards Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed o Exergonic reaction 0 4 negative charges high potential energy
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'