Chapter 8 Study Guide
Chapter 8 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Few errors which leads me to believe you don't proofread, but other than that, detailed. Thanks.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 8 GROUP PROCESSES LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 8 1 Describe the reasons that people join a group Discuss the process of adjustment to a new group Explain the processes of group development as well as how roles norms and cohesiveness in uence groups pp 297302 Much of what we hope to produce and accomplish can be done only Through collective actions play football games or build cities Humans may also have an innate drive to belong to groups due to evolutionary pressure that bettered an individual39s chance of surviving and reproducing by living in groups People can also fain a greater sense of personal and social identity by belonging to groups Socialization into a group may include things such an orientation programs mentoring or documentation Implicit adjustment to a group would be a newcomer observing how established members behave in the group as they learn the roles expected set of behaviors they are expected to play in the group There might be new norms rules of conduct for members when someone joins a group Groups whose members share similar attitudes and closely follow the group norms are more likely to be cohesive Group cohesiveness is the forces exerted on a group that push its members closer together 2 Explain how the presence of others affects task performance and how Zaj onc s social facilitation model accounts for these effects Describe three alternative accounts for these effects pp 302305 Zajonc39s model has three steps 1 The presence of others creates general physiological arousal which energizes behavior all animals tend to become aroused when they are in the presence of members of their own species 2 The increased arousal enhances the individual39s tendency to perform the dominant response the reaction elicited most quickly and easily by a given stimulus 3he quality of an individual39s performance depends on the type of task on a task that is simple of well learned the dominant response is correct however on more complex or unfamiliar tasks the dominant response is often unsuccessful One alternative is that the mere presence of others is not enough to produce social facilitation but instead evaluation apprehension theory explains this A theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those other are seen as potential evaluators Another option is distractionconflict theory which points out that being distracted while we39re working on tasks makes it hard to give all your attention to the task 3 Describe how working with others on a task affects productivity Explain the concept of social loafing identify factors that can reduce the likelihood of loafing and distinguish between situations likely to lead to social facilitation versus social loafing pp 305308 Social loafing is when the individual output declines when they act collectively but they also might just have poor coordination while working together Sharing responsibility with others reduces the amount of effort that people but into tasks Ways to reduce this are 1 limit the scope of a project large complex projects should be broken down into smaller components 2 keep the groups small 3 and use peer evaluations Individuals are more likely to try hard on a collective task when they think their efforts will help them achieve outcomes that they personally value but if an outcome isn39t personally important they don39t believe their contribution will effect the outcome very much or if they feel their effort won39t be able to compensate for anticipated social loafing they are likely to put in less effort 4 Define deindividuation Describe how environmental cues and a sense of identity can affect this process pp 308311 Deindividuation is the loss of a person39s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviance Arousal anonymity and a reduced feeling of personal responsibility contribute to this Environmental cues include accountability cues affect an individual39s costreward calculations and attentional cues focus a person39s attention away from the self can also contribute 5 Describe the different types of tasks that groups perform Explain process loss and the relationship between group performance and type of task Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of brainstorming pp 311314 Process loss is the reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes such as problems of coordination and motivation In additive tasks the group product is a sum of all the members39 contributions example cheering at a pep rally usually causes people to do less work than if that person had worked alone Conjunctive tasks are when the group product is determined by the individual with the poorest performance and they tend to do worse than the average person39s performance Disjunctive tasks the group product is determined by the individual with the best performance have the least process loss Advantages of brainstorming the more people involved means it39s more likely that someone will have a breakthrough Disadvantages in practice group processes can interfere with coming up with ideas and getting them accepted someone pokes holes in a good idea so it39s discarded rather than workshopped when people have to wait their turn to speak they may forget ideas free riding may occur people don39t feel responsible for coming up with a solution people only work as hard as they see others in their group working 6 Describe group polarization and distinguish between the informational and normative processes through which it occurs pp 314315 If mosT group members lean in a particular direcTion risky or cauTious Then This lean will be exaggeraTed Through group discussions InformaTive processes is when group members conform because They believe ThaT The oThers are correcT while normaTive processes cause people To conform because They are afraid To go againsT The majoriTy of The group39s opinion EiTher way people polarize Towards The iniTial Tendencies as people conform To The group39s opinion 7 Define groupthink and its antecedents behavioral symptoms and consequences Address how groupthink can be prevented pp 315319 Group Think is The excessive Tendency To seek concurrence agreemenT or uniformiTy among group members This arises when The need for agreemenT Takes prioriTy over The moTivaTion To obTain accuraTe informaTion This is common in highly cohesive groups groups made up of people from similar backgrounds or even Those lead by a sTrong leader and groups in a sTressful siTuaTion To prevenT group Think you can avoid isolaTion groups should consulT wiTh people ouTside Their group reduce pressures To conform by having leaders explicile encourage criTicism and you can esTablish a sTrong norm of criTical review have subgroups separaTely discuss 8 Describe the roles of biased sampling informationprocessing biases and transactive memory in group communication and performance pp 319322 Biased sampling is The Tendency of a group To discuss Things ThaT are known by mosTall group members shared informaTion more Than informaTion known by only one or a few group members unshared informaTion Groups are acTually more vulnerable To informaTionprocessing biases Than individuals are If some bias error or Tendency predisposes individuals To process informaTion in a cerTain way The group exaggeraTes This Tendency TransacTive memory helps groups remember more informaTion more efficienle Than individuals which can help performance 9 Discuss strategies for improving group performance Address the role of diversity in considering this issue pp 322326 0 Teams should be inTerdependenT for some common purpose and have sTabiliTy of membership 0 The Team39s overall purpose should be challenging clear and consequenTial 0 Teams should be as small as possible and have clear norms ThaT specify whaT behaviors are valued or are unaccepTable o A reward sysTem should provide posiTive consequences for excellenT Team performance 0 Technical assisTance and Training should be available To The Team Diversity offers advantages and challenges Diversity is often associated with negative group dynamics but can have positive patterns on socialization complexity and inclusiveness of group discussion 10 Define social dilemma Describe the prisoner s dilemma and resource dilemmas Discuss mixed motives in the context of these dilemmas and delineate psychological and structural factors that in uence behavior in social dilemmas pp 326330 Social dilemma is the notion that the pursuit of selfinterest can sometimes be self destructive The prisoner39s dilemma is a twoperson39s dilemma The two people are given the opportunity to cooperate or competing with each other Each individual is better off selling out hisher partner but if both do this they end up worse off than if they had worked together Resource dilemmas concern how two or more people share a limited resource 11 Discuss how threat capacity and perceptions of others can lead to the escalation of group con ict Explain how GRIT negotiation and finding a common ground can reduce group con ict pp 330334 If people think their group is being threatened even though it might not be the group members are more likely to escalate conflict People favor ingroup individuals and have this instinct of us versus themquot When taken to extremes group conflict may lead to dehumanization of the other group see them as less than human This can lead to even more escalation remember the Nazi39s began with propaganda saying that the Jews were rats that spread disease and needed to be exterminatedquot gt you kill humans but you exterminate pests Negotiation can help groups see the other side as they come to a middle ground which can help reduce group conflict Within GRIT graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction one group takes the first move towards cooperation by making an initial concession and then waits for the other side to reciprocate Cooperation is often met with reciprocated cooperation which reduces conflict Key Terms biased sampling p 319 The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing shared information information already known by all or most group members than unshared information information known by only one or a few group members brainstorming p 312 A technique that attempts to increase the production of creative ideas by encouraging group members to speak freel without criticizing their own or others39 contributions collective effort model 19 306 39 The theory that individuals Will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important relevant and meaningful for achieving outcomes they value deindividuation p 308 39 The loss of a person39s sense of individuali ry and The reduc rion of normal cons rrain rs agains r devian r behavior distractioncon ict theory p 305 39 A Theory ThaT The presence of o rhers Will produce social facili ra rion effec rs only when rhose o rhers dis rrac r from The Task and crea re a r ren rional conflic r escalation effect p 318 39 The condi rion in WhiCh commiTmenTs To a failing course of ac rion are increased ro jus rify inves rmen rs already made evaluation apprehension theory p 305 39 A Theory ThaT The presence of o rhers Will produce social facili ra rion effec rs only when rhose o rher are seen as po ren rial evalua rors graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction GRIT p 331 39 A s rra regy for unila reral persis ren r effor rs ro es rablish rrus r and coopera rion be rween opposing par ries group p 2972 A se r of individuals who in rerac r over rime and have shared fa re goals or iden ri ry group cohesiveness p 301 39 The eXTenT To which forces push group members closer roge rher such as rhrough feelings of in rimacy uni ry and commi rmen r group polarization p 314 39 The exaggera rion 0T ini rial Tendencies in The Thinking of group members rhrough group discussion group support systems p 323 39 Specialized in rerac rive compu rer programs ThaT are used To guide group mee rings collabora rive work and decisionmaking processes groupthink p 316 A group decisionmaking s ryle charac rerized by an excessive Tendency among group members To seek concurrence integrative agreement p 331 39 A nego ria red resolu rion To a conflic r in which all par39Ties ob rain ou rcomes rha r are superior ro wha r They would have ob rained from an equal division of The con res red resources mere presence theory p 305 39 The proposi rion ThaT The mere presence of o rhers is sufficien r To produce social facili ra rion effec rs prisoner s dilemma p 327 39 A Type Of dilemma in WhiCh one par39Ty musT make ei rher coopera rive or compe ri rive moves in rela rion ro ano rher par ry The dilemma is rypically designed so rha r rhe compe ri rive move appears To be in one39s selfinferes r bu r if bo rh sides make The move rhey bo rh suffer more rhan if They had bo rh coopera red process gain p 312 The increase in group performance so rha r The group ou rperforms The individuals who comprise The group process loss p 311 The reduction in group performance due ro obs racles created by group processes such as problems of coordination and motivation resource dilemmas p 327 39 Social dilemmas involving how Two or more people Will share a limited resource social dilemma p 326 A situation in which a selfinterested choice by everyone will create The worst outcome for everyone social facilitation p 303 A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult rasks social identity model ofa39eina39ivia uatiorz effects SIDE p 310 39 A model of group behavior that explains deindividua rion effects as the result of a shift from personal identity ro social identity social loa ng p 306 A groupproduced reduction in individual output on rasks where contributions are pooled transactive memory 19 322 39 A shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information together more efficiently than they could do so alone Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1Which of the following is true of groups b Groups make better decisions than individuals 0 People work harder in groups than they do alone d Discussion moderates group opinions ANS A REF Introductory Section OBJ 1 2 An important part of people s selfworth is derived from group membership according to b the social brain hypothesis 0 the escalation effect d group support systems ANS A REF Fundamentals of Groups OBJ 1 3 A leader who focuses his or her group on the tasks it needs to achieve is playing an a facilitator role c normative role d expressive role ANS B REF Fundamentals of Groups OBJ l 4 The fact that members of an organization who blow the whistle on problematic practices are often treated harshly by the rest of the group illustrates the power of group a roles I c status d development ANS B REF Fundamentals of Groups OBJ l 5 The tendency for the presence of other people to increase performance on easy tasks and impair performance on difficult tasks is known as a social loafing c group polarization d groupthink ANS B REF Individuals in Groups The Presence of Others OBJ 2 KEY Factual 6 The facilitation of the dominant response from increased arousal will tend to b make both easy and difficult tasks easier c have no effect on easy tasks but will make difficult tasks more challenging d have no effect on challenging tasks but will make easy tasks easier ANS A REF Individuals in Groups The Presence of Others OBJ 2 KEY Conceptual 7 All of the following accounts have been proposed to explain social facilitation except a the mere presence of others b apprehension about being evaluated c distraction which can create attentional conflict ANS D REF Individuals in Groups The Presence of Others OBJ 2 KEY Conceptual 8 Ingham 1974 asked participants to pull on a rope and found that participants pulled almost 20 percent harder when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought they were part of a group This finding best illustrates b individual performance theory c groupthink d social facilitation ANS A REF Individuals in Groups The Presence of Others OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual 9 All of the following factors have been suggested to contribute to deindividuation except a the presence of others b reduced feelings of responsibility d anonymity ANS C REF Individuals in Groups The Presence of Others OBJ 4 KEY Factual 10 Harriett goes trickortreating on Halloween She arrives at her neighbor s door just as the phone is ringing Her neighbor puts the candy on the table and says I need to get the phone so help yourself to whatever kind of candy you want but please take only one piece Which of the following would most encourage Harriett to take only one piece of candy a If Harriet s costume prevented the neighbor from recognizing her b If Harriett was dressed up as a pirate d If Harriett was high in need for cognition ANS C REF Individuals in Groups The Presence of Others OBJ 4 KEY Applied 11 A task in which the group s performance is determined by the best group member is considered a additive b conjunctive d divisible ANS C REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 5 KEY Factual NOT New 12 Research on brainstorming in groups demonstrates that b people believe that the ideas generated in group brainstorming sessions are not as good as those generated by individuals c group brainstorming can be enhanced by production blocking d people feel more comfortable expressing unusual ideas in group brainstorming sessions ANS A REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 13 Following group discussion group decisions tend to the positions of the individuals comprising the group a be more conservative than b be more risky than c reflect the averaie of ANS D REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 6 KEY Factual 14 The characteristics of groups that contribute to groupthink include all of the following except a group cohesiveness b iroui structure d group stress ANS C REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 7 KEY Factual 15 Biased sampling in groups is the process whereby a ieoile tend to choose those thei know well to be in a iroui c people tend to discuss negative information more than positive information in their discussion about an important decision d sharing information in a group can be impeded by the gender composition of the group ANS B REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 8 KEY Factual 16 A shared system for remembering information that allows groups to demonstrate more efficient memory than individuals is known as a semantic memory c process loss d facilitative memory ANS B REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 8 KEY Factual l7 Viviana lives in an ethnically diverse community She is attending a PTA meeting concerning how to provide a complete and fair history curriculum It is likely that a the members of the PTA will judge their own work more positively than will members of PTAs in ethnicalli homoienous communities c misunderstandings will be less likely among her PTA members than among PTA members from ethnically homogenous communities d cliques will be less likely to form in her PTA than in PTAs from ethnically homogenous communities ANS B REF Group Performance Problems and Solutions OBJ 9 KEY Applied 18 Consider the prisoner s dilemma You will receive the worst possible outcome in such a scenario if you decide to be and your partner decides to be a selfish selfish b selfish cooierative d cooperative cooperative ANS C REF Con ict Cooperation and Competition Within and Between Groups OBJ 10 KEY Factual 19 With regard to behavior during social dilemmas groups tend to be more than individuals a cooperative b averse to risk c ullible I ANS D REF Con ict Cooperation and Competition Within and Between Groups OBJ 10 KEY Factual 20 Who would cooperate the most in a social dilemma a A woman playing a social dilemma game with another woman c A man playing a social dilemma game with another man d A man playing a social dilemma game in a large group of men ANS B REF Con ict Cooperation and Competition Within and Between Groups OBJ 10 KEY Conceptual 21 The perception that members of different groups belong to a larger whole that encompasses both groups is called a group polarization b an integrative agreement d social facilitation ANS C REF Con ict Cooperation and Competition Within and Between Groups OBJ 11 KEY Conceptual
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