Study Guide Test 2
Study Guide Test 2 GC 170A
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gigi on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GC 170A at University of Arizona taught by E. Bigio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO GLOBAL CHANGE in Global Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Global Change Study Guide Test 2 Lectures 6 amp7 Physical Causes of the Greenhouse effect What would the temperature on earth be like if there was no greenhouse e ect The earth would be freezing Since the long waves emitted from the earth would not be absorbed and remitted back to earth to keep us warm All long wave radiation would be transmitted out to space earth s enhanced What is happening to temperature with an greenhouse e ect C02 levels in the atmosphere are increasing and this corresponds with temperature Why do greenhouse gases absorb and emit long wave radiation They are triatomic Which greenhouse gases have the C02 and H20 highest concentrations in the troposphere What happens when shortwave They have no interaction radiation interacts with a greenhouse or nongreenhouse gas How do greenhouse gases interact with outgoing long wave radiation A greenhouse gas will absorb and re emit the radiation Why does the increased C02 cause the temperature to rise Greenhouse effect with more C02 more long wave radiation will be re emitted back towards the earth surface making it warmer What happens when greenhouse gases absorb energy It causes vibration bending and rotation of atomic bonds This causes electromagnetic radiation to convert to heat energy What is an absorption spectrum for a greenhouse gas It is the proportion of energy absorbed by greenhouse gases at a particular wavelength What do the blue areas represent know how to label the xy axes The wavelengths of energy that are absorbed and emitted by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Energy absorbed X axis Wavelength Y axis absorbed Where does visible light pass through the atmosphere Visible light passes through all parts of the atmosphere What is the atmospheric window It allows a narrow band of long wave radiation to pass in the infrared portion Lecture 8 and 9 The Energy Budget What influences the variability in air temperature around the earth surface 1 Incoming solar radiation based on earth s curvature 2 Earth s re ectivity an cloud cover albedo 3 Warming provided by greenhouse gases What is Albedo The amount of shortwave radiation re ected by a surface that depends on property of the surface Water is dark colored and absorbs most incoming shortwave radiation Which surfaces have high albedo Snow very re ective Which surfaces have low albedo Water or Forests absorbs a lot of shortwave radiation What is the dual role of clouds in the energy budget 1 They re ect incoming solar radiation 2 They absorb outgoing infrared radiation and contribute to the greenhouse effect How much incoming shortwave radiation is reflected directly back to space 1019 Wm2 3423 Wm2 comes in total What happens to incoming solar radiation Four options Re ected by clouds Re ected by the surface Absorbed by the surface Absorbed by greenhouse wNi i gases What happens to long wave radiation Three options 1 Radiated up from clouds amp gases 2 Passes through the atmosphere 3 Radiated up and then radiated back to earth greenhouse effect Why is it important to learn about the energy budget Humans are putting a lot of C02 into the air which is increasing the greenhouse effect What is an example of changing one component of the energy budget Increasing C02 in the atmosphere from cars How does this a ect the other components This would increase the absorption of solar radiation because more ice caps would be melting Why is the energy budget slightly out of balance The 9 Wm2 magnitude of the enhanced greenhouse effect causes the slight imbalance This is the amount of energy of long wave radiation that is emitted back towards the surface What is a phase change It is the transition between the state of a substance to another 0 Extra energy is absorbed or released from the environment 0 Transition from solid to liquid or gas energy absorbed Transition from gas to liquid or solid energy released What is latent heat and sensible heat Latent Heat Energy that is absorbed or released from the environment during a phase change Sensible Heat Temperature of substance that we can feel What happens to the environment when a substance is warming melting or evaporation Energy is absorbed from environment making the surrounding environment cooler What happens to the environment when a substance is cooling condensationfreezin g Energy is released to the environment during a phase change and the surrounding environment gets warmer Can you give examples of a phase change Evaporation liquid water to vapor Condensation water vapor transitions to water What happens if we add water to a desert environment There is now more latent energy more evaporation cooler environment Understand the examples of Group activity 1 SW l 2 SW v People wear sunglasses to ski because the white snow re ects incoming solar radiation into your eyes You get sunburnt lying in the sun in the middle of the day because your skin absorbs the solar radiation Lw 539 While camping it is cloudy but warm overnight because clouds emit radiation downwards LOU 3 5 Night vision goggles can detect warmth electromagnetic radiation emitted from a person at night because humans have a temperature and we emit long wave radiation 5 A plane landing in Tucson is bumpy because rising hot air convection off the surface causes turbulence Sensible Heat 6 In Arizona swamp coolers work in the hot dry month of June because evaporation removes heat energy from the environment Latent Energy Lecture 10 Hadley Cell Circulation and the Jet Stream Understand what the Global Energy Distribution graphic represents Weather patterns in the troposphere relate to energy distribution global heat transfer from the equator towards the poles Why is there a surplus of energy at the equator More incoming solar radiation is absorbed at the equator due to ux How is the surplus of heat energy at the equator transferred to the poles Atmospheric Circulation amp Ocean Circulation What are the steps of Hadley Cell Circulation 1 Warm air rises near equator convection and uplift 2 Water vapor condenses in the upper atmosphere releases heat 3 Warm air moves toward the poles cooling as it moves northward 4 Cool air sinks at 30 degrees NS latitude subsidence How do convection and condensation contribute to Hadley Cell Circulation Convection causes warm air to rise near equator and water vapor condenses Where is there divergence and convergence of surface winds Convergenceow pressure areas Divergence high pressure Intertropical Convergence Zone and Deserts divergence Why are deserts concentrated along 30N and 3 OS Divergence Cool air sinks and prevents condensation and cloud so the environment becomes very dry What and where is the Polar Front Zone Where cold and warm air meets converging zone in the mid laUtudes Responsible for much of weather in N America What is the Jet Stream and how is it changing in response to global warming Current of strong upper level winds moving west to east What warmer temps do to the Jet stream 1 Poles are warming 2 Less of a temperature gradient between poles and equator 3 Jet stream becomes wavier 4 Moves slower so weather patterns become more persistent California drought Lecture 11 Ocean Circulation and El Nino What drives the large circular pattern of surface currents in each ocean East to west surface winds over the equator How are surface currents responsible for the heat transfer towards the poles Gyres Warm water is moved away from equator and cold water is moved away from the poles Where does the Gulf Stream flow Gulf Stream brings warm water north from equator What is upwelling and how does this bring cold water to the coastlines It is the upward movement of cold water from deep in the ocean In areas of divergence water is being pulled away from the coast by surface currents leading to upwelling of cold water from below What is the relationship of sea surface temperature and precipitation Warm surface temperature heavy rainfall Cold Surface temperature no rainfall What is the normal pattern of atmospheric circulation in the equatorial Pacific slide has three steps 1 Winds move east to west across the paci c 2 Warm Water accumulates in western paci c AustraliaIndonesia 3 Convection amp Uplift over W Paci c results in rainfall During the normal pattern where are the warm and cold regions of the Pacific ocean Warm regions are near Australia and cold regions are near Peru What is the El Nino pattern of atmospheric circulation slide has four steps 1 Breakdown of surface winds warm water moves east 2 Uplift ampprecipitation occur close to coast of S America 3 Heavy rain in S America PeruEcuador where its usually very dry 4 Increased winter rainfall in SW United States Winds reverse direction reduced upwelling Where is warm water during an El Nino year Warm water spreads to the coasts of S America Where is the cold surface water during a La Nina year Southwest and South America What are the climate impacts in the Southwest daring El Nina and La Nina years El Nino La 0 Increased rainfall even ooding in SW US and S America 0 Less warm water in W Paci c droughts in Australia Nina 0 Increased Drought in SW and S America 9 Increases rainfall in Australia Indonega
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