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Test 2 review

by: Emily Chambers

Test 2 review BIOL 1000 - 001

Emily Chambers
GPA 3.6
Introduction to Biology
Matthew Aaron Kearley

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About this Document

Sorry this is so late. These are almost all the answers to the objectives sheet for chapter 3-8.
Introduction to Biology
Matthew Aaron Kearley
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Matthew Aaron Kearley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter 3 Distinguish between plant and animal cells What structures do they share which are different Share Different Plants Mitochondria Cell wall Nucleus Chloroplasts and with that Chromatin everything within Nucleolus ER rough and smooth Animals Everything in this column Plasma membrane without is the same in each cell a cell wall around it Centrioles fyi there are great pictures of the two cells on pages 48 and 49 of our book Chapter 4 What is the function of the plasma membrane What molecules can pass through it Identify the structures located within it and what they do oddly enough I found some of this answer in chapter three on page 45 rst paragraph under Plasma Membrane Consists of a phosphoipid biayer that decides what things go in and out of the cell Is there to maintain homeostasis The phosphoipids are referred to as the uid mosaic model Structure FuncUon Channel Proteins This is like a tunnel into a city Passage of molecules through the membrane Allows them to move easily through the plasma membrane They allow hydrogen ions to go easily through into the mitochondrial membrane without this ATP couldn39t ever be produced Sometimes require a speci c molecule to open kind of like a key Carrier Proteins This is like helping someone across the street Also allow for passage of molecules through the membrane They however combine with a substance and then assist it across the membrane Carrier proteins help sodium and potassium ions into nerve cells without it nerve cells would not be able to function properly Cell Recognition Proteins Cell Recognition Proteins cont Glycoproteins Help the body realize when it has been infected by a pathogen so that the immune system can take over Enzymatic Proteins Carry out metabolic reactions The main protein that makes up the electron transport chain ETC which is very important in aerobic respiration Without many of these enzymes the cell would not be able to perform the necessary metabolic functions that are needed for a cell to work All of this can be found on pages 64 and our bo 65 of ok Active transport requires energy pg 71 Basically active transport moves against the concentration gradient Passive transport does not require energy pg 71 under Facilitate transport 0 Move down the concentration gradient diffusion ex of passive transport Diffusion pg 68 and facilitated transport are Movement of molecules down the concentration gradient 0 The concentration gradient is when molecules move from and area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until the concentration is equal on both sides Osmosis pg 69 When water goes through diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane De nition What happens to a cell in the solution When the concentration of Hypertonic pg 70 When a cell is placed in the solute is higher this solution the water outside of the cell rather from inside the cell will try than inside the cell and even out the concentration by releasing water into the surrounding solution and therefore will shrink in size Hypotonic pg 69 The concentration of the A cell that is hypotonic solute is lower within the can pull in so much water ce so it really wants because the solute is so water so it pulls water concentrated that it can from the outside burst Isotonic pg 69 The solute concentration Cells placed in isotonic is the same inside and solutions remain the same outside of the cell If a dialysis bag containing a 1 solution were placed in a beaker containing a 5 solution then would the bag lose or gain weight Is the solution in the bag hypotonic hypertonic or isotonic The solution in the bag is hypotonic and would gain weight because it is pulling the surrounding solution into itself therefore gaining weight Chapter 6 Metabolism pg 102 the sum of all chemical reactions performed within the cell of an organism Potential energy pg 100 stored energy when you39re seated and not moving Kinetic energy pg 100 energy in motion when you stand up The two laws of Thermodynamics 1 Energy is never gained or lost simply transformed 2 The amount of usable energy is always decrease and the amount of entropy chaos is always going up Endergonic products have more energy than the reactants ex ADP P D ATP Exergonic reactants have more energy than the products ex ATP l ADP P How is ATP used as energy currency Pg 102 He answered this in class today he said ADP P ATP when cells need energy they will break ATP down ATP l ADP P Oxidation and reduction pg 108 0 Remember OIL RIG 0 Oxidation ls Loss Reduction ls Gain Oxidation is one or more electrons is lost which is why metal rusts because the electrons in insert metal are being taken 0 Reduction is when one or more electrons is gained for example when NAD becomes NADH Enzymes start on pg 104 and end on pg 107 Enzyme attaches to a substrate and lowers the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction Enzymes when exposed to extreme temperatures or pH39s can be altered in shape which changes the shape of the active bonding site so that substrates can no longer bind to the enzyme This is what39s happening when you cook an egg you39re denaturing it Pg 106 In a problem be able to identify the enzyme substrate and product Ex of this on pg105 Chapter 7 Why do cells undergo respiration To produce energy What is the chemical reaction for respiration C5H1205 0239 C02 H20 1 Energy produced in each stage Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs cyce 2 ATP 0 Electron transport chain ETC 32 ATP Where each process takes place Glycolysis cytoso Krebs cyce mitochondria ETC mitochondria Aerobic respiration requires oxygen and is used in making energy for long term use Anaerobic respiration does not require energy and is used for short strong bursts of energy ex wind sprints Chapter 8 What is the chemical reaction for photosynthesis 6C02 12H20 light l C5H1205 6H20 602 Organisms that undergo photosynthesis Pants Algae Bacteria Structures used in photosynthesis Chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place contains chlorophyll and other pigments o Thylakoid within the chloroplast Grana are simply stacks of thylakoids within the chloroplasts o Stroma the uid surrounding the thylakoid within the chloroplasts o Stromata How does photosynthesis counter act the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is when C02 in the air warms up and therefore warms the air the way that photosynthesis counteracts that is by taking in the C02 and converting it to 02


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