midterm study guide
midterm study guide BC 2813-009
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Popular in Business
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by amanda rodgers on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BC 2813-009 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jocelyn Pedersen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Business Writing in Business at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter One 0 Checklist for planning documents VVVVVVV Determine your purpose Assess your audience s needs Consider the context of your writing Generate gather and record ideas and facts Establish the scope of coverage for your topic Organize your ideas Select the medium 0 Determining purpose gt First step in preparing to write 0 Writing purpose statements gt Pattern My primary purpose is to so that my audience 0 Assessing audience needs gt gt Job as writer is to express ideas so clearly audience cannot misinterpret After stating purpose ask Who is my audience 0 Writing for your reader VVVVVVVVVVVV Who is your audience What do you want them to know after reading Have you narrowed topic to best focus on what they should know Audience s needs in relation to the subject What do they already know More than one audience If multiple different levels of knowledge Audience s feelings about subject Does your writing acknowledge other contrary POV s Is your tone respectful Have you selected appropriate medium Does format enhance audience understanding 0 Checklist for assessing context gt gt gt gt What is your professional relationship with your readers How might that affect your writing What is the story behind the immediate reason you are writing What specific factors are important to reader s organization What is the corporate culture in which reader s work 1 gt gt gt What recent current events in uence how readers interpret your writing What national or cultural differences might affect your readers expectations or interpretations of a document What medium do your readers prefer 0 Establishing scope gt gt Scope degree of detail necessary to cover each item in your list based on your purpose and needs of your audience Be careful about inclusion of details 0 Digital drafting gt gt gt gt Do not write first draft without preplanning Create outlines Use spellcheck features carefully Create effective document design 0 Selecting your medium Criteria for Selecting Medium VVVVVVV Audience preferences and expectations The technological resources available How widely information needs to be distributed What kind of record you need to keep The urgency of the communication The sensitivity or confidentiality required The organizational practices or regulations 0 Types of Mediums and Purposes gt gt Email primary for communicating and sharing electric files with colleagues clients and customers Review carefully due to ability to be forwarded Memos communications among members of same organization standard header and sent on paper Used in manufacturing or service industries where access to email is not easy Used to instruct employees announce policies report results disseminate info delegate responsibilities Letters most appropriate choice for formal communication with people in outside organizations Also effective for reaching people who receive high volumes of emails Used for job applications and recommendations Faxes drawing or signed contracts must be viewed in original form Used when scanning is not available Let intended recipient know before sending Instant Messaging efficient way to communicate in realtime Includes slang limited in workplace because all participants must be online at same time 2 VV VVVV Text messaging effective for simple messages TelephoneConference Calls best for substantial interaction allows interpretation of tone Useful for resolving misunderstandings Teleconferences are a cheaper alternative to faceto face conferences Voicemails Facetoface meetings used for brainstorming negotiating interviewing Videoconferences useful for meetings when travel is impractical Web communication includes web conferencing professional networking website postings Checklist of ethical considerations VVVVVV Is communication honest and truthful Am I ethically consistent in my communications Am I acting in best interest of employer What would happen if everybody acted this way Does the action violate anyone s rights Am I willing to take responsibility for communication publicly and privately Chapter Two Outlining and its benefits gt Two advantages forces reexamination of info to ensure sufficient facts and details to satisfy audience s needs and forces ordering of info in sequences for better understanding Use of outlines by good and poor writers gt 3 times number of good writers compared with poor create an outline gt 36 of poor writers never make an outline Checklist for creating an outline VVVVVV Break a large topic into its major divisions Does sequence fit into organizing pattern Repeat the process for each major topic Sequence into subtopics also If necessary repeat above Key each of your notes to the appropriate place in your outline Merge your notes and your outline placing every note under appropriate head or subhead Convert your detailed outline into first draft by putting first head on computer screen and expanding notes listed Relationship of audience and purpose to organization gt Different audiences demand different organizational patterns Essential organizational patterns sequence chronology spatial division and classification order of importance general to specific specific to general comparison Sequential divide subject into steps and present in order that they occur Most effective for explaining a process Ex Basic care for minor burns Chronological overlaps with sequential because both describe a process In chronological focus on order in which they occur in time Trip reports work schedules test procedures etc Spatial describe an object according to physical arrangement of its features May describe from top to bottom Descriptions may rely on dimension direction shape etc Division and Classification effective way to organize info about a complex subject into manageable parts and discuss each separately Makes it easier for audience due to breaking down into shorter parts Necessary to observe basics rules and logic here See paragraph DecreasingIncreasing Order of Importance familiar for online and print news sources Decreasing is appropriate for report addressed to busy people Increasing useful for making important points fresh in reader s minds Disadvantage because it begins weakly General to specificSpecific to general Comparison works well in determining what is bettermore important Requires more research for accuracy 0 Considering audience and purpose Organizing Information gt gt V VVVV Sequential organization takes your reader step to step through the stages of a process in order in which process occurs ex instructions in a user s manual Chronological organization takes your reader step by step through the stages of an activity or event as it occurs in time ex trip report Spatial organization describes physical objects areas and phenomena at the level of detail necessary to envision appearance ex vehicle accident report Division is a way of organizing info about a complex whole by breaking into smaller units for reader making is easier to understand ex description of online resources for jobs Classification is a way of organizing info that groups disparate units into categories recognizable to audience ex grouping funds by investment sector Decreasing order of Importance introduces reader to most important first ex executive report of formal report for busy reader Increasing 001 starts with least important ex persuasive presentation General to specific introduces to general and leads into specific ex memo Specific to General ex report of industrial accident Comparison ex choice for virus protection for company gives recommendation at end Chapter Three 0 Developing confidence as a writer VVVVVVV Adequate preparation is imperative Remember past writing projects Don t wait for inspiration Think of rough draft as simply transcribing and expanding notes from outline Don t worry about creating a good opening Concentrate on ideas without attempting to polish or revise Keep writing quickly to achieve unity coherence and proportion 4 gt Dont criticize yourself for not being able to write perfect the first time gt Remind yourself this is a beginning draft Rough draft checklist Set up quiet writing area Start with the section that seems easiest First rule of good writing is to help audience by communicating clearly To make writing more direct imagine reader sitting across desk as you explain topic Visualize readers actually performing actions you are describing helps envision necessary steps and ensure adequate info is provided For sales letters think of arguments from reader s POV Give yourself 1015 minute time limit for writing continually Stop writing when a section is finished so as not to wear yourself out Reread what you have written when you return to your writing VVVVV VVVV Writing from the audience s point of view gt Predict reader s needs and reactions Multiple audiences gt Picture typical representative and write directly to that person gt Determine who primary audience is and meet their needs gt See pg 74 if more info is desired International audiences gt Essential skill gt Language differences is biggest obstacle gt Communication habits differ as do organization patterns Establishing role and voice gt Determine role and anticipate reactions and growing understanding of subject gt Audience s interests may not coincide with needs gt Consider which voice audience should hear Development strategies explaining a process describing information definition and cause and effect gt Explaining a process tells how something works or how something happened 0 Could include illustrations or list of events 0 Opening paragraph tell readers the importance of them to become familiar with process give them framework of details gt Describing information explains how something looks or is planned to look 5 0 Key is to present details accurately determine how audience will use description 0 Use wholetoparts method gt Defining terms and concepts clarifies the meanings of ideas crucial to your topic 0 Formal definition places a term in a class of related objects and shows how it differs from other members of same class 0 Informal definition uses familiar words or phrases as synonym for unfamiliar words or phrases 0 Extended definition explores number of qualities of item being defined 0 Management by Objective use of analogy to link unfamiliar concept with a familiar one gt Explaining cause and effect analyzes why something happened 0 Evidence should be relevant to topic 0 Evidence should be adequate 0 Evidence should be representative 0 Evidence should be demonstrable 0 Writing an opening and closing gt Opening statement should 0 Identify subject 0 Provide necessary context for subject 0 Focus audience s attention gt Closing good one is concise and ends writing emphatically 0 Do not introduce new topics in closing 0 Should always relate to and reinforce ideas presented in the opening and body of your writing 0 Used to enhance what has already been said Chapter Four 0 Checklist of revision strategies gt Allow for a cooling period Wait a day or two or even a few hours between writing a rough draft and revising it you will be able to be more objective then gt Pretend that a stranger has written your draft When you can look at your writing and ask how could I have written that you are in the right frame of mind to revise gt Revise your draft in multiple passes Don t try to improve everything all at once concentrate first on larger issues such as content and organization then turn to improving emphasis and polishing your language Save mechanical corrections like spelling and punctuation for later proofreading gt Be alert for the errors you typically make and correct them as you revise gt Print your draft and read it aloud Listening to sentences aloud often enables you to more easily detect awed word order or other problems reviewing the printed draft also makes formatting errors more obvious gt Ask someone else to read and critique your draft Someone unfamiliar with your draft can see objectively and identify problems that you may overlook as you revise 6 0 Checklist for evaluating drafts gt gt VVVVVVVVV Is the purpose of the document clear Have you tailored your content to the right medium email memo letter blog entry or other Is the info organized in the most effective sequence Does each section follow logically from the one that precedes it Is the scope of coverage adequate Is there too little or too much info Are all the facts details and examples relevant to the stated purpose Is the language appropriate for the reader Are the main points obvious Are subordinate points related to the main points Do the descriptions and illustrations aid clarity Are there enough illustrations Are any recommendations adequately supported by the conclusions Are all topics mentioned in the intro and text also addressed in the conclusions 0 Elements of coherence paragraph unity transitions gt Paragraph unity every sentence in a paragraph contributes to developing one central idea where the most effective way is to provide a topic sentence that clearly states the central idea of the paragraph and that directly relates to every other sentence in it best to put at the beginning of a paragraph as it allows the writer to more easily construct a unified paragraph because every subsequent sentence supports the topic sentence and the central idea it expresses Transitions help you achieve a smooth ow of ideas from sentence to sentence subject to subject paragraph to paragraph it is a two way indicator of what you have said and what you are about to say provides readers with guideposts to link ideas and clarify relationships between them Be sure to use transitional phrases and repeat key wordsideas between sentences With paragraphs longer transitional elements are necessary 0 Checklist for writing effective paragraphs gt gt gt gt Unify the paragraph around a central idea in a topic sentence Ensure that every sentence relates to a topic sentence Arrange ideas in a logical order around the central idea Use transitions to help readers follow the sequence of ideas 0 Emphasis active and passive voice gt A sentence is ACTIVE if the subject of the sentence acts Sue prepared the design for the new pump A sentence is PASSIVE if the subject is acted on The design for the new pump was prepared by Sue Active voice allows your audience to move quickly and easily from the actor to the action performed to the receiver of the action Passive voice can be useful when the doer of the action is less important than the receiver of the action and when the performer of the action is either not known or unimportant 7 Subordination gt A technique in which a fact or an idea is shown to be secondary to another fact or idea in the same sentence can be used to write clear and readable sentences but can also be overdone by piling one subordinate clause on top of another Writer s checklist Using lists gt VVVVV List only comparable items tasks to be performed material or parts needed conclusions recommendations and the like Use parallel grammatical structure throughout Use only words phrases or short sentences Provide context by introducing lists with complete sentences followed by a colon Use numbers when rank or sequence is important Do not overuse lists Writer s checklist Achieving emphasis VVVVVV Use the active voice as appropriate Subordinate secondary ideas Use parallel structure to focus attention on how ideas are related Use lists to highlight ideas by setting them apart from surrounding text Arrange ideas in least important to most important order Selectively use typographical devices such as ALL CAPS underlined text italics color or bold face type Point of view VVVV First person I scrolled down to find the Settings option Second person Scroll down to find the Settings option and doubleclick YOU is understood Third person Heshethey scrolled down to find the settings option Many people think they should avoid the pronoun I in their workplace writing Doing so often leads to inappropriate passive construction or to awkward sentences in which writers refer to themselves as one or as the writer instead of as I Context and word choice see page 112 Conciseness and its faults redundancy padding bias affectation gt Redundancy avoid modifiers used to emphasize a point but that merely repeat the idea contained in the word they modify I blue in color plan ahead attach together visible to the eye etc gt Padded phrases expresses in several words an idea that could be easily expressed in one I due to the fact vs because gt Bias bias words and expressions offend because they make inappropriate assumptions or stereotypes about gender ethnicity etc I chairman vs chair or chairperson manpower vs personnel or workers male nurse vs nurse Affectation do not use language that is more formal technical or showy than it needs to be to communicate info to your reader In ated language creates a smoke screen that the audience must penetrate to discover your meaning Review and revise your writing if you find any of the following impression insecurity imitation or initiation pg 117 0 Checklist for revising for clarity gt VVVVV Check the soundness of your organization by outlining your draft and reorganize your content as necessary Use effective transitions between sentences paragraphs and sections Be consistent in your point of view toward your topic Emphasize key ideas and subordinate ancillary ideas Choose precise language to ensure accuracy and to eliminate vagueness and ambiguity Strive for conciseness by eliminating words phrases and sentences that are not necessary to your subject purpose and audience 0 Checklist for proofreading in stages First stage gt gt Appropriate format as for reports or correspondence Typographical consistency headings spacing fonts Second stage VVVVVVV Specific grammar and usage problems Appropriate punctuation Correct abbreviations and capitalization Correct spelling especially names and places Accurate web email and other addresses Accurate figures and consistent units of measurement in tables and lists Cutandpaste errors resulting from moved or deleted text and numbers Final stage gt gt gt Final check or your goals reader s needs and purpose Appearance of the document Review by colleagues for crucial documents 0 Physical appearance gt gt gt gt Use good quality white paper Check that your printer produces a clear dark image Use at least oneinch margins on all sides of the page Leave ample white space around visuals and to indicate divisions between separate sections Chapter Five Reasons for writing collaboratively gt gt gt The project requires expertise or specialization in more than one subject area The project will benefit from merging different perspectives into a unified perspective The size of the project time constraints or importance of the project to your organization requires a team effort Advantages and disadvantages of collaboration gt Advantages many minds are better than one team members provide immediate feedback team members play devil s advocate for each other team members help each other past the frustrations and stress of writing team members write more confidently team members develop a greater tolerance of an respect for the opinions of others Disadvantages demand it can place on your timeenergyego as a writer con icts that arise if not all members participate team members are in different locations unless the final document is edited for clarity and consistency it will be difficult to read and possibly incorrect Planning a collaborative writing project gt gt gt Establish guidelines to ensure that all team members are working toward the same goal Agree on a standard reference guide for matters of style and format Make sure that work assignments are appropriate to each person s subjectmatter knowledge Establish a schedule that includes due dates for drafts for team reviews of drafts and for revisions Agree on how to exchange digital project files and whether to use collaborative writing software Reviewing other s drafts VVVVVVV Does it meet the established purpose of the document Does it meet the needs of the target audience Does the content fall within the planned scope of coverage Does it generally follow the agreedon outline Is the content complete Does it contain technical errors Does anything seem technically questionable Do details and examples support the main points Con ict in collaborative writing gt gt All contributor s viewpoints need to be considered to work through to a conclusion or compromise Con icts over valid issues almost always generate more innovative and creative work than does passive acceptance Members should emphasize areas of agreement 10 gt Define the problem brainstorm solutions select one solution or compromise that best satisfies the views of each team member and the overall team 0 Checklist for writing in a collaborative group VVVVVVVV Know the people on your team and establish a good working rapport with them Put the interests of your team ahead of your own Think collectively as a group but respect the views of members with subjectarea expertise Participate constructively in group meetings Be an effective listener Be receptive to constructive criticism Provide constructive feedback to your team members Meet your established deadlines 0 Leading a collaborative team gt gt Assumes the responsibility for coordinating the team s activities organizing the project and producing the final project Activities include schedulelead meetings writedistribute minutes of meetings selecting tools to be used maintain master copy of document during all stages of its development 0 Collaborating across departments gt gt gt gt Plan for creation of graphs charts drawings maps or other visuals Plan for the document s cover Arrange for photos to be taken or scanned Determine the date and file format for posting the document to the organization s website Chapter Six on Secondary Research 0 Conducting secondary research gt gt gt Gathering info that has been previously analyzed assessed evaluated compiled or otherwise organized into accessible form Sources include books and articles as well as reports web documents online discussion forums audio and video recordings podcasts business letters minutes of meetings operating manuals brochures etc Knowing what TYPES of info will be most useful will help you pinpoint where to look 0 Search strategy checklist gt gt gt What is the scope of your project Is it a 5minute oral presentation A 20 page research paper A group presentation Is only the most current info relevant to your topic What kinds of sources best support your topic existing workplace info Web sites Blogs Journal and encyclopedia articles Books Something else What formats visual images audio print or electronic are needed 11 Do you need a range of opinions or points of view Factbased research findings Some combo of both What are your deadlines the more recent the info the better 0 Doing library research Resources include online catalogs online databasesindexes of scholarly articles specialized tools subject directories One of the most valuable resources available in the library are the librarians who work there Use catalogs to locate books Use databases to locate articles Use reference works to locate facts and topic overviews gt VVVV 0 Databases for business research gt IBIS world Marketline etc 0 Evaluating sources gt Is the info accurate and up to date gt Is the speaker or author reputable and qualified gt Is the publisher or sponsoring organization wellestablished and respected in the field 0 Authority Accuracy Bias Currency gt Authority 0 is the writer an authority in the field 0 Has he she written other highly regarded books or articles 0 Is the author s document listed in or linked from a reliable source or document 0 Is the author referencedmentioned positively by another or organization whose authority you trust 0 Does the document give ample biographical info about the author so that you can evaluate hisher credentials or can you get this info by linking to another document gt Accuracy 0 Other sources that the document relies on are reputable and cited or linked 0 Background info can be verified 0 Methodology is appropriate for the topic 0 With a research project data that were gathered include explanations of research methods and interpretations 0 The graphs and visuals are free of distortion 0 The side is modified or updated regularly gt Bias 0 The publication or site identifies its audience 0 The book article or site was published or developed by a recognized academic institution government agency or national international or commercial organization with an established reputation in the subject area 12 O The author shows knowledge of theories techniques or schools of thought usually related to the topic 0 The author shows knowledge of related sources and attributes them properly 0 The author discusses the value and limitations of the approach if it is new 0 The author acknowledges that the subject itself or his or her treatment of it is controversial if you know that to be the case gt Currency 0 If your topic involves dataideas that change frequently or that depend on current info look for whether the document has a publication or last updated date includes the date of copyright gives dates showing when info was gathered or indicates when new material was updated when appropriate 0 Checklist for evaluating research sources gt Pg 182183 0 Summary paraphrase and direct and indirect quotation gt Direct quotation word for word copy of the text of an original source use them sparingly Only use when your source concisely sums up a great deal of info or reinforces a point you re making Indirect quotation paraphrased version of the original text usually introduced by the word that and is not set off with quotation marks Paraphrasing restating or rewriting in your own words the essential ideas of another writer Quotations are not necessary but citing the source is Summary condensed version in the researcher s own words of an original passage Present only the essential ideasconclusions of the original and are considerably shorter than paraphrases of the same passage 0 Purposes of documentation gt gt gt It allows readers to locate and consult the sources used and to find further info on the subject It enables writers to support and lend credibility to their assertions and arguments It helps writers to give proper credit to others and thus avoid plagiarism by identifying the sources of facts ideas quotes and paraphrases Chapter 10 0 Considering Audience and Purpose Planning and evaluating informal reports informal reports often describe specific incidents gt gt VVVV Who is the audience for your report What specifically have your readers requested What legal or rulebased requirements are in place at your company or organization that determine the info needed in your report How knowledgeable are your readers about the topic Have you selected the right medium for your reader s Does your intro frame the topic for your audience and provide necessary background info Do your graphics depict the findings accurately and clearly for your intended audience 13 gt Is the report well organized and sufficient in scope so that your audience can understand and interpret your findings conclusions and recommendations 0 Types of informal reports 6 types and the purposes of each type gt VVV gt ProgressPeriodic Reports written to inform decision makers about status of work performed over course of an ongoing project see pages 355357 0 Chief difference is purpose behind them 0 Progress describe in detail the status of activities at each stage in the sequence of I Work in progress I Work completed I Special problems or delays I Costs I Worker availability etc 0 Purpose is to keep other informed of significant milestones within a project Periodic detail the status of an ongoing project at regular intervals Investigative Reports systematic studies or research assessments of something Incident Reports involving personal inquiries accidents and work stoppages 0 Usually written in a memo make certain all circumstances are known before writing report 0 See checklist on page 366 Trip reports employees do these for their business trips may enable other employees to benefit from info received 0 Normally written as an email addressed to supervisor Test reports record results of tests and experiments conducted in many settings 0 Accuracy is essential take careful notes 0 Usually written in passive voice 0 Submitted electronically or formally written For more info all types of reports see pages 353370 0 Parts of informal reports gt gt Intro announces the subject of the report explains its purpose and when appropriate names anybody who assisted with or provided info for the report Body presents a clearly organized account of the reporter s subject the amount of detail depends on your objective the complexity of the subject and your reader s familiarity with the subject Conclusions and recommendations summarizes your findings and tells readers what you think the significance of those findings may be may make a judgment or prediction issue a call to action or suggest ideas for further action It should not go outside the scope of topics discussed in the report 14
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