final study guide
final study guide BC 2813-009
Popular in Business Writing
Popular in Business
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by amanda rodgers on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BC 2813-009 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jocelyn Pedersen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Business Writing in Business at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter 8 Understanding the Principles of Business Correspondence 0 Steps involved in selecting an appropriate medium 0 Audiences expectations and preferences Own most effective communication style How widely info will be distributed What kind of record needs to be kept Urgency of communication Sensitivity or confidentiality of message Technological resources available Any organizational practices or regulations 0000000 0 Forms and functions of correspondence media 0 Email I send messages and share electronic files I carefully review before hitting send TextingIM I Exchange of brief written messages I Useful when workplace websites are down 0 Memos I Internal communication in same organization I Used in service industries where employees don t have access to email 0 Business letters I Appropriate for formal communications with professional associates or customers I Used for job applicationsrecommendations 0 Web correspondence I Many forms of digital media and written communication I Requires special consideration 0 0 Developing style and tone 0 Enables you to establish or maintain a positive working relationship with your readersconvey a professional image of yourself 0 Your attitude toward the reader and the way you express yourself determines reader reaction 0 Used to encourage reader to provide info you need 0 The importance of electronic communications in the workplace 0 Always review your message before sending 0 Robert demers said this shit 0 Using tone to build goodwill 0 Be respectful not demanding 0 Be modest not arrogant 0 Be polite not sarcastic 0 Be positive and tactful not negative and condescending 0 Structuring Effective Correspondence 0 Direct Pattern effective for getting to the main point early on Main point of message Explanation of details or facts Goodwill closing Especially appropriate for delivering good news Only appropriate for negative messages when little is at stake 0 Indirect Patterns effective when presenting negative or sensitive messages in correspondence Best for presenting bad news Context or buffer establishes professional tone Explanation or details reviews details that led to the negative message Bad news or negative message Goodwill closing reestablishes a positive relationship 0 Functions of openings and closings O Openings Crucial because readers are busy Should identify subject and relevance Tone of respect is important Only give main idea if reader isn t familiar with subject Do not state main point first when readers are like to be skeptical or disagree with you O Closings Accomplishes building a positive relationship with the reader Provides incentive for the readers to act 0 Clarity and emphasis O Necessary for producing a clear message 0 Lists I Effectively highlight information in steps and sequences I Provide context so reader can understand 0 Headings Divide material into manageable segments Call attention to main topics Signal a shift in topic 0 Effective subject lines 0 Require careful preparation 0 Announce the topic and focus of correspondence 0 Enable recipients to decide how the message is related to their needs 0 Important aids in filing and later retrieval 0 Rules for email etiquette and copy protocol 0 Organization is important 0 The T0 line is the primary recipient 0 Be careful with use of BCC because it can be unethical I Salutations closings and signatures for electronic communication 0 Avoid being informal 0 End with goodwill and words such as sincerely 0 Managing email checklist 0 Avoid when phone call is more efficient 0 Consider whether email could prompt unnecessary response 0 Make clear whether response is needed or just want to provide info 0 Send a copy of email to people who may want it 0 Review all messages on a subject before responding 0 Designing Memos 0 Used for routine correspondence short reports proposals 0 Format I Standard eading I Handwritten initials I Introduction I Paragraph Headings I Closing I Headings if more than one page 0 Designing Letters 0 Used for outside an organization formal communication 0 Good for people who receive high volume of email 0 Two most common formats I Fullblock style I Aligned at the left margin I Modifiedblock style I Return address date close begin in center of page 0 Difference between inside address and letterhead 0 Inside address recipient s full name title and address 0 Letterhead writer s full return address do not include name include date begin two inches from top of page Chapter 9 Writing Business Correspondence 0 Types of routine positive and negative messages 0 Communicating positive information 0 Cover letters 0 Communicating sensitive or negative info 0 Routine and positive messages 0 O O 0 Cover messages I Aka transmittal letter I Provides a record of whowhat I Explain what is being sentwhy I Identifies report title brie y describes contents states purpose and notes who requested it Acknowledgements I Builds goodwill by expressing thanks Inquiries I Two categories benefit the recipient or benefit the writer I Responses respond asap if you have the info they are asking for I Always respond courteously I If you feel you can t answer find out who can Sales and promotions I Requires thorough understanding of product service or business I First task is to identify audience I Learn as much as you can about audience I Analyze your product or service carefully I Sensitive and negative messages 0 Routine and Highstake refusals I Writing refusals depends on stakes for the writer I As stakes build increase effort to analyze situation I Open with bad news and end with good to maintain goodwill I Start with context then explanation then bad news end with goodwill 0 Letter of complaint 0 O O 0 First call customer service and personnel Try not to seem petty and irrational Assume that the recipient will correct the problem Follow this pattern I Identify problem and include relevant information I Explain logically and clearly what went wrong I State what you want the reader to do In large organizations check website or call main office first In smaller organizations write a message or letter to multiple people I Checklist for tactful adjustments 0 00000 Address reader respectfully whether you apologize explain etc Explain what caused the problem if such an explanation would restore goodwill Explain intentions specifically if not obvious Express appreciation Point out steps being taken to prevent recurrences of whatever went wrong Avoid recalling problem in closing Close on a positive note 0 International Correspondence humor idioms and dates times and measures 0 Culture and business writing style I In US direct and concise is best I Use of dates differs between countries I Commas decimals and clock times differ I Japanese use traditional openings that US would see as too elaborate I Avoid misunderstandings by understanding differences I Avoid American idioms I Avoid humor it is easily misinterpreted I Be careful to avoid spelling errors confuses nonnative English speakers I Openings and closings will be much more polite generally Chapter 6 Researching Your Subject primary research sections 0 Four types of primary research 0 O O O 0 Primary Research gathering data from firsthand experiences such as Experience I Must be firsthand to be primary research Interviews Observations I Remain as unobtrusive as possible I Choose sites and times carefully I Obtain permission in advance Questionnaires I Checklist on successful interviewing 0 00000000 Be pleasant but purposeful Start with least complex questions end with most complex Let interviewee do most of the talking they are expert Be objective Stay on track Be exible Take brief notes while interviewing stay engaged Ask interviewee for clarification if time allows Be sure to follow up with thank you 0 Advantages of questionnaires 0 As opposed to interviews I Gather info quicker I Responses from many geographical locations I More time for responders to think about answers no pressure I More objective data I Cheaper I Tabulate results faster 0 Disadvantages of questionnaires 0 May not be accessible to some populations 0 Results can be slanted only people who care will answer 0 Even welldesigned questionnaires do not allow for followup questions 0 Response may not be received in time 0 Principles for constructing a questionnaire 0 Prepare cover letter memo email or intro text explaining purpose date how where Include contact info For paper include stampenvelope Construct many yesno questions Include comments section Consider offering sign of gratitude 00000 0 Differences of primary and secondary research 0 Primary info gathered firsthand I Interviews I Questionnaires I Observations 0 Secondary gathering info that has already been assessedcompiled I Examples 0 Books 0 Articles 0 Web pages 0 Online Forums 0 Recordings 0 Secondary research requires more searching for data Chapter 11 Writing Formal Reports 0 Functions and elements of formal reports 1 Research into new developments in a field 2 Explorations of the feasibility of a new productservice 3 Organization s end of year review 4 Elements transmittal lettermemo front matter body intro Differences from informal reports Transmittal documents p x 2 3 4 U Brief 1 page identifies report topic and explains why report was written opens with a brief paragraph explaining what is being sent and why 2nd paragraph summarizes the report s contents or stresses some feature important to the audience closing paragraph acknowledges help received in preparing the report or expresses that hope that the info fulfills its purpose Order of prefatory materials and front matter 1 2 3 Order title page abstract preface exec summary Front matter all elements that precede the body of the report purposes 393 explains topic organization and report purpose 393 it indicates whether report contains the kind of info the audience is looking for 393 lists where in the report audience can find specific things Elements on the title page 1 9593 Full title of report Names of writers principal investigators or compilers as appropriate Date or dates of the report Name of organization for which the writer works Name of the organization or individual to whom the report is being submitted Function of abstracts 1 Descriptive includes info about the purpose scope and methods used to arrive at the findings contained in the report a slightly expanded TOC doesn t need to be longer than a few sentences widest audience range Informative expanded version of descriptive abstract It additionally contains a summary of results conclusions and if any recommendations It retains the tone and scope of report while omitting details I surveys progress reports that combine info from more than one project any report that complies a variety of info Abstracts checklist U PP Pi 6 Subject Scope Purpose Methods used Results obtained informative Recommendations made if any informative Do not include 1 2 3 4 Detailed discussionexplanation of methods used Administrative details who funded project who worked on it etc Illustrations tables charts maps and bibliographic refs Any info not in original documents 0 Executive summaries and checklist 1 2 3 4 U Write exec summary after completion of original document Avoid terminology not familiar to your readers Spell out all uncommon symbols abbreviations and acronyms Do not refer by number to figures tables or references contained elsewhere in the report Make summary concise but do not omit transitional words and phrases Include only info from original document 0 Introductions 1 2 3 4 Introduce subject State purpose State scope Preview how topic will be delivered 0 Guidelines for effective headings l 2 Use headings to signal a new topic or subtopic within the larger topic Ensure that headings at the same level are of relatively equal importance and word them in parallel grammatical structure Subdivide sections only as needed not every section requires its own lowerlevel headings Subdivide a section with two or more headings Do not allow a heading to substitute for discussion the text should read as if the heading were not there Avoid too many or too few headings or levels of headings too many clutter a document and too few fail to provide a recognizable structure Use varying type styles and formatting conventions to distinguish among levels of headings 0 Order of back matter 1 Bibliography appendixes glossary index 0 Function of appendices 1 clarifies or supplements info in the body with content that is too detailed or lengthy for the primary audience but that is relevant to secondary audiences 2 Long charts supplementary graphs or tables copies of questionnaires Chapter 7 Designing Effective Documents and Visuals 0 Understanding principles of document design 0 Four goals of document design 1 Offer a simple uncluttered presentation of the topic 2 Highlight the content s structure hierarchy and order 3 Help readers find info easily 4 Reinforce an organization s image 0 Typeface and typeface guidelines 1 Avoid typeface that may distract readers script cursive etc 2 Serif type is preferred serifs are the small projections at the end of a stroke in each letter 3 Choose popular typefaces times new roman calibri cambria etc 4 Do not use more than 23 typefaces in a single document 0 Highlighting devices 1 Gives document visual logic and clarify its organization 2 Be selective too many design devices can clutter a pageinterfere with comprehension 3 Be consistent use same technique to highlight a particular feature throughout 4 Methods gt Typographical devices gt Headings and captions gt Headers and footers gt Rules icons and color 0 Typographical devices 1 Use boldface for headings or short passages of text to which you would like to draw attentiOn 2 Use italics to highlight a key term or phrase or to slow readers as in cautions or warnings 3 Use ALLCAPS for headings with or without boldface or to alter readers to crucial steps in a process as in instructions or to indicate danger such as in a caution or warning message 4 Use color as you would the other devices sparingly and consistently Headings captions headers and footers 1 Headings titles and subtitles within body of document gt indicate hierarchy within a document and help readers decide which sections they need to read gt never leave as the final line on a page gt a heading that appears near the end of a page should be followed by at least 2 text lines 2 Captions titles that highlight or describe illustrations or blocks of text gt often appear below figures above tables or in margins next to text blocks 3 headers appear at tops of pages and contains info such as topic or subtopic of a section section number and date document was written page number document title etc gt help readers pinpoint info in document Rule icons and colors 1 rules vertical or horizontal lines used to divide one area of the page from another or to create boxes isolate and highlight important info for the ease of reading 2 icons pictorial representation of an idea and must be simple to be effective used to denote specific actions objects or sections envelops for email links and paperclips for attachments etc 3 colorscreening distinguishes one part of a document from another or unifies a series of documents especially useful in graphs maps and drawings Columns white space and alignment 1 Single column format works best with larger typefaces doublespacing and left justified margins 2 Two column structure works well with small type face and single spacing by keeping text columns narrow enough to prevent scanning back and forth across the page 3 White space visually frames info and breaks it into manageable chunks visual cue of the beginning or ending of a section Information suitable for lists 1 steps in sequence 2 criteria for evaluation 3 concluding points 4 recommendations 5 materials or parts needed 6 items to remember Layout checklist 1 select typefaces for legibility in style and size not simply for variety 2 emphasize important information with consistent typographical and design devices such as 10 O O O O O 90 90 90 90 9 be selective in choosing allcaps italic and boldface type styles use headings to denote major sections and topic changes create captions to identify figures and tables and to emphasize boxed information include headers and footers to orient readers at the page level use rules icons and color to highlight crucial info 3 integrate the typographical and pagelevel design elements into a consistent coherent whole 0 90 O 90 O O O 90 90 9 experiment with the positions of text and visuals on a variety of thumbnail sketches to evaluates how the elements look together create a mockup copy or dummy of the whole document by assembling the thumbnail sketches for reviews experiment with one and two column text layouts allow adequate white space between paragraphs and around visuals and text boxes use lists to highlight comparable types of info by setting them off from the surrounding text position visuals in proportion to their importance and set them off with adequate white space 0 Designing and integrating visuals with text 1 consider purpose and reader carefully 2 writing must carry the burden of providing context and pointing out their significance 0 Function and selection of visuals 0 Drawings depict real objects difficult to photograph depict imaginary objects highlight only parts viewers need to see show internal parts of equipment in cutaway views show how equipment parts fit together in exploded views communicate to international audiences more effectively than text alone 1 QMPPP 0 Pictograph Use recognizeable images to represent specific quantities 2 Add visual appeal to help nonexpert readers grasp the info 3 Visually represent data shown in tables 1 0 Photos 1 2 3 4 show actual physical images of subjects record an event in progress record the development of phenomena over time record the asfound condition of a scene for an investigation 11 5 show the colors essential to the accuracy of info in medical chemical forensic botanical and other fields Pie graph 1 show quantities that make up a whole 2 give an immediate visual impression of the parts in proportion to one another 3 visually represent data shown in tables or lists Maps 1 Show specific geographic features of an area 2 Show distance routes or locations of sites such as for a bus or subway system 3 Show the geographic distribution of info populations by region Flowcharts 1 Show how the parts or steps in a process or system interact from beginning to end 2 Show the stages of an actual or hypothetical process in the correct direction including recursive steps Tables 1 Organize numerical and nonnumerical info systemically in rows in columns 2 Present large numerical quantities concisely 3 Facilitate itemtoitem comparisons more easily than if embedded in text 4 Clarify trends and other info in graphs with precise data Diagram 1 Show how the components in electronic chemical electrical and mechanical systems interact and are interrelated 2 Use standardized symbolic representations rather than realistic depictions of system components Bar graph 1 Depict data in vertical bars and horizontal columns for comparison 2 Show quantities that make up a whole 3 Track status of projects from start to finish 4 Visually represent data shown in tables Organization chart 1 Give an overviews of an organization s departmental components 2 Show how the components relate to one another 12 3 Depict lines of authority within an organization who reports to whom 0 Line graph 1 Compare more than one kind of data over the same time period 2 Visually represent data shown in tables 0 Guidelines for incorporating Visuals 1 opospwlesnzv Why include your Visual Is the info in your Visual accurate Is your Visual focused and free of clutter Are terms and symbols in your Visual defined and consistent Does your Visual specify measurements and distance Is the lettering readable Is the caption clear Is there a figure table or number Are figure or table numbers referred to in your text 10 Are Visuals approprirately placed 11 Do Visuals stand out from surrounding text 12 Is a list of figures or tables needed 0 Using Visuals to communicate internationally 1 Consult with someone from your intended audience s country or culture who will be able to recognize and explain the effects of subtle Visual elements on your intended readers Acknowledge diversity within your company and recognize that not everyone interprets Visual info in the same way Learn about the use if gestures in other cultures as a first step to learning about cultural context because the interpretation of gestures differs widely Be sure that the graphics you use have no unintended religious or symbolic implications As a rule use few colors in your graphics unless your target audience expects otherwise or the topic requires it Generally blackandwhite or grayandwhite respect your audience s preferences and taboos Create simple Visuals Simple shapes with few elements are easier to read in most cultures Use outlines or neutral abstractions to represent human beings such as stick figures for bodies or circle for a head Be consistent in labeling for all Videos Explain the meaning of icons or symbols Include a glossary to explain symbols that cannot be changed ex company logos 13 10 Test icons and symbols in context With members of your target audience Usability testing With cultural experts is critical 11 Organize Visual info for your intended audiences North American readers read Visuals from left to right in clockwise rotation middle eastern do right to left With counterclockwise rotation 14
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