Pysch 306 Exam 2
Pysch 306 Exam 2 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 441 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Pysch 306 Exam 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/07/15
What will be Tested 0 Over 20 Questions on Chapter 5 09 Over 20 Questions of Chapter 6 3 About 6 Questions on Chapter 7 00 Be should to be able to answer each of the questions for each STI o What causes it bacteria virus parasite How is it spread What are the symptoms Who tends to show symptoms and who doesn39t What are the complications if you don39t get it treated early Complications during pregnancy How is it diagnosed How is it treated 0 00 000 Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 393 197 Million Americans will contract STI oz 1 in 2 Americans will contract at least one STI What Are They And Who Gets them 0 09 O 00 O 09 STls are spread for the most part by sexual contact with someone who has the bacteria viruses or parasites that cause the infections Bacteria small single celled organisms that lack a nuclear membranes but have all the genetic material to reproduce themselves Viruses a protein shell around nucleic acid core Viruses have either RNA or DNA but not both thus cannot reproduce themselves 0 they invade host cells that provide the material to manufacture new virus particles They only live outside the body for a short period of time Sexually transmitted infections infections that can be but are not necessarily contracted through sexual activity Sexually related diseases diseases of the reproductive system or genitals that are not contracted through sexual activity Often involve overgrowths of bacteria yeasts viruses or fungal organisms that re found naturally in sexual and reproductive organs Where Do They Come From 0 Remains unknown but some have been around for thousand of years 09 Syphilis swept Europe Columbus died from it Gonorrhea 0 A sexually transmitted infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhea bacterium gonococcus which lives on mucous membranes Reefed to as the ow clap or drip O 09 9 0 o 99 O 00 Oldest STI There will be 82000 new cases in the US Symptoms and Complications Caused by a bacterium Live sin warm moist mucous membrane in the urethra vagina rectum mouth throat and eyes Because of the location of these membranes in the body this normally occurs only during intimate contact In Men 0 O 0 In ammation of the urethra Results in thick puslike white or yellowish discharge from the urethra starting 210 days after infection lrritation or burning sensation during peeing 1035 show no symptoms if left untreated gonorrhea can spread up the man s reproductive system and cause in ammation of the prostate and epididymis infertility In Women lnitially invades the cervix Most women show no symptoms in the early stages 2040 of women show symptoms abnormal vaginal discharge and irritation of the vulva and urethra causing burning during urination Because many go untreated it spread to the uterus and into the fallopian tubes 40 Pelvis in ammatory disease a bacterially cause in ammation of a women s reproductive tract particularly the Fallopian tubes that can result in sterility The most common cause is untreated gonorrhea andor chlamydia 0 Scarring of Fallopian tubes which blocks the passage way of sperm and egg If a pregnant woman is infected the fetus will not be infected because it is not carried in the bloodstream A baby s eyes can become infected at delivery as it passes through the infected cervix and vagina gonococcal opthalmia neonatorum leads to andness 4000 babies are blinded a year Most states require an antibiotic or silver nitrate drops at birth Contaminated hands can transmit it to eyes 0 Diagnosis and Treatment 0 O O O O 0 Tested by a culture test or a molecular test Gonococcus has become genetically resistant to all medications First became resistant to sulphur based drugs then penicillin then tetracycline and now the most recently used drug is cephalosporin The CDC is recommending combination therapy Many people diagnosed with gonorrhea are also found to have chlamydia You can catch gonorrhea again Chlamydia and NonGonococcal Urethritis 0 Nongonococcal nonspeci c urethritis NGU any in ammation of the urethra that is not caused by the gonococcus bacterium 3 Chlamydia a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium O O 0 More common than gonorrhea 286 million new cases in the US this year Common in teenagers young adults and African Americans 0 Symptoms and Complications O O O 0 Lives only on mucous membranes ls spread when one infection membranes is in contact with another Early symptoms within 13 weeks after infection Irritation and burning of the urethra and a discharge usually thin and clear rather than puslike 90 of women and a large group of men show no symptoms at the initial stage The CDC recommends that all sexually active women aged 25 and younger get routine annual screenings for chlamydia While about half of chlamydia cases resolve on their own in 1 year if left untreated it spread to through the reproductive system In women I 18 develop PID which can lead to sterility or tubal pregnancy A single attach of chlamydia is more likely to cause sterility than gonorrhea 0 Babies can get eye infections at the time of delivery andor 0 nosethroat infections Lymphogranuloam venereum LGV a sexually transmitted infection common in tropical countries that is caused by chlamydia If left untreated it cases swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes penis labia or clitoris 0 Diagnosis and Treatment 0 O 0 Culture test fir chlamydia infections of the urethra has been replaced with a noninvasive urine test For other mucous membrane a swab is taken followed by a culture test If chlamydia is con rmed it is treated with doxycycline or azithromycin 3 Pelvic In ammatory Disease PID in Women A Likely Consequence of Untreated Chlamydia or Gonorrhea O O Syphilis General term for an infection that travels from the lower genital tract to the Fallopian tubes and sometimes to surrounding structures such as the ovaries and the pelvic cavity Symptoms include tenderness or pain the lower abdomen high fever and chills 3 time as many women experience a persistent lowgrade infection either with no other symptoms or with intermittent abdominal cramps In these silent infections the longterm in ammation can result in pelvic adhesions and abscesses 00 Responsible for the deaths of over 100 million people worldwide in the 20th century 0 O O O 9 O 60 00 00 00 0 9 9 O O O Caused by Treponema palladium a spiralshape bacteria 12 million cases per year most in Southeast Asia and Africa 55400 new cases in US this year117 000 cases total 23 are men who have sex with men Found in large urban areas More common in African Americans Symptoms and Complications Almost all cases are transmitted by sexual contact This bacteria can pass directly through any little cut or scrape of skin into the bloodstream This means that one could potentially get syphilis by merely touching the sore of another person Frist symptoms appear 24 weeks later o If many bacteria are transmitted it can occur in 10 days o If few are transmitted it can take up to 90 days to appear 0 Generally occur in 4 stages Primary stage appearance of a very ugly ulcerlike sore called chancre at the site of where spirochete entered the body The chancre is full of bacteria and highly infectious but is painless Usually appears on the cervix of women and they usually are unaware that they are infected The sore will disappear 1014 days Secondary Stage appears 46 weeks after the chancre heals but sometimes symptoms do not appear for several months The main symptom is itch less painless rash that appear all over the body including the palms and hands and the soles of the feet In the most areas of the genitals the rash appears as large sores called condylomata lata which breaks and ooze a highly infectious uid full of bacteria Sore throat a persistent lowgrade fever nausea los of appetite aches and pains and sometimes hair loss Many people mistake these symptoms for the measles Sometimes referred to as the great imitator Latent stage after about a year a person is generally not contagious because spirochete is not longer found in the mucous membrane No noticeable signs but the bacteria are attacking the internal organs of the body particularly the heart and blood vessels and the brain and spinal cord 0 About two thirds of the people with untreated syphilis will not experience any more problems with the disease but one third will develop serious complications as a result of the accumulated organ damage Late stage large ulcers called gummas often appear on the skin and bones Damage to the heart and blood vessels frequently results in death and by this time cumulative damage to the central nervous system often results in dementia 0 An unborn baby can catch syphilis form an infected mother This happens because the spirochete travels from the pregnant woman s blood into the placenta blood system If detected it can be treated 393 Diagnosis and Treatment 0 Blood tests o Spirochetes are so early eradicated with antibiotics penicillin G 0 Organ damage cannot be xed Mycoplasma Genitalium O 90 O O O 00 00 00 Q Is a bacterium that was rst discovered in the 19805 Found in men and women with urethritis and in women with cervicitis Evidence that is sexually transmitted infection More prevalent than gonorrhea and 22 times more common in people who were having sexual intercourse Becoming resistant to some antibiotics Less Common Bacterial STls O 90 Chancroid a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Hemophilius ducreyi bacterium which is characterized by small painful bumps 0 314 days incubation period Granuloma inguinale a rare sexually transmitted infection that is characterized by ulceration of tissue 0 Common in tropical areas 0 Lesions that bleed when touched and that can permanently destroy tissue and cause death of not treated 0 Usually treated with doxycycline Shigellosis an infection that can be contracted during sexual activity by exposure to feces containing the Shigella bacterium 0 Oral stimulation of the anus Acute diarrhea fever and pain Treated with tetracycline or ampicillin 30 appears in homosexual men 000 Herpes O 09 O 06 O 09 O 00 O O 00 09 O 09 Herpes is a Greek word meaning quotto creepquot It is spread by direct skin to skin contact They cause painful blisters Herpes simplex virus type 1 95 of people with blisters or a cold sore around the mouth Simplex type 2 had blisters around the genitals Both type 1 and type 2 can virus can be transferred from mouth to genitals and vice versa Oral herpes a herpes infection in or around the mouth It can be caused by simplex virus 1 or 2 0 Not all cases are contracted during sexual contact some are during childhood 0 Genital herpes herpes infection in the genital region It can be caused by herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 0 Spread through genital contact 0 Prevalence 0 Type 1 is more common than 2 o 162 of teenagers are infected with type 2 o 50 are infected with type 1 3 SymptomsPrimary Attack 0 Prodromal stage Person feels a tingling burning itching or anesthetic like sensation on the skin surface where he or she came into contact with virus In the case of genital herpes the infected person may feel pain running down the buttocks and thighs These initial sings indicate the beginning of the viral replication and shedding Skin breaks into blisters called vesicles 0 Vesicle stage Last from 23 weeks Painful blisters called vesicles I The person often has ulike symptoms suffering muscle aches and pains head ache fever swollen lymph nodes 0 CrustingOver stage The sores begin to develop scales and form scabs and then the lesion heal without leaving scars Viruses is still being shed so the person is still infectious 16 days long Primary attack is severe because the person has not yet built up antibodies to the virus 0 Recurrent Attacks 0 During the primary herpes attack some of the virus migrated up the sensory nerves from the infected site to the nerve s ganglion o The recurrent attack occurs as result of the virus reactivating and traveling down the sensory nerve to or near the same area as the initial break out 0 Type 2 has more recurrent attacks 0 Less severe 0 Asymptomatic and Unrecognized o Easily spread when sores are present 0 Sores are an obvious sign of viral shredding an infected person should take measures to prevent spreading it o 81 of people with genital herpes are unaware they have it 0 Serious Complications o Blisters may appear on any part of the body 0 Virus can be spread to your eyes leading cause of blindness resulting from infection in the US 0 Herpes encephalitis herpes spreading to your brain 0 Neonatal herpes babies contract herpes when a mother has a primary attack near the time of labor The baby suffers permanent and severe heart or neurological problems 09 Diagnosis and Treatment 0 No cure for herpes 0 Three antiviral drugs are available that relieve symptoms and speed up the healing process Acyclovir calacyclovi and famcicolvir 0 These drugs decrease viral shedding by 7080 3 Personal Side of Herpes 0 Individuals pass through sock emotional numbing isolation and loneliness and some even battle depression 0 The use of condoms will reduce the chanced of infecting a partner Hepatitis 0 Hepatitis is an in ammation of the liver than can have many causes 00 Symptoms can range from poor appetite diarrhea to fever vomiting pain and yellow skin oz Hepatitis A caused by a small virus that is spread by direct or indirect oral contact with contaminated feces 0 Can be spread sexually by oralanal contact o It is more often contracted through nonsexual means such 5 eating food handled by infected people or shell sh taken from contaminated waters 0 Symptoms generally begin to show 1550 days after becoming infected o A vaccine has greatly reduced the number of cases in the US 0 CDC recommends routine vaccines to children men who have sex with men and people who use drugs intravenously 0 Hepatitis B o Caused of a different larger virus and its transmitted by infected blood or body uids such as saliva semen and vaginal secretions Symptoms begin 6 weeks to 6 months after exposure Can cause a number of liver diseases including cancer and cirrhosis 50 of the new cases are spread during heterosexual sex and 23 of pregnant women spread the infection to their babies 3 Hepatitis C O O 0 More Americans now die of the compilations each year than from HIVAIDS The decrease of new cases is cause of the hepatitis C blood test in 1992 Most commonly spread through contact with contaminated blood found in people who do drugs with needles No vaccine Treatment is individualized but usually involves a combination of antiviral drugs The CDC recommends that all Americans born between 1945 and 1965 have a hepatitis C test Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection 393 Most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States 90 90 90 90 09 0 O O O O O O 79 million infected 14 million new cases every year 80 of sexually active girls are infected 50 of men lnfects epithelial cells covering of internal and external surfaces Over 100 different types Genital Warts Separate HPV cases into three broad categories Those that cause a rare skin condition Those that case nongenital warts Those that cause warts in the genital and anal area Genital warts warts in the genital and anal regions caused by human papillomaviruses Cauli ower like warts Frist symptoms generally appear from 3 weeks to 8 months The warts cause itching irritation or bleeding In men they appear on the penis scrotum andor anus but they can also grown within the urethra In women the warts can appear on the cervix and walls of the vagina as well as the vulva and anus can be transmitted to a baby during vaginal delivery To remove warts on your own you can apply ointment doctors can remove large warts and internal warts can be removed by laser 00 Cancer 0 Women with HPV infections have a greatly increased risk of developing cervical andor vulvar cancer O 09 0 HPV and cancer detection is 525 years 0 Most people who are at risk of developing cervical will have no visible symptoms 0 A regular pap smear and pelvic exam are an essential part of female care 0 HPV DNA tests that can be done to identify the highestrisk types of HPB for cervical cancer Vaccination o Gardasil protects against HPV types 16 and 18 70 of cervical cancers and 6 and 11 90 of genital warts o Cervix protects against HPV types 16 and 18 o The vaccines work for men and women and also work for anal cancers Molluscum Contagiosum O 09 O 09 O 00 A sexually transmitted virus with symptoms that look like small pimpled lled with kernels of corn Painless growth that is caused by a pox virus Virus is easily spread by direct skintoskin contact but the large majority is not spread during sex The virus incubated for 2 weeks to 6 months and then erupts into dome shaped growths that are usually 15 mm in diameter and look like small pimpled ll with kernels of corn Diagnosed by the appearance of the growths and treated by removal of growths However they usually disappear on their own within 69 months HIV Infection and AIDS 0 90 O 99 o 9 O 69 O 0 99 99 99 9 O 09 19805 several cases of depressed immune systems In 1982 the new infection was given the name Acquired Immunode ciency Syndrome AIDS It was not until 1984 that the cause of AIDS was identi ed as a virus human immunode ciency virus HIV HIV is a retrovirus which reverses the normal pattern of reproduction in cells Two major types 0 HIV1 the most common type worldwide 0 HIV2 found mainly in West Africa Major genetic groups M N O P with 9 subgroups of M HIV2 has two major groups A B In the US the large majority of cases are HIV1 HIV super infections multiple subtypes HIV and the Body39s Immune System 0 The immune system is that part of your body that defends against bacteria viruses fungi and cancerous cells White blood cells are the main defense system CD4 T cells and T4 lymphocytes have the job of recognize he diseasecausing agents and then signaling another type of white blood cell killer T Kill T cells then destroy the identi ed disease The HIV virus infects white blood cells and reproduces itself causing death of the cell in about 112 days and the release of more of the virus The virus has also been found in cells of the brain gastrointestinal tract kidney lings cerebrospinal uid and other blood and plasma cells 3 Progression of HIV Infection O 0000 O 00 Primary HIV infection the rst few weeks of HIV infection during which HIV reaches enormous levels in the blood and 5075 have ulike symptoms The body s immune system then launches a huge counterattack that kills the virus by the billions but the virus then regains the upper hand by slowly killing off the CDC4 cells Asymptomatic HIV infection a stage of HIV infection in which the infected individuals show no visible symptoms lasts for years Symptomatic HIV infection the early symptoms of HIV infection which eventually lead to AIDS Headaches fatigue night sweats loss of appetite diarrhea fever weight loss HIV is not called AIDS until it is life threatening CDC stated that cell count below 200 regardless of whether the person has yet fallen victim to an opportunistic disease Ale patience die as a result of the opportunistic infections infected persons immune system is so low that they fall prey to anything like lymphomas Kaposi s sarcoma Without medication 4045 of HIV people will turn into Ale within 2 years 5 in the rst 3 years 20 within 5 years 50 within 11 years Some patients are longterm nonprogressors don t develop symptoms in 8 years Elite controllers last beyond 10 years HIV2 take much longer to develop AIDS The best indicator for progression is the person plasma of HIV RNA which shows the amount of the virus in the blood 0 Without medication AID patients live a year but new medications are making it longer and easier to have a productive life 393 Where and When Did HIV Originate o Conspiracies Soviets blamed the US biological experiments gone awry African Americans believe that AIDS is manmade Other claim that the virus was injected into people with various vaccines Diverse pool of nonhuman primate SIV o Humans acquired HIV2 through crossspecimen transmission 0 HIV1 was transmitted through chimpanzees 0 First occurred in colonial French Equatorial Africa around 1931 oz How Is HIV Spread 0 Sexual contact with an infected person 0 Exposure to infected blood 0 Mother to infant transmission 0 Sexual activity in which bleeding occurs would greatly increase the risk 0 Vaginal intercourse HIV is at least twice as easy to transmit from an infected man to a female partner than vice versa 0 Without antiviral drug therapy the transmission rate is about 20 to 25 the infection can occur either very late in the pregnancy during delivery or by breastfeeding 3 Who Has HIVAIDS 0 6850 new cases a day 0 Since 2001 there has been a more than 50 decrease in new cases of HIV infection in 25 low to middle income countnes 90 of people with HIV live in developing countries 0 CDC reports that there are over 11 million Americans living with HIVAIDS o By mid19905 AIDS had become the leading cause of the death among Americans aged 25 to 44 ahead of accidents cancer and heart disease 0 Worldwide the largest proportion of new HIV infections is acquired by heterosexual transmission 0 In 2010 over one fourth of all new cases were contracted during heterosexual sex 393 The Human Side of AIDS 0 Many people lead productive lives for years after being diagnosed with AIDS 0 O 0 Increasing evidence that stressful life events can speed up the progression of HIV infection 0 Testing for HIV 0 The standard test for HIV detects antibodies to the virus that are produced by an infected person s immune system 0 Blood is rst checked with the EIA test There can be quotfalse positivesquot If there is a positive indication the blood is tested again with either Western Blot IFA or virologic tests A negative test result means only that a person probably has not been infected with HIV 0 New tests are available that measure the presence of antibodies to HIV in the saliva or urine or with a nger stick 0 Testing for HIV should be a routine part of medical care for all Americans between 13 and 64 years of age 00 Treatment for HIVAIDS Hope and Limitations 0 Zidovudine has proven to be most successful in treating HIV infected pregnant women 0 The drug reduced the infected pregnant women 0 HARRT highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection I HARRT reduces the chance of transmission form an infected person to an uninfected partner by 96 00 Prevention of HIV Infection 0 Circumcision of young men has signi cantly reduced the transmission of HIV in heterosexual men 0 Do not have multiple sexual partners 0 Use condom 0 Public Reaction to AIDS 0 13 of Americans have negative feelings towards infected individuals Parasitic Infestations 393 Public lice an infestation of the parasite Phthirus pubis which attach themselves to pubic hair and feed on blood crabs 0 Travel very slowly So they are almost always transmitted by skintoskin contact 0 Chance of getting them with an infected partner is 95 o Lice typically does not live more than 24 hours away form the human body but any eggs that fall off can survive and hatch up to 10 days later 0 Can eliminate them by applying 1 permethrin cream rinse to the infested area and all other hairy body areas Repeat treatment in 710 days O 90 O 90 Scabies a contagious infestation of parasitic mites that burrow under the know to lay their eggs 0 Result in red itchy pimplelike bumps 0 Most common in people living and sleeping in crowded conditions 0 Treated with permethrin 5 cream Pinworms live in the large intestine and are generally gotten through nonsexual contact with the worm s eggs but which can be transmitted sexually by anus or oral contact with the anus of an infected person Amebiasis dysentery caused by infestation of amoebae one ceed organisms Vaginal Infections O 90 Trichomoniasis Trichimonas vaginalis infection 0 Trichomoniasis a type of vaginitis caused by onecelled protozoan that is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse Symptoms appear 4 days to 1 month after exposure and include a copious frothy whitishgreen discharge with afoul odor accompanied by severe vaginal itching Most men show no symptomsact as carriers Can lead to infertility premature labor Diagnosis is made by examining any discharge and growing the parasite in culture Eradicated by a drug called metronidazole oz Moniliasis Candidiasis o Caused by an overgrowth of a microorganism that is normally found in the vagina o It is a fungus or yeast infection that is very common in women 0 34 of all women will experience it at least once in their lifetime and 4045 will experience it at least twice 0 About 10 to 20 of women have what is called recurrent candidiasis four or more episodes a year 0 Symptoms thick white curdy discharge accompanied by intense itching quotYeast infectionsquot 0 Anything that changes the normal chemical environment of the vagina can result in an overgrowth antibiotics hormone changes diabetes 0 00 Bacterial Vaginosis 0 Very common type of vaginitis that is caused by several vaginal bacteria replacing other normal hydrogen peroxide producing vaginal bacteria 0 Most common among AfricanAmerican women and women who have sex with women 0 The use of condoms decreased the prevalence o Vaginal douching increases the likelihood of getting bacterial vaginitis 0 Main complaint is the vaginal odor shy o Abnormal discharge grayish and nonclumpy Cystitis O 90 O 90 O O 90 90 Refers to a bacterial infection of the bladder often called a UTl Because a women s urethra is considerably shorter than a man s cystitis is much more common in women than men Strong association with recent intercourse A bacterium Escherichia coli transmitted from the rectum to the urethra opening by wiping forward from the anus after a bowel movement Symptoms frequent urge to pee painful urination blood in urine lower abdominal pain Chronic in ammation of the bladder a condition called interstitial cystitis Practicing Safer Sex 0 90 Safer sex sexual behaviors involving a low risk of contacting a sexually transmitted infection These include the use of condoms andor abstaining from sex until one enter a longterm monogamous relationship Chapter 6 Birth Control World Population 9 99 9 99 9 99 9 99 9 99 9 99 7 billion in 2011 UN estimates that the population will be 91 billion in 2050 Experts predict there will eventually be a widespread starvation poverty and political instability Because of huge population overgrowth China issues a mandatory birth control in 1982 200 million pregnancies a year 41 are unintended Pregnancy rate goes up at you use the same birth control US Births And Use of Birth Control 9 99 9 99 9 99 9 99 o 9 9 99 9 99 During the baby boom years there was an average of 35 babies born to each American couple Use of birth control halted the baby boom Teenage pregnancy rate in the US is the highest of any developed country in the world In sexually active teens 537 girls and 67 boys reported that condoms used during their last sexual intercourse Contraception the prevention of conception 13 of all pregnancies occur because women thought they couldn t get pregnant In 1912 Margaret Sanger gave up a nursing career and funded the birth control league Evaluating Different Birth Control Methods 9 99 9 99 Perfectuse pregnancy rate for a particular birth control technique the percentage of pregnancies during the st year of use by couples who use the technique properly and consistently Typicaluse pregnancy rate for a particular birth control technique the percentage of pregnancies during the rst year of use by all couples who use the technique regardless of whether or not they use it properly or consistently usually higher than perfect use Over a 10 year time period the chance of having an unplanned pregnancies while using contraceptives is between 67 and 90 Relatively Ineffective Methods 9 99 9 99 Withdrawal withdrawal of the man s penis from his partner s vagina before ejaculation in order to avoid conception o Conceive within the rst year Douching a feminine hygiene practice of rinsing out the vagina usually with speci cally prepared solutions o Sperm will have already traveled up to the cervix 0 Sometimes the pressured forces the sperm into the cervical opening Abstaining From Sex oz The most effective way to avoid an unwanted pregnancy is to abstain from sex oz 95 of Americans have had sex before marriage 393 Abstinence programs have no longterm affect Lactational Amenorrhea Method 00 Breast feeding has been called quotnatures contraceptivequot 3 The sucking response of the baby on the mother s nipple inhibits the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland thus preventing normal menstrual cycles 0 Major factor that determined the length of the interval between pregnancies 00 During breast feeding pregnancy is only 2 for 6 months Fertility Awareness Abstaining From Sex During Ovulation 00 Methods of birth control that attempt to prevent conception by having a couple abstain from sexual intercourse during the woman s ovulation 09 Menstrual cycles are very irregularhard to judge when you are ovulating 3 Calendar Method and Standard Days 0 Keep track of a minimum of 6 cycles 0 Calendar method a fertility awareness method of birth control that attempts to determine a woman s fertility period by us of a mathematical formula subtract 18 from the shorts cycle and 11 from the longest cycle The unsafe period would be between those two Ex 24186 32 1121 611 unsafe days 0 Standard days method a fertility awareness method of birth control for women who typically have menstrual cycles of 26 to 32 days Cycle beads a string of 32 colorcoded beads help women using the standard days method to keep track of their fertile days Women move the black rubber over one bead a day 0 Dark beadslow risk 0 12 whitehigh o Billings Method Cervical Mucus or Ovulation Method a fertility awareness method of birth control in which changes in the consistency and quantity of cervical mucus are used to tell when ovulation has occurred The mucus changes from white to sticky clear a day or two before ovulation A couple is advised to abstain from sex 4 days after the mucus has changed consistency o Symptothermal method a combination of the basal body temperature and Billings fertility awareness methods a woman s BBT rises by at least 4 degrees F about the time of ovulation and stays there for at least 10 days Once BBT rises and remains high for 3 days ovulation has ended It should be taken at the same time every day preferably in the morning Spermicides Substances That Kill Sperm O 90 Spermicides chemicals that kill sperm oz To be used in conjunction with barrier methods 0 90 O 90 Do not protect women against diseases Foam jellies creams and lm Barrier Methods Preventing Sperm from Meeting Egg 0 90 O 90 O O O 90 90 90 O O O 90 90 90 Barrier General term for contraceptive methods that block the passage of sperm Male Condoms a thin sheath made of latex rubber lamb intestine or polyurethane that ts over the penis Rubber does not transmit sperm or disease Animal skin does not protect against diseases Condoms are effective as contraception and for prevention of sexually transmitted infections Reduce men s sensitivity slightly 13 of women are allergic Female Condom Women can use an intravaginal pouch held in place by two exible rings Diaphragm a domeshaped rubber cup with a exible rim that ts over the cervix and thus acts as a contraceptive device by serving as a barrier to the passage of sperm into the uterus women must be tted for one Cervical cap a contraceptive device that ts over the cervix by suction thus blocking the passage of sperm into the uterus oz FemCap made of silicone and has a concave side that ts over the cervix spermicide can be applied to both the inside and outside oz Contraceptive Sponge a contraceptive device made of polyurethane sponge that contains enough spermicide to be effective for 24 hours after being inserted into the vagina O 0 Does not require a pelvic exam Sold in one size without a prescription can be left in for 24 hours The Pill Patch Ring and Shot 392 Birth Control 0 O O O O 17 of reproductive women in the US use it 25 of women don t remember to take it Nearly 100 brands Combination pills a oral contraceptive that contains both synthetic estrogen and synthetic progesterone Works by thinking cervical mucus which prevents sperm from traveling and preventing ovulation No evidence that the pill causes breast cancer No scienti c eveide for weight gain Progestinonly pill an oral contraceptive that contains only progestin s Works primarily by keeping cervical mucus thick impairing the passage of sperm and ovulation is often inhibited as well The pill is for women breast feed or who cannot tolerate the side effects of estrogen pill Negative Side Effects and Health Risks No evidence of a decreased sex drive Those who start the pill have side effects that mimic pregnancy weight gain nausea cramping breast tenderness If these symptoms do not go away within the rst few months it is good to switch to extended cycle pills Birth control does not increase the risk of birth defect Newest pills slightly increase the risk of blood clot Associated with migraines Heart attack stroke blood clots Health Bene ts Do not protect against STI Decrease cancer of the endometrium and cancer of the ovaries benign breast tumors and reduced rate of ovarian cysts and PID Reduce menstrual related problems cramps excess bleeding 09 The Patch and the Ring 0 OrthoEvra a contraceptive patch that applies to the skin and is effective for 1 week Slowly releases estrogen and progestin 33week patches followed by a pathless week The patch releases higher level of estrogen which increases the change of a stroke 0 NuvaRing clear exible ring that is inserted into the vagina and worn for 3 weeks Slowly releases estrogen and progestin and after 3 weeks is removed for a ringfree week Release less hormone than the pull regarded as very safe 00 lnjectable Contraception o DepoProvera market name for medroxyprogesterone acetate a chemical that when injected suppresses ovulation for 3 months After a women stops injection it take 910 months for fertility to return Results in abnormal bleeding Emergency Contraception 0 Methods that prevent conception when se dint he rst few days after sexual intercourse Plan B OneStep 50 effective if taken within 3 days Most effective method is implementation of a copper IUD within 5 days Works by preventing ovulation and fertilization Conception does not mean pregnancy Conception is followed by implantation O O O 09 00 09 O O O 00 69 00 LongActing Reversible Contraception 0339 The IUD o Intrauterine device a birth control device usually made of plastic with either a copper or progesterone coating that is placed in the uterus to prevent conception and implantation o Remains effect for 57 years 0 Theres a thread to check if its in place 0 At rst bad reputation but now very effective 0 Hormone Implants o Nexplanon a hormone implant with a single progestin releasing rod that is effective for 3 years 0 Major side effect is irregular vaginal bleeding followed by little or no bleeding 0 Jadelle two progestinreleasing rods that is effective for 5 years Voluntary Sterilization 0 Vasectomy the male sterilization technique in which the vas deferens is tied off and cut thus preventing the passage of sperm through the reproductive tract 0 Contraceptives should be used for 3 months or until the man has ejaculated 20 times 00 Tubal sterilization a general term for variety of female striation techies that prevent passed of an egg through the fallopian tubes 0 Transabdominal 1 inch incision are made in the abdomen and the fallopian tubes are pulled to the opening cut tied or blocked with clips 0 Laparoscopy a procedure in which a laparoscope is inserted trough a small incision in the naval Once the tubes are located they are cut or cauterized o Transcervical procedures No incisions and general anesthesia is not required The essuure device irrigate the lining of the tubes resulting in scar tissue that plugs them The adiana device emits a radio frequency that cause tubule lesions 0 Reduces the risk of ovarian cancer 0 Can Sterilization Be reversed o No guarantee 0 The pregnancy rate after a vasectomy reversal is between 4060 0 4388 for tubal sterilization o easier to reverse for men and cheaper Future Technology 02 For Men 0 25 of men are willing to use hormonal contraception o Difficult to nd a pill that inhibits sperm while not reducing sex drive o Targeting a molecule called retinoic acid the advantage of this is that it would stop sperm production without interfering with gonadal hormone 00 For Women 0 Variety of new female condoms are also under development as are new safer estrogen and progesterone s for use with hormone contraceptives 00 Vaccination o Researches are trying to develop vaccines that will cause the body to produce antibodies to proteins in either sperm oregg o Vaccines that target sperm or egg production function or outcome 3 Legal Concerns 0 Liability 0 Juries will side with the individual who believes the corporation can afford it a couple blamed their child s birth defect on spermicides Chapter 7 Pregnancy and Childbirth Conception and Implantation O 00 O 90 O O 00 09 O 0 Each egg ova is surrounded by a small sac forming what is called a primary follicle The release of FSH causes this to become a Graa an follicle mature follicle About midway trough a 28day menstrual cycle the Graafian follicle breaks open and the ovum is released into the abdominal cavity where it is picked up by one of the Fallopian tubes travels 37 days to uterus The ovum egg can only be fertilized during the rst 24 hours after it leaves an ovary A man will ejaculate 200400 million sperm The sperm then attempt to pass through the cervix and uterus to the Fallopian tubes Only a few thousands will live long enough to reach the fallopian tube fewer than 50 reach the egg Most sperm live for 3 days inside the women s reproductive tract While the sperm are in the woman s reproductive tract they undergo a process called capacitation their membranes become thin enough so that an enzyme can be released to soften the egg s outer layer The egg sends out tiny projections and pulls one sperm to its surface the zona pellucida That sperm secretes the enzyme and penetrates the eggs surface and conception takes place Within 2430 hours the nuclei of the sperm and the ovum fuse to form a onecelled organism called zygote this single cell contains the complete genetic code or blue print for a new human being The zygote then begins cell division Morula the collection of cells formed when the zygote begins paid cell division Blastocyst the uid lled sphere that reaches the uterus after fertilization and which was created by the transformation of the morula through continued rapid cell division At about 811 days after ovulation the blastocyst attaches itself to the endometrium called implantation The blastocyst is now called the embryo and is called a fetus at 8 weeks Trophoblast the outer four cell layers of the embryo 0 First layer produces blood cells for the embryo until it can produce its own Pregnancy Umbilical cord the cord that connects an embryo or fetus to the mother s placenta Aminion a thickskinned sac lled with water that surrounds the fetus Chorion the fourth membrane of the trophoblast it develops into the lining of the placenta Placenta an organ that serves as a connection or interface between the embryo s systems and those of the mother If two different ova are fertilized by two different sperms the result is fraternal twins Identical twins result when a fertilized ovum subsides before it implants in the uterus Problems with Implantation I 34 fall to implement 17 miscarriage I Ectopic pregnancy the implantation of a fertilized egg outside of the endometrium of the uterus Tubes may burst 00 The First TrimesterThe Mother 0 O 3 The O 0000 0 Pregnancy tests work by determining if a hormone HCG is present in women s urine HCG prevents the corpus luteum from atrophying thus keeping progesterone the hormone maintaining the endometrium level high Most common early pregnancy symptom is morning sickness Couvade syndrome the experiencing of pregnancy symptoms by male partners sometimes called quotsympathy palnsquot First Trimester The EmbryoFetus Embryo the term given to the blastocyst after it has implanted Cell differentiation begins to take place now and development occurs in orderly ways Three inner cell layers will form speci c parts of the body Ectoderm forms nervous system skin and teeth Mesoderm forms muscles skeleton and blood vessels Endoderm forms the internal organs lungs liver digestive system After 8 weeks and until birth the developing organisms is called fetus 3 The Second TrimesterThe Mother O 09 O 09 9 9 0 Movement can only be felt by its mother 0 Quickening the rst time a pregnancy woman experiences movement of the fetus usually in the 5th month 0 Stretch marks 0 Water retention Second Trimester The Fetus Sucking motions Detectable heartbeat Respond to sound Sleep and wakefulness 6th month the fetus can open its eyes The Third Trimester The Mother 0 Pack pain pressure on the bladder indigestion heartburn gas constipation The Third Trimester The Fetus o By the end of the 7th month the fetus is about 15 inches long and weighs 15 pounds 0 Fatty tissue develops o The fetus is covered with light hair lanugo and waxy bluish substance vernix caseosa Sexual Intercourse During Pregnancy Steady decline in sexual activity throughout pregnancy Associated with hormones Women feel they no longer look attractive Physical discomfort Fear the safety of the fetus O O 0000 Complications of Pregnancy 9 9 9 99 9 O 06 9 9 97 of all births result in healthy normal infants Teratogens substances that can harm an embryo or fetus Critical periods in relation to teratogens the time during embryonic or fetal development during which a particular part of the body is most susceptible to damage Smoking 0 Associated with low birth weight 0 Increases in miscarriages ectopic pregnancies infant mortality preterm birth Alcohol 0 Physical deformities 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS a condition common to infants born to alcoholic mothers involving physical and nervous system abnormalities 0 Maximum effect on the developing fetus in the 3rd week of pregnancy Narcotic 0 Infants go through withdrawals o Diminished growth preterm birth 0 FDA issued a warning against warning taking overthe counter aspirin products during the last 3 months of pregnancy because it can affect fetal circulation and campus complications during pregnancy oz Preeclampsia a disease of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure weight gain swollen joints and protein in the urine Unless it is corrected it can lead to convulsions and coma o3 Rh Incompatibility o A protein in the blood of most individuals lf mother does not have it and the fetus she carries doesn t she can develop antibodies against Rh factors This is call an Rh incompatibility problem oz Chronic villus sampling a technique used for detecting problems in a fetus during the 10th to 12th weeks of pregnancy Hairlike projections of the chorion are collected and examined oz Amniocentesis a technique for detecting fetal problems involving collections of amniotic uid between the 14th and 18th weeks of pregnancy 0 Ultrasound a noninvasive technique for examining the internal organs of a fetus it uses sound waves like a radar or sonar scan to create a picture 0 Fetal surgery a surgical operation on the fetus while it is still in the uterus Preparing For Childbirth o3 Prenatal examination a health checkup by a physician during pregnancy 0 Feartensionpain cycle according to prepare childbirth advocate the cycle of events that women experience during labor when they are not properly educated about labor and childbirth o The most educated the less pain oz Prepared childbirth courses of techniques that prepare women for labor and childbirth with the goal of making it a positive experience Anesthetics of Natural Childbirth oz Epidural spinal anesthetic that deadens sensations from the waist down 0 Labor can last longer hypotension Childbirth 0 Lightening rotation of the fetus prior to childbirth so that its head is downward resulting in decreased pressure on the mother s abdomen 0 BraxtonHicks contractions uterine contractions experienced during the last trimester of pregnancy that are often incorrectly interpreted as the beginning of labor also called false labor Two important sings of labor 0 Dilation o Effacement thinning of the cervix during labor Stage of Labor 0 Startup stage of labor the stage of labor that begins with uterine contractions pushing the fetus downward toward the cervix and ends when the cervix is full dilated o Amniotic sac breaks quotwater breaksquot 0 Transition phase the last part of the startup stage of labor during which the cervix dilates to 10 cm in order for the baby to be able to enter the birth canal Last 40 min or less 0 Second Stage of Labor the stage of labor that begins when the cervix is full dilated and the fetus begins moving through the birth canal It ends with birth 3080 minutes 0 Crowning the appearance of the fetus head at the vaginal opening during childbirth 0 Third stage of labor detachment and expulsion of the placenta from the uterus after childbirth afterbirth 1012 minutes oz Episiotomy a surgical procedure performed on women just before giving birth to reduce the risk of tearing the perineum 0 Many authorities believe that most are unnecessary O 69 O 09 Problems with Childbirth oz Stillbirths death of a fetus during the second half of pregnancy 0 Maternal overweight maternal age and maternal smoking 0 Rate for black women are double oz Breech Births baby tries to come out feet or buttocks rst rather than head 0 Occurs 24 of all births o Cesarean section may need to be performed oz Cesarean section the surgical removal of a fetus through the mother s abdomen 0 Cuts are made horizontally through the non contracting part of the uterus oz Preterm Infants an infant born weighing less and 55 pounds and before week 37 of pregnancy Before the age of 23 the fetus cannot product a liquid called surfactant which lets the lungs transmit oxygen from the atmosphere to the blood stream Intensive care nurseries lnfants weighing over 1 pound have a 2030 chance of survival 25 pounds have an 80 babies born weighing under 3 pounds are much more likely to have poor psychomotor skills low IQ scores and poor performance in school Afterwards 00 average women stay 21 days in the hospital 3 BreastFeeding the Baby 0 O O O O O 0 Milk production begins 3 days after birth Prolactin stimulates the breasts to produce milk while oxytocin causes the breasts to reject milk Hearing the baby cry can cause the lactation At rst the breast give out colostrum a think sticky liquid produced by mothers breasts that helps immunize the infant against diseases After 3 days the milk begins to ow WHO recommends 6 months of breast feeding Mother s milk contains many infection ghting proteins that protect the infant from gastrointestinal illness respiratory infections meningitis skin diseases and other problems Breastfed babies have higher le When breast feeding begins a hormone is release that helps stop internal bleeding Also reduces the chance of breast cancer 0 Postpartum Depression 0 O 0 First 3 months are called postpartum period There is a range of negative emotions that women can experience after childbirth Postpartum blues a mild transient emotional letdown experienced by a majority of women after giving birth Postpartum depression a deep depression experienced by about 10 of women in the rst few months after giving birth Postpartum psychosis a psychotic state experienced by about 1 in 1000 women after giving birth The placenta secretes high levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy and there is sudden drop in the levels of these hormone after birth 0 Sex After Birth 0 O O O Vaginal bleeding continues for 26 weeks Most doctors advise that sex not to be resumed until 46 weeks Mainly up to the woman Hormone play a role Spacing Pregnancies 0 Women should wait at least 11 months after giving birth to get pregnant again 09 Another study said 1823 months Infertility and Impaired Fecundity oz Infertility the inability for a couple to conceive 0 Fecundity the ability of couple to conceive within a certain period of time 0 Infertility in Men 0 O 0 Low number of sperm are caused by endocrine problems drugs marijuana radiation and infections Sperms is sensitive to temperature Varicosity of the veins can lead to a low sperm count Can be corrected with surgery Arti cial insemination a method of treating infertility caused by a low sperm count in men Sperm are collected during several ejaculations and then inserted into the partner s vaginas at the time of ovulation Sperm can be saved for 10 years lntracytoplasmic sperm injection a procedure to treat men who have a low sperm count injection of a single sperm directly into an egg 0 Infertility in Women 0 Two problems Fallopian tubes or uterus structural problems Failure to relase eggs Sometimes surgeons are able to reopen these tiny structures Endometriosis can cause infertility Fertility drugs drugs that improve the change of conception in women who are infertile owing to hormone de ciencies The drugs either stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete FSH and LH or stimulate the ovaries directly Increase the chance of multiple births In Vitro Fertilization a process in which a mature ovum is surgically removed from a woman s ovary placed in a medium with sperm until fertilization occurs and then placed in the woman s uterus This is usually done in women who cannot conceive because of blocked fallopian tubes 0 Surrogate Mothers a woman who carries a fetus to full term for another couple agreeing to give the infant to the other couple The infant generally represents a union of sperm from the man and either his parent s ovum or the ovum of the surrogate mother 00 After age 30 the chanced of having a healthy baby decrease by more than 3 each year for women
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'