Midterm Guide psych 2344
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dora Julianna' on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psych 2344 at University of Houston taught by Hadden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see cross-cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Review Topic Sheet for Your Midterm This review sheet is an outline of the major topics covered in each chapter that you should be familiar with Chapter 1 Introduction Cultural v crosscultural psychology 0 Cultural psychology seeks to discover meaningful links between a cultural and the psychology of individuals living in this culture Crosscultural psychology is the critical and comparative study of cultural effects on human psychology 0 Four types of knowledge Scienti c popularFolk ideologicalvaluebased andlegaL What is culture Race Ethnicity Nation 0 Culture is a set of attitudes behaviors and symbols shared by a large group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next 0 Race a group of people distinguished by certain similar and genetically transmitted physical characteristics 0 Ethnicity cultural heritage experience shared by people who have common origin language traditions etc o Nation a group of people who share common geographical origin history and language Iceberg Theory of Culture what is the surface what is deeper When we see an iceberg the portion which is visible above water is in reality only a small piece of a much larger whole Similarly people often think of culture as the numerous observable characteristics of a group that we can see with our eyes be it their food dances music arts or greeting rituals The reality however is that these are merely an external manifestation of the deeper and broader components of culture the complex ideas and deeplyheld preferences and priorities known as attitudes and values Traditional v nontraditional 0 Traditional cultural construct based on tradition rules symbols and principles established predominantly in the past 0 Nontraditional based on new principles ideas and practices Etic v emic Chapter 2 Methodology Hypotheses amp theories Observational method Two different observations in crosscultural psychology emic approach studies behavior from within the culture and mostly is based on one culture iic approach studies behavior from outside the culture system and is based on many cultures Power Distance extent to which the members of a society accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally Uncertainty orientationavoidance o Uncertainty orientation common ways used by people to handle uncertainty in their daily situations and lives in general This is measured on a continuum between uncertainty acceptance and uncertainty avoidance o Uncertaintv avoidance members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity People in cultures high on uncertainty avoidance tend to support beliefs promising certainty and to maintain institutions protecting conformity Collectivism v individualism o Collectivism interpreted as behavior based on concerns for others and care for traditions and values 0 lndividualism complex behavior based on concern for oneself and one39s immediate family or primary group as opposed to concern for other groups or society Withingroup v betweengroup variance withinsubjects design is an experiment in which the same group of subjects serves in more than one treatment 0 BetweenGroup design is when two or more separate groups are compared Social cognition Studies have found that culture in uences social cognition in other ways too In fact cultural in uences have been found to shape some of the basic ways in which people automatically perceive and think about their environment Naturalistic recording people39s behavior in their natural environment with little or no personal intervention laboratory the subjects are brought in and you design speci c situations or prepare a set of stimuli and the ask the participants to respond Survey method the most common technique of data collection in crosscultural psychology Two types of survey methods are 0 direct the interviewer maintains or can maintain a direct communication with the respondent and is able to provide feedback repeat a question or ask for additional information indirect researcher39s personal impact is very small because there is no direct communication between the respondent and the interviewer Experimental method You randomly assign subjects in particular experimental conditions You try to detect speci c changes in the subjects behavior attitudes emotions etc 0 Independent variable variable being manipulated in the experiment 0 dependent variable variable being measured 9 steps to research design Step 1 describe a problem you have to investigate Step 2 Identify your research goal Explain what you want to achieve as a result and introduce one of the two strategies used to introduce your hypothesis 0 Strategy 1 inductive you collect data rst and then make a conclusion about the studied samples 0 Strategy 2 deductive you select a theoretical concept rst then you collect Chapter 3 Critical Thinking Dichotomous v continuous o Dichotomous any variable that can be placed into either of two discrete and mutually exclusive categories 0 Continuous any variable that lies along a dimension range or spectrum rather than in a discrete category that can theoretically take on an in nite number of values and is expressed in terms of quantity magnitude or degree Similarityuniqueness paradox Many times an individual39s cognitive schema in uences perceptions of similarities and differences between phenomena 0 The point of critical distinctionPCD is the point at which phenomena no longer seem similar but begin to seem different Barnum effect refers to people39s willingness to accept the validity of such overly inclusive and generic appraisals Assimilation v accommodation are the two complementary processes of Adaptation data to demonstrate or reject the selected hypothesis Step 3 Identify and describe the research sample of your study groups of people newspaper reports etc Step 4 Choose or design a methodology for your project Step 5 Conduct a pilot study a preliminary exploration of the method to see how your methodolgy works and whther there are any obstacles to data collection Step 6 collect research data Step 7interpret your data using statistical procedure Step 8 Present the result and analyze them critically in a report Step 9 In your report suggest where and how your data should be or could be used Equivalence the evidence that the methods selected for the study measure the same phenomenon across other countries or cultures chosen for the study Test translation require translation from the researcher39s language to another language or languages Ethics in research avoid any risk of harming any people or environment don39t use deception on people participating and have an obtained inform consent of those involved in the study Internal v external validity 0 Internal if the intended variable being measured is measured 0 External if the results of the study can be generalized or applied to other people described by Piaget through which awareness of the outside world is internalized o Assimilationwhat is perceived in the outside world is incorporated into the internal world without changing the structure of that internal world but potentially at the cost of quotsqueezingquot the external perceptions to t 0 Accommodation the internal has to assist itself to the evidence with which it is confronted and thus adapt to it which can be a more dif cult and painful process Belief perseverance is the tendency for people to hold their beliefs as true even when there is ample evidence to discredit the belief When faced with evidence that contradicts their beliefs people may choose to discredit dismiss misinterpret or place little signi cance on the contradictory information 3 types of belief perseverance o Naive theories are your views about the world and how it operates Selfimpressions are the beliefs about yourself 0 Social impressions are your beliefs about other individuals Availability bias when our use of the availability heuristic results in systematic errors in making such judgments Fundamental attribution error A bias in attempting to determine the causes of people39s behavior that involves overestimating the in uence of their personality traits while underestimating the in uence of their particular situations That is overutilizing internal attributions and underutilizing external attributions Evaluative v descriptive eg warmcold Chapter 4 Cognition Sensation is the process that allows our brains to take in information via our ve senses which can then be experienced and interpreted by the brain Perception is the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli Absolute threshold minimum amount of physical energy needed for an individual to notice a stimulus Difference threshold lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in the stimulation has occurred Perceptual set make particular interpretations likely to occur and increase both the speed and efficiency of the perpetual process Sensory adaptation tendency of the sensory system to respond less to stimuli that continue without change Chapter 5 Intelligence G factor 1factor Factor of Intelligence refers to the existence of a general intelligence that in uences performance on mental ability measures 3factor intelligence 0 analytical most intelligent test use this to measure 0 creative 0 practical Formal v empirical v creative reasoning Formal reasoning basic cognitive operation that is based on abstract analysis of given premises and deriving a conclusion from them Empirical reasoning everyday experience Creative reasoning originality or ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way Chapter 6 Emotion William James39 theory descriptive de ned as attempts to explore and explain while providing additional information about a topic This is where research is trying to describe what is happening in more detail filling in the missing parts and expanding our understanding This is also where as much information is collected as possible instead of making guesses or elaborate models to predict the future the 39what39 and 39how39 rather than the 39why39 0 Evaluative de ned as an attempt to connect ideas to understand cause and effect researchers want to be able to explain what is going on It looks at how things come together and interact Aesthetic experience used to identify the feeling of pleasure evoked by stimuli that are perceived as nice attractive or rewarding Flow also known as the zone is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus full involvement and enjoyment in the process of the activity Consciousness subjective awareness of one39s own sensations perceptions and other mental events Monophasic v polyphasic 0 polyphasic is the practice of sleeping multiple times in a 24hour period usually more than two 0 Monophasic practice of sleeping usually once a day Intelligence quotient IQ is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence Factors that in uence intelligence 0 Environmental Socioeconomic 0 family factor Psychometric Approach is a eld of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement One part of the eld is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge abilities attitudes personality traits and educational achievement Nativist View cognitive phenomena that is inborn They unravel as a result of biological programming and environmental perception requires little active construction by the organism 0 Pragmatism James wrote considerably on the concept of pragmatism According to pragmatism the truth of an idea can never be proven James proposed we instead focus on what he called the quotcash valuequot or usefulness of an idea 0 Functionalism James opposed the structuralist focus on introspection and breaking down mental events to the smallest elements Instead James focused on the wholeness of an event taking into the impact of the environment on behavior 0 lamesLange Theory of Emotion proposes that an event triggers a physiological reaction which we then interpret According to this theory emotions are caused by our interpretations of these physiological reactions Both James and the Danish physiologist Carl Lange independently proposed the theory CannonBard theory The theory that physiological and emotional changes occur simultaneously in response to a stimulus as opposed to the earlierJamesLange theory Example A woman is hiking in the forest when she stumbles upon a bear All at once she starts sweating trembling and feeling extremely afraid Schacter amp Singer39s theory Schachter and Singer felt that physical arousal played a primary in emotions However they suggested that this arousal was the same for a wide variety of emotions so physical arousal alone could not be responsible for emotional responses The twofactor theory of emotion focuses on the interaction between physical arousal and how we cognitively label that arousal In other words simply feeling arousal is not enough we also must identify the arousal in order to feel the emotion So imagine you are alone in a dark parking lot walking toward your car A strange man suddenly emerges from a nearby row of trees and rapidly approaches The sequence that follows according to the twofactor theory would be much like this 1 see a strange man walking toward me 2 My heart is racing and lam trembling 3 My rapid heart rate and trembling are caused by fear 4 I am frightened The process begins with the stimulus the strange man which is followed by the physical arousal rapid heartbeat and trembling Added to this is the cognitive label associating the physical reactions to fear which is immediately followed by the conscious experience of the emotion fear 3 components of emotion Recognition amp expression preceding event physiological response assessment expression behavior change in some element of cognitive functioning Basicuniversal emotions Psychological research has classi ed six facial expressions which correspond to distinct universal emotions disgust sadness happinessfearanger surprise Universal v cultural emotion universal feelings are the same emotions you see all around and cultural emotions are different among each cultures they don39t all mean the same Preceding events everyday lives bear particular emotional signi cance for us Feeling v display rules display rules acquired primarily during socialization Feeling rule particular cultural rules about how to feel in particular situations Eastern v western emotional experiences
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