all lecture notes for midterm
all lecture notes for midterm HIS 104
Popular in History of Native Americans
Popular in History
This 59 page Study Guide was uploaded by bridget berning on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 104 at Illinois State University taught by Linda Clemmons in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see History of Native Americans in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
History 10406 81815 Think of stereotypical words that describe Native Americans Casinos Reservation Tomahawk Alcoholdrunks They talk to trees 0 Wolves Lower class 0 Brown skinred skin Feather crownmoccasins Piercings Tattoos 0 Animal skin TEepees Buffalo 0 Eagle Sacagawea Corn Savages warlike or peaceful All live in south west 0 Closed off from society 0 Appearance Headdress Uneducated Not involved in US affairs or history Activists 82015 His 104 Write down things you notice about these stereotypical kids cartoons Chanting songs Dancing around re Teepees Feathers Drums and other made instruments Planes Indians not all the Indians are planes lndians Speak broken English Smoking drugs All the Indians looked the same Peter pan and wendy look different Gender roles more equal in real time Stereotype that they weren t equal quotHowquot is a Lakota word of greeting but only for one tribe Daffy duck cartoon Lakota pole in the desert Teepees Face paint headdress feathers Guns violence horses riding Drums again usually was a sacred thing and these cartoons are mocking it gt watch was a sundial gt doorbell was a drum 0 Totem pole was in desert wasn t supposed to be there supposed to be in the Northwest 0 Low man on the totem pole is actually the most important because they are holding everyone else up Short ad video Stoic monotone straight face no emotion or laughing 82515 Bering Strait Theory this could be on test 1 The origin of Native Americans Science versus religion evolution creationism a Scienti c tradition i Bering Strait theory during the ice age a land bridge appeared in the Bering Strait Scientists called this quotberingiaquot b They traveled from Russia Asia and other places to Alaska and other places 12000 15000 years ago c gt ancestors spread south to South America The problems with the Bering Strait theory 2 scienti c problems a never been proven b time frame gt 13000 25000 years ago c DNA evidence what they have found has questioned the origin of them so where are they really from 3 Native American spiritual beliefs a Reject i Origin stories oral history stories weren t written down b One example is Navajo DinE i Believed originally lived underground after they were exiled they climbed up to another world ii Then they were exiled again and had to climb to the 3rd world iii Then they were exiled again and had to climb to the 4th world 1 The 4th world is the world we live in right now Politically charged Conspiracy theories 0 50000 year old skeleton South America 0 The Kennewick man possible test term 0 1996 Two young men were boating on Columbia River Kennewick WA 0 Found a skull took it to a coroner found a complete skeleton after further searching found out it was 9300 years old 0 Oldest and most complete skeleton ever found in the USA 1 Science a quotcaucasoidquot discredited b after some research they decided the bones were ancient but maybe not Native American c Race Of kennewick man d Ethical question should the skeleton be studied at all i 1990 NAGPRA Native American Grave protection and repartition act ii human remainsobjects September 1996 5 Native American tribes sued to repatriate skeleton to return it and properly bury it o 8 anthropologistsarcheologists countersued o court case decided in 2004 not an ancestor of present day Native Americans 0 NO repatriation Scientists could still study the bones but only once a year or so CT scan of bones 0 Hunter spear hunter spear point embedded in his hip Several broken bones that didn t heal right obviously He was buried on purpose some sort of ceremony Race Polynesian Today bones are still being studied in class exercise 1 What were some of the ethical issues brought up by the article The buried child was hit by a bulldozer scratched of red ocher glued bones together 2 At the end of the article the author questions Bering Strait theory Why DNA evidence shows that they came 10000 years earlier than they thought Paleo Indians vs Paleo Americans 82715 1 Introduction the use of terms a First example is quotprehistoryquot i Lakota winter counts No history Oral history only Lakota winter count o plains One person historian One picture several pictures Winter count 0 read circular not left to right shows a different side by reading circular tribes used symbols or pictures to communicate o Storytelling was a very formalized process The elders of the group would start and then pass the stories down 0 Pre contact 0 Pre Colombian Second example of problematic words 0 New world old world Americas Europe Third example Uncivilizedbarbaicprimitive Colombia River Trade Network 1 South West irrigation systems a quotPre contactquot systems were better than the new ones built in 1930s 2 Northwest connected entire paci c North West a The Dalles OR b North basketsskinsberries c South obsidian d East buff hides e West whale oil shells f Dalles salmon i Developed protocalls for diplomacy also created their own sign language Fourth example staticnever changing lakota live in South DakotaNebraska Typical plains culture Started in Michigan and Minnesota grew rice had semi perm houses didn t always hunt buffalo An example of Precontact Society Cahokia term A Short timeline a Notes about the images 1st grand plaza 2nOI no grass little houses built mounds like the pyramids creek river Monks mound trees grass hill 0 Artists rendition of what Cahokia might have looked like houses teepees color tall teepees shacks look somewhat sturdy dirt road trading village wood henge circle thing of wooden sticks sticking up from ground Looks like a bad fence Artifacts found at Cahokia little smoke pipes made out of clay Maybe shaped stones or shark teeth 0 Animal teeth maybe spearheads AD 700 small settlements established in Cahokia area AD 800 small settlements began planting corn AD 900 corn became major eld crop 0 So the communities grew AD 1000 quotGolden agequot of Cahokia 20000 population 0 covered 6 sq miles houses arranged in rows built around plazas 0 quotGrand plaza of Cahokiaquot 40 acres Built 120 mounds 50 million cubic feet of Earth moved to construct the mounds 5 million man hours to construct 1 mound monks mound 100 feet tall 1000 feet long 800 feet wide wood henges they think they were used for calendars built 2 walls around Cahokia vast agricultural elds 0 organized politicalsocial structure powerful chiefs AD 1200 population slowly began to decline in Cahokia Theones 1 Climate change 2 Pressure from outside enemies 3 Exhausted the resources in the region this was the most popular and likely theory AD 1300 Cahokia abandoned replaced with small lndian villages 1600 French explorers thought the mounds were built by Vikings 0 Issues today 0 Skeletal remains found in mounds Should they be excavated or left in Peace Nagpra 1990 Native American Grave repriation act Dickson mounds o Excavated in 1920s left open for visitors they saw Native skeletons 0 quotopen grave sitequot Native Americans protested this said it was disrespectful Some recommended it should be closed 0 Then local residents protests Native activists protested on the mound Tried to rebury the skeletons on their own A compromise was reached noninvasive study had to be completed then the site would be closed 0 Then they were reburied 0 Money for museum highlight Native life in the region His 104 9115 Issues with contact the Colombian exchange 1 Native American population numbers at contact a We can t know for sure the exact number of them Ideology each era has given different estimates 0 19th century population estimates were very low 0 primitive uncivilized the stereotypes 21St century ideology o liberals said that the population was high 0 conservatives said that the population was low 0 Critical of arrival of Europeans 0 Led to holocaust or genocide for Native Americans 0 Liberals thought 112 million Maybe Conservative put the population numbers low so they wouldn t have to explain about the holocaust or genocide Population numbers US gt 5 15 million 19th century 250000 2015 2 million the largest tribes Cherokee and Navajo 2 The Colombian exchange in general a First topic what did Europeans bring to the Americas i Historian Alfred Crosby 1972 ii Exchange between Europe and Americas of people food plants animals and ideas 10 What did Europeans bring to Americas Diseases small pox and in uenza Animals horses sheep goats cows pigs chickens 0 Horses were very important They brought rats by accident because the rats were on the ships Also they brought cats honeybees cockroaches Technology guns gunpowder trade goods Crops wheat barley oats fruits sugar cane o Dandelions brought over within the seeds also something else that a lot of people are allergic to Native language was changed after Europe came over Sioux plains Called themselves DakotaLakota meant friendally They moved south encountered Ojibwe enemies Dakota quotNadousuquot enemyadder They couldn t understand quotNadouesuquot so they shortened it to Sioux B Second topic what did the Americas give to Europe Crops corn beans squash tobacco cotton potato tomato Wealth gold silver furs Medicines quinine gt used against malaria and was used in precontact times 0 Also Novocain 11 Diseases syphilis still being discussed 0 Language gt caribou raccoon bayou typography something 0 Massachusetts Chicago North Dakota south Dakota 3 The most important part of the Colombian exchange disease a Virgin soil epidemics term i Small pox measles in uenza b Europe some people developed a natural immunity 0 Native American had NO immunity gt this is where quotvirgin soilquot comes from o The people had no immunity Death rates 50 95 amount of people that will die to the diseases small pox lasted very long 1500 late 19th century 0 small pox rst broke out in Hispaniola present day Haiti and Dominican Republic 1516 Spanish sailor arrived sick He didn t mean to spread it Infected by person to person contact or bedding Once infected 810 incubation period 0 People tried to run away from small pox they ended up spreading it more 12 13 High fever 104 aches vomiting rash lled with liquid Rash was the worst The consequences of Virgin Soil Epidemics 1 population 1055 90 95 ebola was 40 in comparison There wasis no cure for small pox gt Mexico before contact 25 million 0 100 years later 13 million 0 most of decline came from diseases 1492 1800 1837 1840 gt north America 74 decline 0 brought by steam boat Epidemics today 0 Survivors of disease were immune forever 0 variolation 1022 AD lady blew a ground up scab into peoples noses 23 people died from that England milkmaids cowpox 1796 quotvaccinequot quotvacaquot means cow in latin 1800 gt 100000 people were vaccinated US 1949 AfricaIndia 1967 World Health organization 1977 last known small pox in Somalia 1980 world declared free of small pox 1972 no more small pox vaccinations Alaska 197080s Alaskan pipeline encountered native Alaskans not protected against measles Virgin soil epidemic 7 death rate History 104 Sept 3rOI Native American Encounter the Spanish and French 1 The Spanish in America a Background information Two reasons they went there 1 Gold Wealth also silver and money 2 God Christianize L cathoHc West indiescubamexicocentral america south america BrazH 14 Spanish sent explorers into US looking for Gold and wealth gt they didn t nd any gold or people to christianize formed small mission settlements o in south westflorida st Augustine Florida 1565 0 1st mission in NM 1581 0 Santa Fe founded as spanish mission in 1609 0 American mission settlements 0 conversion to catholicism 0 live in nearby settlements unmarried women lived in the mission supposed to attend mass everyday forbid native religious ceremonies punished if they continued to worship their own religion 0 physical punishment whipped labor done by native americans Why do Native americans want to move there 0 1 disease their community was wiped out o 2 protectionmilitary defeat couldn t grow their own food 0 3 some natives wanted to use the missionaries priests taught Native americans to read and write overtcovert resistance 0 covert means hidden 0 ex work slowly in elds breaking tools overt means open spanish know they are resisting 15 Pueblo Rebellion of 1680 0 background 0 1 culturalreligious oppression o 2 labor gt the spanish made Pueblos work really hard 0 3 Died gt from disease and forced labor 100000 Pueblo before spanish 1680 17000 just before rebellion o 4 Reprisals 1675 47 religious leaders were put on trial at Santa Fe 0 all found guilty of quotwitchcraftquot 3 hung 44 were whipped and hurt in other physical ways Rebellion led by Pope he was one of the 47 he went to prison and was released pope coordinated across New Mexico 0 Pueblo were located all over Taos Pueblo NM pope sent out runners with knotted strings o of knots told community when they were going to rebeL caught had to change the date at the last minute they sent out new strings destroyed the missions killed 21 out of 33 priests at the mission 0 2350 spanish settlers 375 died in the ght 0 the rest ed back to Mexico 16 Importance gt the rebellion was successful for the Peublo spanish left after the rebellion to Mexico 0 stayed away for 12 years 0 1692 Spanish return 0 1696 Pueblo under spanish control again 0 But things were slightly better Worst abuses did not happen again II The French Background info French in Canada upper mid west North East mississippi river 0 wanted to convert north americans to catholisicm and they wanted Gold 0 wanted to create a trade empire fur trade lndians would hunt the furs for the French 0 Indians would get something in return Quebec montreal initially french were stationary indians traveled to them 0 Then they switched that around B The fur trade Coureurs du bois Based in quebecmontreal 0 lled up canoes with fur followed long circuits traveled 1200 miles for some trips stopping in multiple indian villages these guys were single young white male adventurers 0 most never returned to France 17 either died or just never went back and raised self up socially 0 that was their goal 0 attempted to form a partnership with Indians gt they were nice to them if there was problems they attempted to use diplomacy to x them Adopted some indian attributes dressed like them 0 Learned their language traveled in indian canoes Wore mocasins gt they were critizised for becoming quottoo indianquot Married indian women women who were high up in the society Metis gt means mixed lndian mothers french coureur du bois fathers o grew up between 2 cultures some went on Adventures also and were good traders Problems in the Fur Trade 18 1 French used violence to get what they wanted 0 early 18th c used violence 2 Coureur du bois spread disease through all the vMages 3 Alcohol some became addicted 4 North American women exploited 5 Metis caught between 2 worlds not accepted by either They went both ways in both communities 6 Over hunting nite products killed animals for fur then they had no food 0 Maybe an essay question comparing and contrasting French and Spanish in this context C Jesuit Missionaries Catholic quotBlack robesquot nickname because they wore those traveled to Indian villages 0 would preach there convert small number of North Americans in the villages o as they returned convert more and more Wanted them to move into catholic villages 0 large population black robes not very successful but somewhat successful to Metis His 104 Sept 8th Native americans and the English 1 Introduction a Latecomers century after spanish 1st arrived i Spanish gt laborconversion to christianity ii French gt fur conversion to christianity iii English gt land conversion to christianity 1 Farming wars 19 Problems 1Landoss 2 Livestock diseases caught by indigenous animals 3 Politics factions 4 Warfare a Small scale gt became large scale b Seasonal gt became continuous c Ritual quotcounting coupquot i Became actual killing The Chesapeake Colonies maryland virginia Jamestown ll Jamestown and Indians Opechancanough Jamestown 1607 Powhatan confederacy o 30tnbes 0 20000 people at rst english were not a threat 0 very few of them there at rst 0 English seen as inept swamp death 80 threat 0 number of colonists increased 20 tobacco gt John Rolfe 0 land 1622 indians rebelled for 1st time Powhatan39s brother led this 0 opechancanough possible test term was the brother 0 killed 347 settlers caused people to ee away 20 years violence back and forth 1644 opech 500 colonists o opech was killed indians eventually lost 16071646 ceded lands to English Pocahontas known for saving the life ofjohn Smith Pocahontas child of chief Powhatan 21 her real name is Matoaka Primary source written by John Smith 0 looked at all ofjohn smiths writings traveled to turkey story about some girl saving him in TUrkey 0 so did it happen 2 times Some say yes some say no 0 Was actually an adoption ritual to adopt john smith into his tribe maybe When this happened Pocahontas was only 1011 years old Pocahontas captured by English when she was 17 years old held captive for 1 year learned English and married John Rolfe o Traveled back to England with son to visit 0 She became sick died at a young age III New England and Indians Pequot War 1636 37 King Phillips war 1676 New England Massachusetts 0 1st English to settle arrived in Plymouth MA 1620 Pilgrims 0 Small pox epidemic 34 0 Found a lot of crop and indians left because they died from disease 0 The remaining North Americans encountered and oss farms 0 CornWheat led to continuous Warfare Pequot War 1636 37 0 Connecticut settlers Narragansetts Mohegans 22 The causes of war depends on the point of view of who you ask 0 English blamed Pequots Pequots blamed English War was deadly for both sides 0 The connecticut militia attacked pequots pequots then attacked the villages Pequots signed a treaty ceded their land in connecticut 0 some pequots were enslaved shipped to west indies some forced to be servants to English 0 1638 terminated soveignty as a tribe couldn t say pequotataH Foxwoods casino and resort Pequot o Richest tribe in US King Phillips war 1676 major war Parties involved wampanoags narragansetts They aligned together fought against English in Plymouth and Rhode Island Metacomet King Phillip and Wampanoag and narragansetts aligned together 23 Causes of War english said King phillip was to blame 1676 major outbreak happened 0 settlers knew it was coming but they didn t know they had guns 110 of all men in colonies were killed or taken captive lndians destroyed 18 towns in Plymouth and Rhode Island Surviving colonists eventually were successful 0 caught King Phillip cutoff his head put it on a pipe in the town Treaty ceded lands over 0 King P s war bloodiest and deadliest in US history but proportionately 0 2500 colonists died 30 of England population at the time 2x as many North American died 5000 not exact number for North Americans IV EuropeanAmericanlndian Wars Localized wars global 0 1st 3 wars began in Spain France England then spread Europe to America 0 Last War started in America spread to Europe 24 V Praying towns english wanted to convert North Americans to Protestant FrenchSpanish to Catholisicm John Eliot he would go from Indian Village to village relocate quotpraying villagequot 0 Christian Civilized before king P war there was 7 praying towns o thought these towns would be safe for them 0 King phillips war attacked by Indians and English 0 Indians gt viewed them as traitors 0 English gt thought they were secret allies with o 1674 1100 population 1676 300 population Sept 10th II The causes of the French and Indian war BritishFrench Ohio country contested 1750 exclusive control England 1 Forts 25 2 Land company gt The ohio company 1753 France forts Fort Duquesne War broke out in 1754 III The indians choose sides Neural wanted to remain neutral 0 Who would help them most or hurt them the least Majority of tribes sided with the French 1 Trade had better goods est trade routes fairly treated 2 French fur trade British agriculture gt land loss a ohio land company Algonquin indians located upper midwest lower canada upper east coast English Iroquois Nation Mohawks Oneidas Onondagas Cayuga Seneca 26 Problems 1 Switched sides 2 Not well trained 3 Own goals IV Fighting the war 0 1754 0 George Washington failed to capture Fort Duquesne o Built and lost Fort Necessity o 200 virginia OH country 0 He thought it would be easy to convince Indians 0 But he only convinced 40 then they abandoned him 0 Since he failed with Duquesne he built Fort necessity 0 then the french took over fort necessity 0 1755 o The british sent major general edward Braddock to lead British efforts to defeat the French Braddock attempted and failed to capture Fort Duquesne 0 He alienated native allies some offered to help if they promised to help them retain their land 0 1st 12 of War French Dominated o unUl1758 27 l I 28 In 1785 the tide turned in favor of the English 0 William Pitt sent sizeable numbers of british soldiers The british captured Fort Duquesne held peace conference with the Ohio Indians 0 Protect their lands Made peace with British abandoned the French 1759 0 British took Fort Niagra captured Quebec Frances major city in the North America 1760 Montreal fell ghting ended in America and switched to Europe 0 quotGerman Warfarequot British General Jefferey Amherst he suggested using small pox blankets 1763 war actually ended 3 years earlier 0 British and French signed Treaty of Paris formally concluded the war France lost all colonial holdings in North America England Canada Atlantic gt Mississippi River Results of the War Geographic dislocation gt forced to move multiple times because of continuous warfare New York gt ohio Ohio gt Missouri 2 Political disruption Civil chiefs War chiefs Daily War Seasonalsmall scale Then the war became continuouslarge scale War chiefs 3 Indians worried about British 0 after treaty british controlled north america 0 Agriculture gt land History 104 sept 10th The causes of the French and Indian war 0 BritishFrench 0 Ohio country contested o 1750 exclusive control 0 England 1 Forts 2 Land company gt the ohio company 1753 France Forts Fort Duquesne War broke out in 1754 29 3 The indians Choose sides Neutral wanted to remain neutral who would help them most or hurt them the least Majority of tribes sided with the French 1 Trade had better goodsest trade routes failry treated 2 French fur tradeBritish agriculture gt land loss a Ohio land company Algonquin indians located upper midwest lower canada upper east coast English Iroquois nation Mohawks Oneidas Onondagas Cayuga Seneca Problems 1 Switched sides 2 Not well trained 3 Own goals 4 Fighting the war 30 o 1754 0 George washington failed to capture Fort Duquesne o Built and lost Fort Necessity 200 virginia OH country 0 He thought it would be easy to convince Indians 0 But he really only convinced 40 then they abandoned him 0 Since he failed with Duquesne he built Fort necessity 0 then the french took over Fort necessity 1755 o The british sent Major General Edward Braddock to lead British efforts to defeat the French Braddock attempted and failed to capture Fort Duquesne he alienated native allies some offered to help if you promise to help us retain our land 1St 12 of war French dominated Until 1758 o In 1758 the tide turned in favor of the English 0 William pitt sent sizeable numbers of British soldiers The british captured Fort Duquesne held peace conf with the ohio Indians 0 protect their lands 0 Made peace with British abandoned the French 1759 0 British took Fort Niagra captured Quebec 31 0 Frances major city in the North America 1760 Montreal fell ghting ended in America and switched to Europe 0 quotgerman warfarequot British General Jefferey Amherst he suggested using small pox infested blankets 1763 war actually ended 3 years earlier 0 British and French signed Treaty of paris which formally concluded the war 0 France lost all colonial holdings in North America England Canada Atlantic gt Mississippi river 5 Results of the war 1 Geographic dislocation gt forced to move multiple times because of continuous warfare a New york gt ohio b Ohio gt Missouri 2 Political disruption Civil chiefs War chiefs Daily war seasonalsmall scale War became continuous large scale War chiefs 3 Indians worried about British a After treaty British controlled North America i agriculture gt land 32 History Sept 15 Native Americans and the Revolutionary War 1 Taking sides British or American a Proclamation of 1763Quebec Act 1774 b Neutral Allies end 0 Most choose to align with British 0 French Indian War 0 American British 0 French British 0 m American 1 Trade a Good trade goods b Established trade routes 2 Experienced lndian Agents a Indian agency i N S Superintendent 3Land 1 Proclamation of 1763 a Was a British Act prohibited settlement west of Appalachian mountains 33 b American colonists ignored the proclamation 2 Quebec Act 1774 a Stop American settlement in West b Americans ignored the Act 3 Declaration of Independence 4 Win Back lost lands 5 British promised to all tribes that they could take part in any treaty negotiations at the end of the war American Indian Department Superintendent they were kinda successful Ind Mass Oneidas lriquois confederacy gt sided with Americans I Native Americans and the war Partic Rev war battles Frontier raids NY PN SC NC GA 0 Conducted by indian and British 0 Usually by indians and supplied by british guns Diverted American efforts to frontier 1 1776 Cherokees GAcarolinasVl 1777 5000 soldiers burned cherokee homes eldslivestock 0 quottotal warquot Cherokee ed to appalachian mountains 34 o Ceded 8000 acres of land 2 Iroquois NYPN a 1779 Washington i destroying 40 towns Violence frontier West america raids violentdeadly Amer communitites scalped Indians homefront Female warriors hunt harvests 0 They suffered from starvation Cutoff trade Political division 0 Civil Chief War chiefs III The treaty of Paris 1783 British gt Amer Independence British gt Vast territories Sgt Great lakes Egt Mississippi Ngt Florida spain Partic Treaty reg 35 IV After the Treaty Punished Indians allied with British by taking their lands Stockbridge lnds Ma Upstate NY Oneidas 1818 IN 1822 WI Settlers west 0 1790 80000 settlers moved into western areas 0 social dislocation land loss 0 Post war world 0 Debt no tax But they had the western land to sell to pay their war debt 0 But Native Americans were living on the land History Sept 17th Lecture 8 The New Nation Indian policy 1 Developing an American Indian policy a Goals of Post Revolutionary Federal Indian Policy i Gaining control of lands 36 1 Land ordinance of 1785Northwest Ordinance in 1787 New Territory midwest OHlNMllLWlMN Land only traded on paper 0 Indians were living on the land 1 Wanted land so Americans could livework on the land 2 US in debt from Revolutionary war a American gt Articles of Confederation i There were no taxes b They wanted the land to pay off their debt since they didn t have taxes 3 Squatters they would squat or live on the land without buying it 4 Philosophical reasons a Small farmers Land Ordinance New Ordinance Used to survey and sell NW Territory surveyors supposed to turn the territory into a grid so it would be easier to sell 0 Land ordinance NW ordinance 0 States 0 Banned slavery in NW territory 37 0 Indians gt they wanted the indians removed that was one of their main goals 2 Civilizing Indians a Civilizing indians i settled lives ii farming iii physical appearance they will look like the rest of Americans men will have shorter hair no face paint b The language will be English c They know how to read and write d Christian Protestant e Euro American gender roles i The women farm ii Men homechildren Removal quotcivilizingquot 0 Force them to settle in one place 0 If one place there will be no more hunting gt they were forced to farm SchoolChurch Missionairies help teach convert Native Americans 0 NOT scienti c racism gt culture rel inferior B How was the Government going to achieve these goals 1 Creation of an Indian Department 38 war department 2 Regulating Trade 0 Indian Trade and Intercourse Act 1790 o Fed licensed traders 0 quotTrading factoriesquot NW territory Non indians traveling through Ind Country States individuals couldn t purchase Indians lands 0 All land sales have to go through the federal government 3 Negotiating treaties with Indian tribes a Federal government needs to negotiate i Treaties that include land cessions ii Treaty signed rati ed 4 Carrying out the Federal Indian policy a Carried out poorly i Trade traders failed to get licenses 1 They continued to take land didn t use the quottrading factoriesquot b People continued to travel through indian land i Squatters continued to settle on Indian lands c States continued to negotiate treaties even though they werent supposed to i Some individuals continued to purchase Indian Lands 39 Con ict gt Removal of Indians 0 Con ict over trade 0 Claims on lands II Indians Response to the New US Government a Overt Military Resistance 0 Joseph Brant 0 Battle of Fallen TimbersTreaty of Greenville 1795 0 They didn t like losing land the indians didn t like that they were trying to be kicked out they didn t want to become civilized They didn t want their land to be surveyed Local level small scale raids o Raids against settlers who were living on their lands There were many raids back and forth 0 Large united resistance on NW frontier 1780s Joseph Brant Mohawk gt he became the spokesman for NW tribes formed confed of tribes devoted to resisting American settlement on Indian lands There were 9 different tribes in this group Iroquois heuron delaware shawnee atoua ojibwa pottowatta miami wabash 1786 Delegates from each tribe met and held a council to gure out how to deal with Americans 0 They drafted and sent a message to the US congress 4O They said they wanted peace no war 0 No settlement West of Ohio river Any treaty that US signed would have to be signed with all 9 tribes If US violates this there will be war The US responds George washingtonsecretary of war knox they also wanted Peace US didn t have money so war would be a last resort As years past things heated up Americans still were settling on lands Squatters 0 So war broke out in 1790 heated up in 1791 At rst Indian won lopsided victories o seemed like US would have to negotiate US army stepped back to rebuild regroup Divisions appeared in Brant s confederacy 0 US 1 million Gen Anthony Wayne 0 To train a new army August 1794 tribes more divided Americans met indians at battle of fallen timbers 1794 41 lost to anthony wayne 0 had to negotiate treaty with wayne Treaty of greenville 1795 o indians lost 23 of Ohio and part of indiana lnd Supposed to have lasting boundry 10000 indians received for lost lands 0 they received this in yearly payments that was less than 10000 actually 0 The payments were quotcivilization fundsquot plows seeds 0 This was the civilization program 0 B Cultural and Religious Responses 42 handsome lake and the longhouse Religion senecas lndians turned within gt to their traditional religion culture 0 Some tribes rejected American trade goods 0 Some rejected alcohol 0 Religious ceremonies gt rejected Christianity Other tribes developed new religions culture 0 Combined traditional with American culture and religion quotsyncretismquot blending Handsome lake was a Seneca 4 million acres gt 200000 acres 0 seneca faced poverty diseases alcoholism handsome lake was an alcoholic 0 he suffered from poverty also He was close to death from alcoholism He had this vision then he stopped drinking alcohol quotLonghouse Religionquot 0 He said they should live in Peace with everyone 0 also he said people shouldn39t drink alcohol civilized o farming male 0 some education he proposed this 0 He said NO more land sales Formed a syncretic religion Seneca reused christian stuff as well His 104 Sept 22nd Thomas Jefferson Lewis and Clark and Native Americans 0 May 14 1804 Sept 23 1806 1 Thomas Jefferson and Indians Enlightenment mid 19th century 0 Origin 0 Degenerated environment 0 Inferior culturereligion o civilized 43 o reservation Scienti c racism mid 19th century 0 Different races different origins inferior Remove indians and put them on reservations Scientists did experiments 0 Morton had a lot of skulls Phrenology The map of the skull and characteristics 0 They would feel the bumps on the skulls 2 Why explore the Louisiana Purchase LA purchase US purchased Louisiana from france in 1803 Jefferson was president 0 530 million acres of land 800000 miles 0 paid 15 million or 3 cents per acre Why did Jefferson want to explore LA 1 To test Myths a The terrain of the region b Animals gt unicorns buffalo 7 foot tall beavers cMaps d quotNorth West passagequot i eastwest 2 American animals NOT inferior to European animals 3 Jefferson wanted to establish area and trade 44 a Ex furs 4 Support US 5 Collect info about the region he wanted explorers to map area take note of the foliage animals there among other things Meriweather LewisWilliam Clark 0 They were in charge with 250 other men Clarks slave had to go with them on the adventure 0 Hired half french man named Drouillard gt he would serve as their translator o All of these men formed the Corps of discovery 3 The expedition leave and their rst Encounter with the Yankton Sioux nakota St Louis May 14 1804 Sept 23 1806 0 1st 3 months didn t encounter any North Americans they were upset about that o The rst group they encountered was the Yankton Sioux Nakota o The Yankton Sioux lived on the border of SDNebraska They called a council meeting with the Yankton Sioux 0 English gt French gt Nakota sometimes there was a language barrier Needed N Americans for provisions guide 45 0 Jefferson told Lewis and Clark to warn the Native Americans about the US being in charge 0 At council Lewis gave prewritten speech 2500 words long 0 After Lewis and Clark gave out gifts to the Indians there Mirrors hankerchiefs facepaint tiny beads bunch of other stuff However it wasn t fair because they didn t ask the indians what they wanted 4 Wintering with the Hidatsa Mandans Took notes about religion culture gender roles 0 These notes were fairly accurate Oct 24th Mandan Hidatsa these were 2 separate tribes but they were close by eachother so they were often clumped together 0 4500 population very large village 0 They needed to replenish their trade goods Needed to nd a guide that would lead them West 0 During Winter they all mingled 0 French Trader gt Charbonneau gt he visited a lot He brought shoshone tribe wife named Sacagawea When Sacagawea was 12 years old she was kidnapped 0 Later she was sold as a slave sold to Charbonneau She helped translate a lot 46 0 She had an infant Jean Baptiste she was 16 at the time of this They all stayed 6 months at the winter camp because it was very cold One of the coldest winters in history Avg temp was 4 degrees 0 Since they stayed there for so long they had a lot of time to gain info 0 Clark also wrote 45000 page report to Jefferson He sent 1 explorer back to give it to Jefferson 0 Maps 0 Samples 0 Wild animals prairie dog and others 0 The animals he sent were alive but some died on the journey 5 Sacagawea term She was a translator She diffused some con ict 0 Encountered Shoshone in Idaho 0 The Chief of the tribe was actually Sacagaweas long lost brother 0 Sacagawea didn t get to stay with her brother she continued on the journey with Lewis and Clark Cultural women and baby did not travel with a War party 0 That s why they knew that Lewis and Clark were not dangerous She had Lewis and Clark eat healthier 47 0 She found nuts and fruit for them to eat instead of always eating meat 0 May 14th 1805 boat she was riding in capsized she saved the important documents that were on the boat 0 She did not receive compensation for helping them on the journey o 6 years later she gave birth to Lisette Dec 22nd 1812 she died from an unknown cause she was 25 0 Clark adopted her children he brought them to St Louis to raise them The son went to germany to 6 The failures and successes of the Expedition Failure No NW passage Lewis and clark opened the way for poor relations with Indians even though they had a good relationship with them 0 On their way back they saw settlers going into the region they just explored to take the N Amer lands This pushed the N Amer out of their lands Success Found a route to the Paci c Provided a lot of info 0 Indians terrain owers minerals etc 48 His 104 sept 24th Native Americans and the war of 1812 1 Continued Problems with Indians and Britain in the Northwest territory Lands resources trade Britain Were supposed to abandoned the forts No indian trades UUNH No relations with the Native Americans 0 Americans blamed the British they thought the British were inciting the Indians to resist they were right about this 1 British supplied Indians with guns 2 Supported Indians resisting Americans Indian reasons 1Lossand 2 Squatters onto Indian lands II Tecumseh Tenskwatawa The Prophet and resistance to Americans 49 Shawnee Disliked trade goods hated them coming on their land and they hated everything else about them 0 Pan lndian alliance Goals 1 No squatters 2 No further land cessions 3 Hold on to culturereligious no quotcivilizationquot reject Christianity no syncretism Tec political alliance Ten religious alliance Tec gt 1768 OH Shawnee Moved Westward IN lL MO mother First military encounter 1782 tried to act like a warrior Battle of fallen timbers Pan indian confederacy Started in Northwest gt went south The message that he spread or his goals 1 Wanted a large confederacy a Great lakesMexico 2 Strong alliance single political body 50 a Leaders 3 Agree NOT to sell their lands a NW territory successful i In the south NOT successful Ten guy 0 Not a respected warrior Alcoholic o 1805 he had the vision tried to reject christianity wanted everyone to go back to Indian ways His message reject all of christianity 0 NO intermarriage with own Americans 0 NO Chrisitianity 0 Return to traditional diet Reject all trade with Americans and British except for guns No alcohol He was very young 14 warrior got scared and ed rst battle then he said he would never run away from a battle ever again 0 He got a lot of followers lll Government response to Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa lN Tippecanoe prophets town gt they established a village there where they thought they would be isolated 51 William Henry Harrison gov of IN at the time 0 November gt 1811 Tec Was away on a mission in the South Battle of Tippecanoe Harrison set out camp in Tippiecanoe for the talks and negotiations the next morning but the indians decided to attack instead of talk The indians from Tippiecanoe attacked Harrison element of surprise 0 They won that one but the Indians and Ten eventuaHylost 2 days later Harrison burned tippiecanoe The curse of Tecemsuh 1840 William Henry Harrison gt died of pneumonia 0 1860 Lincoln gt assassinated 1880 Gar eld gt assassinated 1900 Mckinley gt assassinated 1920 Harding gt Heart attack 0 1940 FDR gt cerebral hemorrhage 1960 JFK gt Assassinated 1980 Reagan shot but he did survive 2000 Bush grenade thrown at him but he is still alive 0 2020 52 IV Tecumseh Tenskwatawa and the war of 1812 alliance with the British 0 war of 1812 they sided with British over the US lt 0 British supplied food guns ammunition Indians supplied Battles against US during the war of 1812 Oct 5th 1813 Tec killed at Battle of the Thames 0 After his death the alliance broke up V Treaty of Ghent Dec 24 1814 ended the war of 1812 AmerBr treaty did nothing for them but end the war 0 The indians however lost a lot of land 0 N Amer could participate in the treaty negotiations However they were not allowed to participate in the end 0 Reservation permanent lands the indians were promised That didn t happen either John Quincy Adams said he would never give the Native Americans land lndians lost the NW territory 0 They were pushed out of their own land 53 History 104 Oct 1 Indian Removal in the Antebellum Era Early mid 19th c o I Justi cations for taking Indian lands A improving the land 0 Not using the land properly not erased from the land Great American dessert West of Mississippi improving farm wrong 0 female mounds B Bene ts to the Indians civilization supposed to help the Indians by bringing them to civilization 0 Stages 0 Hunting savage o Herding barbaric 0 Agriculture civilized removal 0 Commercial civilized removal C Racial Ideology Paternalism and Scienti c Racism The indians were like children The Indians were the Children and Andrew Jackson is like their father the image of the political cartoon Indians small like babies but drawn like aduhs The president of US Andrew Jackson at the time is always called Great Father 54 0 Indian agents are called Father D Keep America Strong and virtuous o Industrialize corrupting o Idealized gt small family farmers o Virtuous Needed to bring in more land ll Taking Indians Lands a Early federal indian policy civilization act of 1819 1790s 1820s George Washington John Quincy Adams Civilize 0 Agriculture 0 School read and write 0 Church gt Christianity Civilization Act of 1819 Appropriated 10000 per year to civilize Native Americans 0 Money towards plows seeds Hire teachers agricultural teachers 0 Most teachers were protestant missionaries gt killed 2 birds with 1 stone 0 Each year the money increased 0 Indians were supposed to be removed from their land and put on a reservation 55 0 They would sign a treaty agree to go on smaller reservation Was supposed to be voluntary in theory B AndrewJackson and the Indians 0 Indian Removal Act of 1830 o This act authorized the President of the US to negotiate treaties to remove lndians living East of the Mississippi River to areas West of the Mississippi River lndians given compensation for their own landsgt in return they were given a new reservation west of the Mississippi river Government was supposed to provide food medicine transportation money 0 Andrew Jackson said this was good for the Indians the act was very controversial gt senate vote 2819 House vote 10297 Evangelica protestant 0 Since they already became civilized they were not supposed to move C The steps of Indian Removal 1 Sign a treaty with the tribe 1 Small group of indians gt brought to Washington DC This was the preferred method they tried to scare the indians by showing the US military power 2 send 2 agents to tribe 56 most common but not preferred the agents were usually outnumbered and the indians were on their own turf The goal was to negotiate a treaty signed senate rati ed treaty Where did the process go wrong 0 Senate did change the treaty during the rati cation process 0 1861 Dakota tribe was tricked Minnesota they thought they were able to stay on a reservation in Minnesota but the senate changed the treaty at the last minute 0 There was also a language barrier gt there were translators but not all of them were good 0 Literacy problem indians couldn t read or write and since the treaties were written the indians didn t know what they said 0 The indians were supposed to get reservation and money Bribes were made guns 0 3 tables table 1 and 2 were the treaty and the 3rd table was a traders paper 0 The indians signed all 3 and they were tricked 0 Also an issue of a minority signing for the majority there was only 10 indians in DC signing for the rest of the tribe Signed away the land 2 Reservation and Annuities Annuities yearly payment in cash food or farming materials in return for selling their land 57 Reservation track of land that was supposed to be the indians forever in quotindian countryquot oklahoma this was the great american dessert 0 Big tribes got small lands and small tribes got big lands 0 People were also already living on the land in quotindian territoryquot 0 The land is different from what the tribes were used to Georgia to Oklahoma very different 0 Oklahoma land was not good for farming 0 Until the steel plow was invented then it was good land for farming and then the Indians were pushed off again 3 Removal 0 Removed by force if necessary 0 Indians not adequately supplied for their removal 0 The government never supplied them good enough supplies or any supplies As a result many died during the removal process D The results of the Indian Removal act of 1830 Andrew Jacksons 2 administration gt 70 treaties with Eastern tribes for their removal 1844 30000 N Amer remained East of the Mississippi river 46000 had been removed West of the River 0 Indian removal continued throughout 19th C 58 They went after ALL tribes not just the East to the West The California gold rush 59
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