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Exam 3 notes

by: Desiree Clark

Exam 3 notes Bio 101

Desiree Clark
GPA 2.0
Into to Biology

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Into to Biology
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Desiree Clark on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 101 at Iowa State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Into to Biology in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/15
Cells How things get in and out Movement of materials across membranes Plasma membrane around cell Lipid bilayer With proteins Fence With gates 39 Selectively permeable Only certain substances can pass through Carbon dioxide oxygen water Movement of molecules in a medium In general how do molecules move through a medium such as water or air Diffusion Diffusion Molecules move from areas of high concentration to low concentration Resu1t even distribution of molecules throughout the medium Outcome is due to random motion of molecules B1indf01ded people in Hilton Coliseum analogy Molecules that CAN diffuse across membrane 02 C02 water and other small molecules Molecules that CANNOT diffuse across membrane Glucose ions such as calcium Ca and sodium Na How do things that can t diffuse get through Passive and active transport through protein gates With the concentration gradient with the ow passive transport Against the concentration gradient against the ow active transport Passive transport Passive transport Diffusion through gates Carrier proteins Act as ferries Take other molecules across eg sugars and amino acids Go through protein gates Requires no energy 0 Following concentration gradient Active transport Active transport Moving substances against the concentration gradient Going against the ow Requires energy Endocytosis and exocytosis Other ways cells get things Endocytosis Portion of cell membrane engulfs particles Eg Amoeba Other ways cells get rid of things Exocytosis Portion of cell membrane releases Movement of water molecules osmosis Diffusion of water molecules called osmosis Water moves from area of high water low solute to areas of low water high solute High solute concentration inside cell water moves in cell expands High solute concentration outside cell water moves out cell shrinks Same concentration on both sides no net movement of water molecules Examples of osmosis Effects of osmosis on cells Lower solute concentration outside the cell hypotonic water moves into the cell cell expands Lower solute concentration inside the cell hypertonic water moves out of the cell cell shrinks Same solute concentration inside and out isotonic no net movement of water cell stays the same size Osmosis in plants and animals Plants turgor pressure Within cells keeps plants rigid Animals e g Paramecium in a pond contractile vacuole sump pump Chemical reactions Cells are involved in many activities Making proteins building membranes taking in materials etc Metabolism process by which cells acquire and use energy Includes photosynthesis and respiration Metabolism involves chemical reactions Some of these reactions require energy to occur some release energy Energy The capacity to do work Different forms of energy Mechanical chemical electrical heat Energy Energy can exist in 2 states Potential stored E g ball at the top of a hill Kinetic motion E g ball rolling down the hill Energy transformations From one type to another Eg chemical to mechanical gas burning to move a car Rules of energy transformation Laws of thermodynamics First Law Energy always lost from the system in the transformation Usually lost as heat purpose of the car radiator Second Law Systems naturally go from order to disorder things tend to run downhill spontaneous reactions proceed in the direction of producing products with lower energy than the reactants Living things require constant input of energy to keep from running down Chemistry in living things Living things must maintain a high state of order which requires an input of energy Energy obtained from chemicals which have potential energy Eg Glucose Energy released and repackaged as small energy packets ATP energy packets Chemical reactions In general a reaction involves reactants molecules which interact to form products new molecules Energy transformation Types of reactions Products have lower energy than reactants Energyreleasing reactions exergonic Can occur spontaneously Like a ball rolling downhill Products have more energy than reactants Energyrequiring reactions endergonic Cannot occur spontaneously Like pushing a ball uphill Energyreleasing reactions Products have lower energy than reactants Energy comes from breaking bonds to produce simpler molecules Energyrequiring reactions Products have more energy than reactants Energy needed to form bonds to produce more complex molecules Biological reactions Coupling reactions Energyreleasing reaction put together with an energyrequiring reaction Construction of complex molecules ATP used to drive this energy requiring reaction Breakdown of complex molecules ATP made from energy released Coupling reactions ATP ADP Electron transport systems In some reactions electrons get transferred Sometimes these electrons have absorbed energy and are excited Excited electrons are transferred between molecules in an Electron Transport Chain Hot potato Give off energy with each transfer Activation energy Collision theory of chemical reactions For all reactions even spontaneous ones some input of energy is needed to get the reactants quotover the humpquot activation energy Activation energy can be overcome by heat pressure and catalysts Catalysts Example 2H2 02 gt H20 heat Hydrogen and oxygen will react to form water but need fire heat or platinum catalyst to make reaction go Catalysts lower activation energy Only small amounts needed because they are not used up in the process Role of an enzyme catalyst in lowering activation energy Enzymes 39 Catalysts in biological systems 39 Usually a protein molecule 39 Provides a place where reactants can meet and interact Active site on the molecule An enzyme at work Enzymes cont Very specific Each enzyme serves as a catalyst for only one reaction Enzymes only operate at certain temperatures and pH Protein shape changed at other temperatures and pH Regulating biochemical reactions Metabolic pathways Sequence of chemical reactions A gt B gt C gt D Each step helped by a unique enzyme Controlling biological reactions Controlling pathways by turning off enzymes Feedback inhibition If there is too much product the product molecule binds to the enzyme The active site of the enzyme then cannot function Product formation stops Photosynthesis Overview of photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis plants capture sunlight energy and make carbohydrate glucose releasing oxygen as a byproduct Respiration plants and animals break down carbohydrate glucose producing energy and releasing carbon dioxide as a byproduct Overview of photosynthesis inputs and outputs C02 H20 SUD CHCI39gy gt C6H1206 02 H20 2 Sets of Reactions Lightdependent reactions use sun energy to make ATPs and NADPHs Go to ATM to get some money Lightindependent reactions involves the CalvinBenson cycle use energy from ATPs and NADPHs to make glucose from C02 Use your money to buy food Lightdependent reactions Spectrum of Sun Energy Photosynthesis Changing light energy into chemical energy Energy transformation Sun Energy How is the sun39s energy picked up Pigments absorb sun energy Possible responses Heat up Fluoresce glow Excite electrons used by plants The role of photosystems Collection of pigments including chlorophyll Role of chlorophyll Found in chloroplasts Re ects green light absorbs red and blue Photosystem Chlorophyll forms the reaction center of a photosystem Energy from photons excites electrons in the chlorophyll molecule Electron transport system Excited electrons passed to other molecules in an electron transport chain Like hot potato Energy released is used in coupling reactions to make ATP 1 bills and NADPH 5 bills Electrons lost by chlorophyll molecule are replaced by splitting a water molecule and taking the electrons from the hydrogen 02 released source of oxygen in atmosphere Lightindependent reactions Energy from ATP and NADPH used to take C02 and build a carbohydrate molecule Glucose 6 carbon sugar Made from 6 molecules of C02 Many steps CalvinBenson cycle Begins With carbon fixation Enzyme rubisco picks up C02 Overall chemical reaction for photosynthesis C02 H20 SUD 6116ng gt C6H1206 02 H20 Involves many separate reactions Other ways of xing carbon Way just described C3 photosynthesis Problem for plants in hot dry places Limits on photosynthesis in C3 plants When stomata are closed 02 builds up in the leaves 02 binds to the enzyme rubisco instead of C02 can39t fix carbon Process called photorespiration C4 plants 39 C4 plants Have a pump which picks up C02 and delivers it to rubisco Eg corn crabgrass Compare with C3 plants such as soybeans and bluegrass CAM plants 39 CAM plants Close stomata during the hot daytime hours reduce water loss Open at night when it is cooler Do lightdependent reactions in day Do lightindependent reactions at night Eg Cacti jade plant Respiration Breakdown of glucose to obtain energy C6H1206 02 gt C02 H20 energy Respiration with and without oxygen Aerobes organisms dependent on oxygen for respiration Anaerobes organisms not dependent on oxygen Need for oxygen Facultative anaerobes can operate with or without oxygen Yeast Obligate aerobes can only live without oxygen for brief periods Most organisms Obligate anaerobes can t live with oxygen Bacteria in gut mud of lakes botulism and tetanus Aerobic respiration and fermentation Breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen aerobic respiration Breakdown without oxygen fermentation Aerobic respiration lst stage glycolysis glucose molecule broken in half 2nd stage Krebs cycle rest of glucose broken down into carbon dioxide and water 3rd stage electron transport chain large energy molecules made in first 2 stages are cashed in for ATP39s Stage 1 Glycolysis Breaking glucose 6carbon molecule in half Yields 2 pyruvates 3carbon molecules Makes energyrich products ATP 1 bills ADP P gt ATP NADH 5 bills to be cashed in later NAD H gt NADH Takes place in cytoplasm Produces only 10 of the energy the cell obtains from aerobic respiration of glucose Many small steps reactions Stages 2 and 3 of aerobic respiration Take place in mitochondria Stage 2 of aerobic respiration Krebs Cycle Pyruvate molecule is broken down Carbons stripped off ATP and other energyrich molecules e g NADH made Carbon dioxide released Stage 3 Electron transport chain Energyrich molecules e g NADH cashed in for ATPs Electrons stripped from NADH and passed along to other molecules in a chain ATP s made as electrons are passed Last molecule in the chain is oxygen Accepts electrons and forms water Summary of aerobic respiration Overall result of glucose breakdown C6H1206 02 gt C02 H20 Energy releasing Coupled With ADP P gt ATP Energy requiring Many ATP produced 40 of energy in glucose captured as ATP as a result of glycolysis aerobic pathways 60 lost as heat Fermentation OWhat if no oxygen is available OAnaerobic organisms Aerobic organisms that occasionally can t get oxygen animal sprinting Without oxygen stages 2 and 3 can t be done system can39t proceed beyond glycolysis Extra steps added to keep glycolysis going Pyruvate end product of glycolysis changed into something else 2 types lactate fermentation alcohol fermentation Lactate Fermentation Pyruvate is turned into lactate lactic acid Takes place in muscles deprived of oxygen sprinting Also some bacteria Spoiled milk cheese yogurt Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast turns pyruvate into alcohol and C02 0 Wine making and bread baking Muscle types Fasttwitch muscle fibers Sprinting anaerobic few mitochondria lactate fermentation White meat feW blood vessels Slowtwitch muscle fibers Marathon aerobic many mitochondria aerobic respiration Dark meat many blood vessels Getting energy from foods other than carbohydrate Fats proteins even nucleic acids Broken down then fed into glycolysis or Krebs cycle Proteins rarely used as fuel Except When starving Role of fat Storing energy Can39t save energy as glucose Too heavy Can39t save as ATP Use energy to build fats Gram of fat has 2 times the calories of a gram of glucose Aerobic exercise and fat metabolism OAerobic exercise Low intensity activity e g walking uses mostly fat Moderate activity e g running easily uses mix of fat and carbs High intensity activity e g running hard uses mostly carbs BUT the AMOUNT of fat burned is greater with more intense exercise PLUS more intense exercise causes an increase in metabolism for many hours afterward that also burns fat Bottom line run or equivalent don t walk to burn fat


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