Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide NSD 225
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holden Hershey on Sunday November 2, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to NSD 225 at Syracuse University taught by Uzcategui in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Science and Dietetics in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/02/14
NSD 225 Chapters 710 Exam 3 Study guide Energv balance bodv composition weight management Food intake Factors Hunger process within body mentalphysical properties Appetite psychological factors how much one consumes Satiationto fully satisfy an appetite Chemicalshormones in relation to the brain Energy ExQenditure Intake v Output Amount of calories consumed v amount of calories burned Basal Metabolism Metabolic rate of a person at rest Effected by several factors in relation to calories burned Age body mass decreases over time Height BMR is higher in tallthin people Growth BMR is higher in children pregnant women FeverBMR rises Stress BMR rises Temperature BMR increases when body needs to regulate internal temp Fasting BMR decreases Malnutrition BMR decreases Hormones BMR rises because of specific hormones Parathyroid hormone premenstrual hormones Smoking BMR rises Caffeine BMR rises increases energy expenditure Phvsical Activitv Burns calories Contributes to Total Energy expenditure Necessary to stay healthy 3 060 minutes recommended daily Increases BMR from 2535 Thermic Effect of Food Body uses energy to process and digest food Estimated Energy Requirement EER Factors AgePhysical ActivityWeightHeight Components needs to calculate Estimated Energv Expenditure GenderAgeWeightHeightActivity Level Calories burned per day BMR calories How many calories a person should consume daily Factors that effect energv expenditure AgeGrowthEnergy LevelBody composition 1amp1 Mass Index BMI healthy weights Weightkg Htmquot2 Numbers range from underweight to Super obese 1amp1 Fat distribution Apple v Pear Women Pear Men Apple Visceral Fat inside layer of fat hormone production Blood Pressure Regulation of Insulin Men have more visceral fat than women Subcutaneous Fat Outside layer genetics Health Risks associated with increased Bodv Fat Cardiovascular disease Sleep Apnea Cancer Type II Diabetes Psvchologicall Environmental Factors related to Obesitv Satiety Hunger Appetite Biological Neurohormone production Levels of Serotonin Leptin Orexin Emotional aspect Associated with culture or social events Weight Loss Strategies Diet Physical activity Behavior Modification Medication Surgery Weight Loss Maintenance Regulatory food intake Regulating levels of Ghrelin C CK NPY Serotonin Long term regulating the amount of body fat Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to gain weight Person views himself or herself as overweight but really they are underweight 90 of cases are in women 7 year treatment long process Stabilize the patients eating habits Separate eating from emotion Bulimia Nervosa Fear of being fat overweight Recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging Excessive exercising or use of weight loss medication laxatives Treat with medical stability separating eating from emotion Binge Eating Disor Excessive intake of food Not followed by purging Rapid weight gain Rapid fat gain Female Athlete Triad Gymnasts Ballet Speed skaters Maintain body image for their sport purging anorexia bulimia very common Unhealthy patterns to maintain a healthy body Fat Soluble Vitamins ADEK Essential vitamins Require bile dietary fat to be absorbed Transported with fat through the Lymphatic System Can be stored in bodily fat hard to excrete Vitamin A Functions Night Vision Cell Dyferentiation Growth Regulation Sources Beef liver Dairy Carrots Digestion Retinol binds to fatty acid Converted to Retinoic Acid irreversible Deficiency symptoms low levels of Rhodopsin Less signals to the brain when light is trying to enter the retina Lack of mucus produced to lubricate eyes leads to blindness Toxicity Hypercarotenimia orange skin benign will go away eventually Vitamin D F unctions Bone health Parathyroid Hormone production Regulation of immune system Sources 90 from the sun s UV rays Synthesized in the skin egg yolk Orange juice DigestionCarried by cholesterol through the lymphatic system processed by liver and kidneys Healthy KidneysHealthy liverAdequate Sunlight DeficiencyDecrease in calcium absorption loss of bone mass 0steomalacia deficiency in adults Rickets deficiency in children Leads to Osteoporosis or impaired growth Toxicity Cardiovascular damage Parathyroid Hormone moves calcium from the blood to the bones lack of Vitamin D makes the hormone take calcium from the bones Vitamin E Tocopherol alpatocopherol form absorbed by the body Anti Oxidant properties F unctions protects body tissue from free radicals Helps immune system from viruses Sources Vegetable oilsNuts Seeds DigestionTransported by Chylomicrons Fat soluble Deficiency bleeding disorders Hemolytic Anemia in newborns children Vitamin K Phvllopuinonine Coagulation F unctions Body proteins for blood clotting Signals Prothrombingt ThrombingtFibrinogengtFibrin Sources Lea 7 green vegetables Digestion Lymphatic System Deficiency Blood cannot clot cardiovascular issues Water Soluble VitaminsBC Organic Compounds essential vitamins obtained through diet Found in a variety of foods Absorption Small intestine 4090 Do not require digestion ready to be absorbed Enzymes may be used Diffusion or facilitated diffusion Vitamin B1 T hiamin Beri Beri F unctions Energy production Production of Ribose Health of Nervous system Glucose gtPyruvategt ThiamingtNeurotransmitter Synthesis ATP production Sources Protein Foods pork lentils seeds Grains Fruits Veges Digestion Small Intestine Diffusion or Facilitated Diffusion Deficiency Muscle Weakness Loss of Appetite Nerve Damage Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome deficiency in alcoholics loss of reflexes dementia strange awkward gaze to one side Fluid Accumulation in one lung Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Easily destroyed by heat of light F unctions Coenzymegt F lavin mononucleotide F lavin Adenine Dinucleotide SourcesAll food groups milk Deficiency Ariboflavinosis Glosstis Vitamin B3 Niacin F unctionsLowers Triglyceride production Lowers cholesterol Sources Yeast Meat F ish Eggs Vegetables Deficiency of Niacin Sources animal foods whole grains Deficiency4 D sgt Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia Death Pellagra only significant dietary deficiency in the US Toxicity Increased blood pressure Increased blood sugarIncreased vomiting Vitamin B6 Pvridoxine Functions Metabolic Reactions Coenzyme Synthesizing amino acids related to production of RBCs and proteins SourcesAnimal proteins Plant based proteins Deficiency May result in Anemia impairs hemoglobin synthesis M icrocytic Hypochromic Anemia blood cells are fragile do not carry oxygen e ectively Vitamin B7 Biotin Destroyed by avidin in raw eggs F unctions Obtains nutrients from macronutrients Sources proteins seeds animal products Deficiency Weight loss hair loss Malnutrition Vitamin B9 Folate Folic Acid Functions Coenzyme needed for DNA synthesis Production of new cells proteins Folate converts Homocystine to Methionine lowers levels of homocystine to reduce risk of heart attack Sources Lentils Leafy green vegetables citrus fruitsfort ied grains Deficiency Linked to birth defects Neural tube defects Proteins linked to the growth of babies Low intake can lead to increased risk of heart attack Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Contains cobalt activated by folate excessive intake of folate can mask bI2 deficiencies F unctionsKeeps body nerve cells healthy generates the genetic material in cells Sources Trout Beef Pork Only in animal products Vegans Vegetarians need bI2 supplements Deficiency Related to excessive intake of Folic Acid Can be promoted by Atrophic Gastritis Pernicious Anemia When the body does not respond to iron Absorption Bound to a protein H CL and Pepsin in stomach release bI2 from protein Cells in the stomach stimulate IF Intrinsic Factor IF binds to bI2 in the duodenum Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid Can be destroyed by heat light oxygen contact with copper Antioxidant functions immune system Production of collagen Aids in Iron Absorption Men 90mg per day Women 70mg per day Upper Limit 2000mg per day F unctions Collagen Synthesis provides matrix for bone growth by strengthening blood vessel walls Antioxidant defend against free radicals Strengthens resistance to infection Immune System Aids in absorption of Iron Deficiency Scurvy Bleeding gums Abnormal bone growth Joint pain Toxicity Diarrhea Gastrointestinal Tract distress SourcesFruits and Vegetables
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