Test 2 Book Notes
Test 2 Book Notes HDFS 3710
Popular in Midlife/Elder Years
Popular in Human Development
This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gracyn Elizabeth on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 3710 at University of Georgia taught by Denise C. Lewis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Midlife/Elder Years in Human Development at University of Georgia.
Reviews for Test 2 Book Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter 4 Physical Changes 09222015 APPEARANCE Skin Most vulnerable to agerelated changes Small wrinkles slight drooping or loss of resilience and some changes in color and texture as early as your 305 Later becomes more translucent Epidermis the outermost layer of skin that consists of a thin covering that protects the underlying tissue 0 Over time epidermal skin cells lose their regular patterning Dermis the middle layer of the skin that contains protein molecules of collagen and elastin among which various nerve cells glands and the hair follicles reside Elastin becomes less able to return to its original shape after being stretched skin begins to sag Subcutaneous fat layer that is the bottommost layer of the skin giving it its opacity and smoothing the curves of the arms legs and face People develop discolored areas on skin age spots lentigo senilis Nails have agerelated changes 0 Toenails grow more slowly and may become yellowed thicker and ridged Changes in cartilage cause the nose and ears to become longer Loss of enamel on surface of teeth cause yellowing loss of teeth Genetic background plays an important part in the rate of skin aging o Fairskinned people display more rapid effects Lifestyle habits are after genetics regarding in uence 0 Photoadind exposure to the sun that causes age changes most signi cant lifestyle habit Hair 0 Hair doesn t turn gray the number of pigmented hair diminishes over time and hairs that are no longer pigmented increases 0 Production of melanin slows and eventually stops 0 Thinning of hair 0 Results from the destruction of the germination centers that produce the hair in the hair follicles Androgenetic alopecia most common form of hair loss with increased age male and female pattern hair loss 0 Affects 95 of men and 20 of women 0 Causes the hair follicles to stop producing the long thick pigmented hair terminal hair and instead produce short ne unpigmented hair vellus hair BODY BUILD Height changes 0 People get shorter as they age 0 More pronounced for women 0 Due to the loss of bone material in the vertebrae O Fatfree mass FFM lean tissue 0 Decreases Body Mass Index BMI an index of body fat 0 Increases 0 Calculated by dividing weight by height 0 Ideal BMI 18525 Overall pattern of body weight in adulthood an upsidedown U shaped trend by age 0 Gain weight from 205 until midSOs 0 Lose body weight in 605 due to loss of muscle Exercise is super bene cial MOBILITY Muscles Sarcopenia progressive agerelated loss of muscle tissue in the adults years Number and size of muscle bers decrease Muscle strength peaks in the 205 and 305 remains at plateau until the 40s to 505 and declines at a faster rate of 1215 per decade 0 More pronounced decreases for men People retain their muscular endurance Strength training with free weight or resistance machines is the top preventative measure that can counteract adulthood sarcopenia 0 Major bene t of muscle training is that the stronger the muscles become the more pull they exert on the bones Bones Living tissues Bone remodeling process where bone constantly reconstructs itself in which old cells are destroyed and replaced by new cells As people experience decreases in sex hormones they also lose bone mineral content Loss of collagen reduces the bone s exibility in response to pressure which increases the susceptibility to fractures Not all adults experience loss of bone mineral Bone loss is greater in women 0 Especially white women African American men lose bone mineral density at a higher rate than white men Joints Articular cartilage that protects joints begins degenerating by your 205 and 305 Joints do not bene t from constant use Over 12 of people in US report they experience chronic joint pain or movement restriction VITAL BODILY FUNCTIONS Cardiovascular respiratory urinary and digestive systems Cardiovascular System Includes the heart the arteries that circulate blood throughout the body away from the heart and the veins that bring the blood back to the heart Most signi cant changes are with the heart and arteries Walls of the left ventricle lose ability to contract enough so they can accomplish ef cient distribution of blood Plague hard deposits inside the artery walls consisting of cholesterol cellular waste products calcium and brin a clotting material in the blood Aerobic capacity the maximum amount of oxygen that can be delivered through the blood Cardiac output the amount of blood that the heart pumps per minute Decline in cardiovascular de ciency is more prominent in males Highdensitv libOproteins HDLs the plasma lipid transport mechanism that carries lipids from the peripheral tissues to the liver where they are excreted or synthesized into bile acids Lowdensity lipoproteins LDLs transport cholesterol to the arteries Low overall blood cholesterol levels are ideal O HDLs are greater than LDLs 0 Smoking increases LDLs and decreases HDLs Respiratory System Unction is to bring oxygen into the body and move carbon dioxide out Alveoli tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of gases takes place Aging affects all components of the respiratory system 0 Respiratory muscles lose ability to expand and contract the chest wall 0 Lung tissue is less able to expand and contract during inspiration 0 More severe in women Lung age a mathematical function showing how old your lung is based on a combo of your age and a measure obtained from a spirometer called forced expiratory volume Two main strategies to minimize effects of aging O 1 Stay away from or quit smoking cigs o 2 Diet and exercise Urinary System Kidneys bladder ureters and urethra Nephrons make up the kidneys cells that serve as millions of tiny lters that cleanse the blood of metabolic waste Changes in GFR elastic tissue of the bladder for men hypertrophy of the prostate Urge incontinence a form of urinary incontinence in which the individual experiences a sudden need to urinate and may even leak urine 0 30 of all adults age 65 and over 0 Risk factors for urge incontinence in women Being white having diabetes which is being treated by insulin experiencing symptoms of depression and currently using estrogen Stress incontinence the individual is unable to retain urine while engaging in some form of physical exertion Overactive bladder in addition to incontinence symptoms include a need to urinate more frequently than normal 0 25 of population 65 and older Digestive System Decreases in saliva production fewer gastric juices secreted stomach empties more slowly Increasing ber can help bowel regularity BODILY CONTROL SYSTEMS Endocrine System Endocrine system large and diverse set of glands that regulate the actions of the body s organ systems referred to as quottargetquot organs Hormones chemical messengers produced by the endocrine systems Main control centers hypothalamus and the anterior section of the pituitary gland Hypothalamusreleasing factors HRFs hormones produced by the hypothalamus regulate the secretion of hormones in turn produced by the anterior pituitary gland Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland 6 o 1 Growth hormone GH also called somatotropin 2 Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH 3 ACTH 4 FSH 5 LH O 6 Prolactin Growth Hormone GH 0 ln youth stimulates growth of bones and muscles and regulates the growth of most internal organs 0 Somatopause of aging decline in the activity of GH and lGFl thought to account for a number of agerelated changes in body composition across adulthood including loss of bone mineral content increases in fat decreases in muscle mass OGH is linked to joint pain enlargement of the heart enlargement of bones diabetes high blood pressure and heart failure Cortisol quotstress hormonequot O Cortisol hormone produced by the adrenal gland 0 Provides energy to the muscles in times of stress OOOO 0 Increase in cortisol negatively affects memory and other forms of cognitive functioning in older adults 0 Glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis the idea that aging causes dangerous increases in cortisol levels increased cortisol levels accelerate neuronal loss in the hippocampus repeated increases in cortisol over the lifetime lead to further degeneration Thyroid Hormone O Basal metabolic rate BMR rate of metabolism Slows in middle age responsible for weight gain even when caloric intake remains stable 0 Hypothyroidism is associated with cognitive impairments Melatonin O Melatonin sleepwake cycles are controlled by melatonin the hormone manufactured by the pineal gland located deep within the brainstem O Circadian Rhythm the daily variations in various bodily funcUons o Melatonin supplements for women can lead to improved pituitary and thyroid functions and reduce the incidence of sleep problems 0 DHEA O Dehvdroepiandosterone DHEA most abundant steroid in the human body a weak male steroid androgen produced by the adrenal glands precursor to the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone 0 Higher in males than females 0 AdrenOpause the pronounced decrease in DHEA greater in men 0 Low DHEA levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease some forms of cancer immune system dysfunction and obes y Female Hormonal Changes 0 Menopause point in a woman s life when menstruation stops permanently Average age is 50 Earlier for women who are thin malnourished or smoke O Climacteric the gradual winding down of reproductive ability applies to men as well 0 Perimenopause the 35 year span of the climacteric for women that ends in menopause when he woman hasn t had her period for 1 year LH and FSH levels rise dramatically o Decline in estrogen and progesterone production 0 quotHot ashesquot are the result of decreased estrogen levels 0 Decreased estrogen weaker bones high BP and cardiovascular disease 0 Hormone replacement therapy HRT estrogen combined with progestin to reduce cancer risk Jury is out on whether the bene ts outweigh the risks Male Hormonal Changes 0 Andropause agerelated declines in the male sex hormone testosterone Aka lateonset hypogonadism ageassociated hypogonadism 0 Bene ts associated with testosterone supplements maintained or improved bone density greater muscle strength lowered ratio of fat to lean and lower rates of cognitive decline 0 Higher testosterone levels associated with lowered cardiovascular risk including more favorable cholesterol levels 0 Erectile dysfunction ED condition in which a man is unable to achieve an erection sustainable for intercourse Increases with age in adulthood Related to metabolic syndrome in older men Immune System Regulating the body s ability to ght off stress infection and other threats to wellbeing and health Closely linked to the nervous system and to behaviors thoughts and emotions Immune senescence agerelated declines in immune system functioning O B cells and t cells fail to develop properly and lose ability to perform effectively Two types of immune lymphocytes are Tcells and Bcells 0 Both involved in destroying bodily invaders antigens Vitamin E and zinc improve immune responsiveness and prevent infection NERVOUS SYSTEM Controls all behavior Central nervous system makes it possible to monitor and prepare responses to events in environment conceive and enact thoughts and maintain connections with other bodily systems Autonomic nervous system controls involuntary behaviors the body s response to stress and the actions of other organ systems that sustain life Central Nervous System Neuronal fallout model the hypothesis that individuals progressively lose brain tissue over the life span because neurons do not have the ability to replace themselves when they die In the absence of disease the aging brain maintains much of its structure and function 0 Possible that neurons may actually gain in both structure and function even until late in life Plasticity model proposes that the neurons which remain alive are able to take over the function of those that die Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in OLDer adults HAROLD model the brains of older adults become activated in the opposite hemispheres when the original area suffers de cits O Brains of older adults becomes activated in the opposite hemisphere compared to younger adults and therefore less lateralized PosteriorAnterior Shift with Adind PASA model proposes that the front anterior of the brain in older adults becomes more responsive to make up for the lower responsiveness found in the rear posterior of the brain Electroencephalogram EEG brain scanning method that measures electrical activity of the brain 0 Re ects individual s state of consciousness and the state of the brain s arousal while the individual is asleep 0 Also shows patterns of waves when engaged in particular mental tasks 0 Used to evaluate clients for epilepsy sleep disorders and brain tumors Computed axial tomography CAT or CT scan imaging method that clinicians and researchers use to provide an image of a cross sectional slice of the brain from any angle or level 0 Provide an image of the uid lled areas of brain the ventricles 0 Useful when looking for structural damage Magnetic resonance imaging MRI brain imaging method that uses radio waves to construct a picture of the living brain based on the water content of various tissues 0 Picture differentiates areas of white matter nerve bers from areas of gray matter nerve cells 0 Useful for diagnosing diseases that affect the nerve bers that make up the white matter Both CT and MRI cannot show changes in the brain while the individual is involved in a task because they provide static images Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRl type of scan that can be used to show changes in the brain over the course of mental activity Positron emission tomography PET scan and single photon emission computed tomography SPECT require injections of radioactively labeled compounds into the blood detect these radioactive compounds as they pass through the brain 0 Images show blood ow oxygen or glucose metabolism and concentrations of brain chemicals 0 Red higher levels of activity 0 Bluegreenviolet lower levels of activity Normal aging has major effects on the prefrontal cortex the area involved in planning and the encoding of info into longterm memory as well as the temporal cortex which is involved in auditory processing Hippocampus structure in the brain responsible for consolidating memories 0 Becomes smaller with increasing age 0 Evidence supports the plasticity model within cells of the hippocampus White matter hyperintensities WMH changes in the frontal lobe in the form of abnormalities due to aging 0 Thought to be made up of parts of deteriorating neurons 0 lnterferes with longterm memory 0 Associated with hypertension Sleep Everyone require 79 hours of sleep Sleeping 8 or more hours a night is associated with higher mortality rates and greater incidence of stroke in women Sleep problems affect up to 12 of all older adults Lifestyle factors affect sleep stress obesity physical inactivity and alcohol use 0 Rise in stage 1 and a large decrease in both stage 4 and REM sleep 0 Shift to working in the morning preference Sedentary lifestyle is major contributor to sleep problems 0 Sleep apnea disorder in which the individual becomes temporarily unable to breathe when asleep 0 Risk of heart attack and stroke is increased 0 More common in older adults with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease Temperature Control Dysthermia in extreme weather older adults are at a greater risk for hyper and hypothermia dysthermia together SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Vision Presbyopia loss of the ability to focus vision in near objects the primary culprit for the need of reading glasses 0 Caused by the thickening and hardening of the lens 0 Affects entire population by age 50 O No cure Older adults likely to experience the loss of visual activity the ability to see details at a distance Cataract a clouding or opacity in the lens most common impairment and the main form of eye disease 0 Surgery Agerelated macular degeneration ARMD condition caused by damage to the photoreceptors located in the central region of the retina known as the macula O This area is normally used in reading driving 0 No known treatment Glaucoma group of conditions causing blindness related to changes in pressure within the eyeball 0 Most common type develops gradually and is painless without symptoms 0 3rd most common cause of blindness in the US 0 Blacks are at a higher risk than whites Hea ng Presbycusis degenerative changes occur in the cochlea or auditory nerve leading from the cochlea to he brain most common form of agerelated hearing loss 0 Associated with loss of highpitched sounds Tinnitus symptom in which the individual perceives sounds in the head or ear when there is no external source Hearing aids Balance Loss of balance is one of the main factors responsible for falls in older adults Fear of falling a cycle in which older people increasingly restrict their movement Dizziness and vertigo are the 2 symptoms associated with age related vestibular dysfunction Dizziness uncomfortable sensation of feeling lightheaded or even oaUng Vertigo the sensation of spinning when the body is at rest Smell and Taste Belong to the chemical sensing system chemosensation Area of the olfactory epithelium shrinks with age 12 of people 80 years and older have virtually no ability to smell Tobacco smoke is a major source of interference Dentures are a cause of loss of taste sensitivity Somatosensory System 0 Information about touch temperature and position to your nervous system Touch 0 Evidence links the loss of the ability to discriminate touch with the aging process 0 Hands and feet 0 Can compromise the adult s ability to grasp maintain balance and perform delicate handwork and interfere with speech o Pain 0 Advised to manage pain through holistic methods rather than pain medication KEY CONCEPTS IN HEALTH AND PREVENTION Health state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing o This de nition ts well with the biopsychosocial model 0 Not simply the absence of disability 0 Activities of daily living ADL the tasks of bathing dressing transferring using the toilet and eating 0 Instrumental activities of daily living IDAL include the ability to use the phone go shopping prepare meals complete housekeeping tasks do the laundry use private or public transportation take medications and handle nances Behavioral risk factors for chronic disease 0 Sedentary lifestyle 0 Smoking 0 Alcohol use 0 Unhealthy diets DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 0 Cardiovascular disease a set of abnormal conditions that develop in the heart and arteries O 1 cause of death worldwide can also cause chronic disability Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Conditions Chronic disease that fall into this category involve disturbances of the cardiovascular system Atherosclerosis fatty deposits collect at an abnormally high rate substantially reducing the width of the arteries and limiting the circulation of the blood Arteriosclerosis general term for the thickening and hardening of arteries 0 Everyone experiences some degree of this as a part of normal aging Coronary or ischemic heart disease when the arteries that feed the heart muscle are blocked because of a buildup in plaque that causes the blood to not reach its destination Myocardial infarction the acute condition in which the blood supply to part of the heart muscle the myocardium is severely reduced or blocked Hypertension chronic abnormally elevated high blood pressure 0 Based on 2 measures of BP systolic and diastolic 0 BP is greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic Congestive heart failure or heart failure condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body s other organs Cerebrovascular accident stroke or quotbrain attackquot and acute condition in which an artery leading to the brain bursts or is clogged by a blood clot or other particle Transient ischemic attack TIA quotministrokequot caused by the development of clots in the cerebral arteries Incidence Heart disease is the 1 killer in the US 12 of all deaths of people 75 and older in the US are due to heart disease deadliest illness among oldest segment of population Worldwide coronary heart disease and stroke were leading cause of death in 2010 Behavioral Risk Factors Tobacco smoking 0 15 of American adults smoke Sedentary lifestyle 0 Wellestablished relationship between leisure activity and heart disease 0 Majority of adults at highest risk for heart disease are the least likely to exercise Unhealthy diet 0 Places individual at risk of developing a BMI in the overweight or obese range 0 High levels of HDL quotgood cholesterolquot are related to lower risk of cardiovascular disease Alcohol consumption 0 Proactive effect on risk of cardiovascular disease as well as functional health declines in general for women These risk factors combine to produce higher rates of stroke in the US within the SE region 0 quotStroke beltquot 0 quotStroke bucklequot North Carolina South Carolina Georgia 0 strokes particularly high for blacks Metabolic svndrome the cluster of symptoms associated with these high risk factors for cardiovascular disease Prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke Primary intervention lowering cholesterol through preventative medicines O Statins work by lowering the levels of harmful cholesterol LDL in the blood Diet high in fruits and vegetables quotMediterranean style dietquot 0 Diminished risk of metabolic syndrome and higher levels of highdensity lipoprotein Exercise relaxation training Eastern European countries have highest death rates from cardiovascular disease CANC US has higher rates of the 6 major chronic diseases associated with mortality ER Incident rates in the US are prostate men only breast female andlung Since 2005 death rates for skin liver pancreas and the uterus have risen Lung cancer is most frequent followed by breast and colorectal cancers Risk Factors and Prevention Random mutations occur that cause the body s cells to malfunction Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in adults Don t smoke don t get in tanning beds Betel quid 0 Includes toxic substance areca nut 0 Southeast Asia 0 Increased risk of liver and esophageal cancer Being overweight contributes 0 Cancer of the esophagus colon and rectum liver gallbladder pancreas and kidney Eating speci c foods plays a role in cancer risk Skin cancer more likely in fair skinned people Uterine cancer more prevalent in whites Prostate and colon cancer more prevalent in blacks Rectal cancer more prevalent in whites Treatments 0 Stay away from carcinogens DISORDERS OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM 0 Range of conditions that develop in the bones and joints Osteoarthritis 0 Arthritis general term for conditions affecting the joints and surrounding tissues that can cause pain stiffness and swelling in joints and other connective tissues Osteoarthritis most common form of arthritis affects joints in the hips knees neck lower back and small joints of the hands 0 Obese people are 4 times more likely to have knee osteoarthritis than the general population 0 Painful degenerative joint disease 0 Pain and loss of movement 0 Requires pain management Can only alleviate pain don t provide a cure 0 Risk factors Overuse obesity injury 0 Treatment Pain management exibility replacement Osteoporosis occurs when the bone mineral density reaches the point that is more than 25 standard deviations below the mean of young white nonHispanic women 0 Imbalance between the rates of bone reabsorption vs bone growth 0 Abnormal loss of bone mineral content 0 Women esp postmenopausal are more at risk than men because they have lower bone mass in general White and Asian have highest risk of development Women who are underweight and have small bone structures are more at risk 0 Risk factors Race ethnicity hormonal changes lack of vitamin D 0 Treatment Exercise resistance nutritional supplements medications DIABETES Diabetes people with this are unable to metabolize glucose a simple sugar that is a major source of energy for the body s cells Adultonset diabetes aka type 2 diabetes develops over time gradually reducing the individual s ability to convert dietary glucose to a form that can be used by the body s cells Characteristics of Diabetes 0 Type 2 diabetes 0 Pancreas produces some insulin but the body s tissues fail to respond to the insulin signal insulin resistance 0 Insulin cant bind to cell s insulin receptors 0 Excess glucose over ows into the urine and is excreted 0 Body loses a main source of energy 0 Symptoms of diabetes 0 Fatigue frequent urination esp at night unusual thirst weight loss blurred vision frequent infections and slow healing of sores Hypoglycemia when blood sugar levels dip too low become nervous jittery faint and confused Hyperglycemia blood glucose levels become too high can become seriously ill Incidence and Risk Factors 0 Having diabetes doubles the risk of death compared with others in one s own age group 0 More children are developing type 2 diabetes 0 US is the 3rd following India and China in the number of people who suffer from diabetes Involves physical behavioral and sociocultural risk factors biopsychosocial perspective 0 Biological changes in glucose metabolism obesity 0 Psychological sedentary lifestyle also associated with depression and stress 0 Sociocultural habitual eating patterns lack of education low economic resources Prevention and Treatment 0 Control of glucose intake blood pressure and blood lipids Diet and exercise 0 lnsulin injections RESPIRATORY DISEASES Chronic obstructive pulmonarv disease COPD group of diseases that involve obstruction of the air ow into the respiratory system 0 Chronic bronchitis and chronic emphysema often occur together in this disease Coughing excess sputum difficulty breathing even when carrying out relatively easy tasks 0 4th leading cause of chronic illness and death 0 5th in the world in terms of the burden of the disease 0 Chronic bronchitis long standing in ammation of the bronchi 0 Causes increase in mucus and other changes which leads to coughing and expectoration of sputum Chronic emphysema lung disease that causes permanent destruction of the alveoli 0 Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen becomes compromised O Shortness of breath Main cause is cigarette smoking 0 Elastase enzyme that breaks down the elastin found in lung tissue 0 Link between smoking and emphysema 0 Quit smoking medications treatments lung surgery NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS Neurocognitive disorder experience a loss of cognitive function severe enough to interfere with normal daily activities and social relationships 0 Dementia a loss of cognitive abilities Mild cognitive impairment MCI a form of neurocognitive disorder that signi es that the individual may be at risk for developing Alzheimer s disease Amnesia profound memory loss 0 Can be caused by severe substance use medications exposure to environmental toxins head trauma loss of oxygen supply to the brain or the STI of herpes simplex Alzheimer39s Disease 0 Alzheimer s Disease form of neurocognitive disorder in which the individual suffers progressive and irreversible neuronal death 0 Prevalence O 85 and older prevalence rises to half 0 Discrepancies between the US and global stats Psychological Symptoms O Evolve gradually over time 0 Earliest signs are occasional loss of memory for recent or familiar tasks 0 Changes in personality and behavior eventually become evident Biological Changes 0 Amyloid plaques abnormal deposits of protein fragments O Betaamyoid42 form of amyoid most closely linked with Alzheimer s disease consists of a string of 42 amino acids 0 Amvloid precursor protein APP larger protein found in the normal brain betaamyoid is formed from this o CaSpase theorv proposes that betaamyloid stimulates the production of substances called caspases enzymes that are lethal the neurons 0 Neuro brillary tangles profusion of abnormally twisted bers within the neurons themselves second major change that occurs in brain Proposed Causes 0 Associated with the formation of plaques and tangles particularly in areas of the brain controlling memory and other vital cognitive functions 0 Earlyonset familial Alzheimer s disease genetic theory 4050 years of age linked to excess amounts of betaamyloid protein 0 Lateonset familial Alzheimer s disease6065 years only 5 are familial 0 Higher education and continued mental activity throughout life are environmental factors that can help protect an individual Diagnosis 0 Diagnosis when there is signi cant and progressive cognitive decline in one or more areas including social cognition memory aphasia loss of language ability apraxia loss of ability to carry out coordinated movement agnosia loss of ability to recognize familiar objects and disturbance in executive functioning loss of the ability to plan and organize 0 Use the process of exclusion Medical Treatments 0 Current medications temporarily alleviate memory loss but do not slow the progression of the disease PsychosocialTreatments O No cure presently exists 0 Caregivers individuals usually family who provide support to people with chronic diseases 0 Caregiver burden describes the stress that caregivers experience in the daily management of their af icted relative Other Forms of Neurocognitive Disorder 0 Vascular neurocognitive disorder progressively lose cognitive functioning due to damage to the arteries supplying the brain 0 Most common form is multiinfarct dementia or MID caused by transient ischemic attacks 0 Frontotemporal neurocognitive disorder FTD speci cally involves the frontal lobes of the brain 0 Experiences personality changes such as apathy lack of inhibition obsessiveness addictive behaviors and loss of judgment Parkinson s Disease variety of motor disturbances including tremors speech impediments slowing of movement muscular rigidity shuf ing gait and postural instability or the inability to maintain balance 0 1015 years of survival after symptoms appear 0 No cure Neurocognitive disorder with Lewy bodies very similar to Alzheimer39s disease because it causes progressive loss of memory language calculation and reasoning as well as other higher mental funcUons 0 Includes episodes of confusion and hallucinations Pick s disease rare cause of neurocognitive disorder involves severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes o In addition to deterioration the individual s brain accumulates unusual protein deposits called Pick bodies 0 Disorientation and memory loss in early stages pronounced personality changes and loss of social constraints eventually individual becomes mute immobile and incontinent Reversible neurocodnitive disorders due to the presence of a medical condition that affects but does not destroy brain tissue Normalpressure hydrocephalus rare can cause cognitive impairment dementia urinary incontinence and difficulty in walking 0 lnvolves an obstruction in the ow of cerebrospinal uid which causes the uid to accumulate in the brain Subdural haematoma head injury can cause this a blood clot that creates pressure on brain tissue Delirium acute cognitive disorder that is characterized by temporary confusion 0 Can be caused by diseases of the heart and lung infection or malnutrition 0 Has a sudden onset O Requires immediate medical attention Polvpharmacv an individual takes multiple drugs sometimes without the knowledge of the physician Wernicke s disease acute condition caused by chronic alcohol abuse involving delirium eye movement disturbances difficulties maintaining balance and movement and deterioration of the nerves to the hands and feet 0 Vitamin Bl can reverse 0 If untreated can progress to the chronic form of alcohol induced neurocognitive disorder known as Korsakoff syndrome Pseudodementia when older adults who suffer from clinical depression show changes that mimic Alzheimer39s disease confusion distraction and irritable outbursts Cognition the way the mind works speci cally the processes of attention memory intelligence problem solving and the use of language PROCESSING SPEED AND ATTENTION Processing speed the amount of time it takes for an individual to analyze incoming information from the senses formulate decisions and then prepare a response on the basis of that analysis Reaction Time Reaction time the basic measure of processing speed 0 Reaction time of a young adult will be lower than when they are older General slowing hypothesis the increase in reaction time re ects a general decline of information processing speed within the nervous system of the aging individual Agecomplexity hypothesis through a slowing of central processes in the nervous system age differences increase as tasks become more complex and the older adult s processing resources are stretched more and more to their limit Brinley plot reaction times of older groups of adults are plotted against the times of younger adults OAt 500 ms younger and older adults have similar performance Attention Attention involves the ability to focus or concentrate on a portion of experience while ignoring other features of that experience to be able to shift that focus as demanded by the situation and to be able to coordinate info from multiple sources Types of Attentional Tasks OTwo methods used in studies on attention and aging Visual search tasks require that the observer locate a speci c target among a set of distractions Conjunction visual search the target differs from the distractors in more than one way 0 Multitasking O Inhibitory response turning off one response while performing another 0 Sustained attention task participants must respond when they see a particular target appear out of a continuous stream of stimuli Theories of Attention and Aging 0 Attentional resources theory regards attention as a process re ecting the allocation of cognitive resources age reduces available cognitive resources Older adults have greater dif culty on attentional tasks because they have less energy available for cognitive operations Tasks that require high attentional demands are subject to reduced performance Little empirical evidence 0 Inhibitory de cit hypothesis suggests that aging reduces the individual s ability to inhibit or tune out irrelevant information aging reduces ability to tune out irrelevant information Widely supported by a variety of studies a Event related potentials ERPs measure the brain s pattern of electrical activity in response to stimuli older adults less able to block out distracting stimuli when completing a task experience de cits in the prefrontal cortex area involved in the control of inhibiting irrelevant information lmplies that middle aged and older adults perform best when there are few distractions Experience can compensate for agerelated changes in sustained attention DRIVING AND AGING Changes in visual system that can impair performance of older drivers loss of visual acuity increased sensitivity to glare and dif culty seeing in the dark Highest fatality rate are for drivers age 1619 and 2024 rates drop for people 6574 and even in the 75 Older drivers have more dif culty yielding or merging to oncoming traf c Younger drivers are more likely to drink and drive and drive while distracted Experience driving can compensate for slower reaction times in older people Identify older drivers who may be medically atrisk and impaired rather than restricting all older drivers MEMORY Aging process does have negative effects on many aspects of memory Working Memory 0 Working memory keeps info temporarily available and active in consciousness OUse when trying to learn new information or bring to mind information previously learned that you are trying to recall OWorking memory and attention are closely linked O4 components to working memory Auditory memory memory for what you hear held in the phonological loop UCan be rehearsed by repeating the material over and over again UEx Trying to remember a phone number Visuospatial scratchpad memory for information you see UEx Trying to remember the route home from a store you have visited once by imagining it in your mind Episodic buffer responsible for recalling information you already have within the long term memory by bringing it temporarily into working memory Central executive integrates the other 3 components of working memory a Rely on the central executive when you decide how to allocate cognitive resources to a particular task 0 Default network a circuit in the brain that is active when the brain is at rest while processing internal stimuli 0 Includes the hippocampus parts of the prefrontal cortex the parietal lobe the temporal lobe and part of the cingulate cortex involved in visualization 0 Older adults show decreased activation of the default network compared to younger adults Also less able to deactivate the network during memory tasks Effects of Aging on LongTerm Memory in Adulthood 0 Longterm memory the repository of information that is held for a period of time ranging from several minutes to a lifetime 0 Information that includes recent past to information from many years ago 0 Processes include encoding storage and retrieval 0 quotAging and LongTerm Memory Score Cardquot Abilities that decline a Episodic memory a Source memory a False memory a Tipof thetongue names a Prospective memory Abilities that do not decline a Flashbulb memory a Semantic memory a Procedural memory a Implicit memory a Autobiographical memory quotreminiscence bumpquot Episodic memorv longterm memory for events episodes 0 Older adults experience impairments in episodic memory both in encoding and retrieving information 0 Episodic memory depends on the integrity of the connections among the frontal cortex temporal and parietal lobes and areas of the subcortex including the thalamus o Agerelated damage to the whitematter may be associated with memory changes in these regions Scaffolding theorv older adults are able to recruit alternate neural circuits as needed by task demands to make up for losses suffered elsewhere in the brain Remote memory involves the recall of information from the distant past OBecomes increasingly difficult to access Autobiooraphical memorv the recall of information from your own past OException to the research on remote memory 0 quotReminiscence bumpquot very clear memories for the ages of from about 1030 yrs Especially strong for happy memories Preserved because they are central to identity 0 Flashbulb memory recall of important and distinctive events that stand out from other memories of past events OEx Where you were on 911 0 Semantic memory ability to recall word meanings and the factual information no declines OAso spared from the negative effects of ageing process 0 Procedural memory recall of the actions involved in particular tasks ability to remember actions OEx Remembering how to sew a button ride a bike OHolds up well with age OA well maintained procedural memory contributes to the ability of older adults to compensate for some of their loss of speed and working memory in diverse areas gardening cooking reading etc o Implicit memory longterm memory for information that people acquire without intending to do so not affected by aging process 0 Source memory recall of where or how an individual acquires information Remembering where you heard or saw something OOlder adults have more of a problem with this Prospective memory encompasses the recall of events to be performed in the future remembering what to do 0 Remembering your intention to perform an action 0 Older people have more prospective memory slips than young adu s O The more heavily a prospective memory task involves planning frontal lobes the more disadvantaged older adults are Retrievalinduced forgetting tipof thetongue what happens when you are unable to remember information that you knew at one time 0 Names 0 Observed more in older adults Identity SelfEf cacy Stereotype Threat and Control Beliefs Some forms of memory suffer as people grow older OWhat varies is how much exactly what type and when 0 How you think about your memory may play just as important a role as your actual age 0 Summary of Research Results g 67 0 Higher identity accommodation related to lower memory control beliefs 0 Higher selfef cacy related to higher performance 0 Higher memory control beliefs related to better strategy use leading to better memory 0 Stereotype threat reduces memory performance 0 Memory selfef cacy a form of selfef cacy that refers to the con dence you have in your memory speci cally the degree to which you feel that you can successfully complete a memory task 0 Higher the memory selfef cacy the greater the likelihood that you will preform to your maximum ability 0 Older people suffer from the quotimplicit theoryquot memory functioning suffers and inevitable decline in later life Stereotvpe threat suggests that people perform in ways consistent with negative stereotypes of the group to which they see themselves as belonging O A concept drawn from research on the standardized test performance of African Americans 0 Older people are stereotyped as having poorer memories which causes poorer performance 0 Older adults can overcome this threat through identity assimilation Memory controllability refers to beliefs about the effects of the aging process on memory such as the extent to which the individual believes that memory decline is inevitable with age Memory and HealthRelated Behaviors 0 Memory in later adulthood is also related to healthrelated behaviors 0 Smoking diet esp consumption of sh Vitamin D 0 Lifestyle Factors and Memory 0 Avoid smoking 0 Dietary control 0 Maintain physical activity 0 Avoid stress 0 Practice using memory skills 0 People with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for Alzheimer39s disease
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'