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Marine Science exam notes

by: Megan Rogers

Marine Science exam notes MSCI

Megan Rogers

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Study guide for exam 2
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Rogers on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI at University of South Carolina taught by DR. Z in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see MARINE SCIENCE in Professional Education Services at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 10/07/15
The rate in which your ngernails grow is the same speed in which the tectonic plates move Continental crust is older than oceanic crust The oldest dated continental rocks are 4 billion years old The oldest oceanic rocks are 200 millions years old Trenches are arc shaped Continental margins may be active or passive The ocean oor is divided into continental margins and deepocean basins and mid oceans ridges The discovers and study of ocean floor contours is called bathymetry The deepest trench is 11000 meters Continental margins quotshallowquot water areas close The submerged outer edge of a continent is called the continental margin The deepsea floor beyond the continental margin is properly called the ocean margin 1 Active margins associated with plate boundaries high degree of tectonic activity eading edge margins created by collision of oceanic and continental plates have deep narrow trenches 2 Passive margins are contained within the lithospheric plates and are next to a plate When the water becomes deep really fast is the area called the shelf break Terrigenous sediments are most abundant by volume transported to the ocean from land this may be due to river runoff wind transport or iceberg Biogenic sediments cover the most area Biological origin Siliceous and calcareous oozes Sediments are often laid down in distinct layers similar to rings on a tree Cosmogenous from space 10 of water on earth is from space Meteorites frequently shatter upon impact forming fragments of various sizes Hydrogenous chemical precipitates vinegar in milk Sediments on continental shelves are called neritic sediments and contain mostly terrigenous material Sediments of the slope rise and deepocean oors are pelagic biogenous Factors that in uence the deposition of biogenous sediments productivity more productivity more organisms diution further from land less sediments in general marine snow But solubility increases in depth Carbonate compensation depth where sedimentation and dissolution are equal 3500600m Scientist often use sediments to nd the location of natural resources and paleo oceanographic and climatologic info The hydrolic cycle is in balance Properties of water has unique physical and chemical properties reated to its polarity and hydrogen bonding Moderates global temperatures climates winds and weather Density of water key to how oceans move Water is essential for life of earth Water is 70 of our bodies and earth Molecules are a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds Waterjs a polar molecule the oxygen end is negatively charged the hydrogen end is positively charged Hydrogen bonding of water creates a high surface tension At its surface water is deceptively Water has a high head a capacity Water is an excellent solvent Salinity total amount of dissolved material in 1kg of water a measure of seawater39s total dissolved inorganic solids or total mounts of salt in water The average salinity of seawater is about 344 part per thousand or 35 It is mostly chloride and sodium Ocean is in chemical equilibrium not getting more salty Dens y measure of how tightly the molecules of a substance are packed In a given amount ofspace units are mass per unit volume The density of water is function of its temperature and salinity Cold salty water is denser than warm less salty water Two water parcels with different temps and salinities can have the same density The ocean is divided into 3 density zones thermocine a temperature slope with a rapid vertical change over a small amount of depth haocine a salinity slope with a rapid vertical change pycnocine a density slope with a rapid vertical change in density a barrier to mixing lsothermal depths where water is a constant temperature 80 lsohaline depths where water has the same salinity 80 Unlike salts gases dissolve easier in colder water than in warm water The average pH of the ocean is 8 Light waves do not travel well in the ocean bc of scattering and absorption Scattering is light bounced between air and water Sound is 5 times louder in water Gyres ocean circulation


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