Study Guide Test 2
Study Guide Test 2 AVS 1500
Popular in Introduction to Animal Science
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Study Guide for Test 2 10072015 Major Topics we discussed in class as well as all the diagrams we went over 0 Anatomy is the Structure of the animal Physiology is the function of that structure based on the organ system itself Levels of Anatomy organization 0 O O O O 0 Chemical level Cellular level Tissue level made up of cells ex connective tissue skeletal muscle Organ level heart Organ systems digestive tract Organism the animal comprised of all the organ systems Homeostasis occurs when all organ systems are working together and are in a healthy balance Biochemistry about chemistry in a living organism necessary to maintain homeostasis O O O 0 Living creatures are made up of chemicals Physiological processes are made up of chemical reactions ATP is necessary for reactions to happen within the body Different types of Energy You take one form of energy you convert it to another form As converted lose energy because heat is lost Bonds being broken chemical bond is not a physical structure it s a relationshipform of energy as they are broken energy source is altered Chemical energies help move molecules and nutrients muscle movement Animals body survives on chemical reactions chemical energies nutrients Cell Theory 0 Cell is basic structural and functional unit of a living organism o The activity of the organism depends on individual and collective activities of the cell 0 The biochemical activities of cells are dictatedregulated by the relative number of subcellular structures RBC no nucleus Mitocondria ATP some cells have multiple mitochondria Not every cell has the same subcellular structures 0 Continuity of life has a cellular basis If the cell dies the animal dies 0 Organ Systems in detail 0 lntegument Skin hide leather Not wool but the skin below the wool The largest organ system in mammalian species First line of defense from germs disease environmental toxicants protection mechanism Anything that breaches the integument has the ability to cause an infection Helps regulate body temp aids in water conservation dissipates out through sweat Risk of infection and risk of dehydration are 2 things constantly battling with 3rd degree burns o Skeletal Structure Skull protects brain spine protects spinal cord Skeleton stores nutrients Calcium Bones make movement possible 0 Muscular System Contraction and Relaxation Contraction pulls on bones Relaxation pulls on opposite side of contraction bones Does not have to be attached to bone still follows the same patterns Moves things internally and externally Not all muscle is under voluntary control Protects converts heat Comprised about 50 body weight Made up of mostly protein Needs nutrients to drive chemical reactions in the body 0 Nervous System A bunch of chemical reactions Central Nervous System CNS a Brain on a stick brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS n Everything outside the brain on a stick a Nerves Everything in life is linked to the nervous system Animals humans regulate body temperature n Hypothalamus hunger sex drive body temp Once nerves are damaged maybe healing can happen depending on location and severity Easier to teach a child anything because of stimulation lmpulses and messages that are sent are lightening fast lnnate some things are just there Could be conserved geneUcaHy a On campus some student is running across Library Bridge quotwild cat Wild cat1quot You look it s a kitten What do you do Don t jump in running yelling Same thing but really a wild cat you start running a Boiling huge pot of water for spaghetti For some reason the pot falls to the oor you jump out of the way What if your parents just got you the puppy of your dreams Sound asleep at your feet when pot falls You wont have the same reaction as before 0 Nervous system uses electrical systems chemical reactions sodium and potassium ratio I Collateral Nerve only use when another nerve is damaged Plexus an intersection of nerves 0 Cardiovascular System Systemic a From pump to ALL body parts and then back to pump Pulmonary a From pump to lungs back to pump Coronary n Pump and all arteries and veins around the pump that makes the pump pump a Shortest circulatory system in mammals o Lymphatic Immune System Excess uid is called lymph brought back to the heart ltered in lymph nodes n Afferent Anatomy is concerned it is going into a structure n Efferent going out from a structure U Clusters of lymph nodes throughout the body 0 Respiratory System Nasal Passages Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lungs a When healthy they are the weight of a dry sponge light and uffy pink in color a Damaged lungs are heavy dirty and dark Pneumonia can damage lungs 0 Urinary System Kidneys a Filter blood and other nutrients get pressed out of kidney then what does not get absorbed back into kidney gets passed to ureters Ureters n Simply just connectors Bladder Urethra n Simpy just a connector 0 Digestive System Start in the mouth Esophagus food shoot collapsible muscle connecting mouth to stomach Small intestine Large intestine includes cecum colon and rectum Animal consumes food source it absorbs the nutrients which are converted into usable energy 0 Urinary system Micturition another term for urination 2 kidneys 2 ureters 1 bladder and urethra o Digestive System Pharynx to the stomach is connected by the esophagus Esophagus does not move secrete or absorb a Will collapse when not in use lleoccecal Junction joins the small and large intestine o Endocrine system Production of hormones Function of glands Production of enzymes for digestion Growth hormones spurts of hormones produced during puberty Primary organs n Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 0 Blood brain barrier meninges is the barrier name a Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Not uncommon to get a tumor on these glands Thyroid glands produce hormones Thyroid has lobes so if one is bad you can remove that lobe Treatment for Thyroid problems requires quarantine n Adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys Makes hormones Cortisol helps us deal with stress o If levels of Cortisol get too high it suppresses the immune system 0 When you sleep your body restores its levels of Cortisol to be released throughout the day a Pancreas Helps mammal species regulate blood sugan Produce insulin and glucogon Enzymes that are necessary for digestion If there is a disease of the pancrease not a good outcome n Ova riesTestis Function based on communication from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland TestoteronemalesEstrogen and progesteronefemales hormones are not made until brain signals gonads for maturity By product of activity from the adrenal glands makes some females have testosterone and males have some level of Estrogen n Reproductive System Purpose to allow continuation of species Length of gestation the shape of the uterus differences in the mammal system Internal pressure during pregnancy causes increased urination o Muscular Sytem Two states Contracted Actin thin lament Myosin Thick lament Binds to an active site on Actin Loaded with globular head to attach to Actin and slide a little bit Relaxed El 0 Nerves Cell body to the axon to the terminal end of the nerve Nerves can branch not necessarily just one single nerve lons Sodium and Potassium Signal causes a change in the membrane charge in the Axon Hlllack El Need ATP to bind to Actin to release the Myosin globular heads for relaxation IF there is enough of a charge can start an action potential which is a change of charge at the Axon Hillack then the charge will change all the way down the Axon Get to the terminal end changes occun Body is electrically charged refers to the movement of Sodium and Potassium down the Axon membrane When message get to Terminal end there is a selective door where Calcium Ca can move into the neuron Neuron releases a molecule called acetylcholine ACh El El El Produced by the nerve cell When Ca enters causes the vesicles to move toward the terminal end of the neuron Vescicle ACh touches membrane it will leave the cell moves into the gap between Neuron and 0 Cells 0 If something is inside the cell either it was made by the cell or brought into the cell Concentration of molecules inside cell is different than concentration in cell at rest At REST the cell is negatively charged on the inside and positively charged on the outside K moved out as Na moves in Charge changes in a nerve cell like dominos falling down Bipolar membrane a Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails n Semipermeable membrane Neuron and Skeletal Muscle n ACh is made by nucleous in the neuron a When an action potential moves down the channel causes such change in the neuron that it opens up channels speci cally for Ca n More Ca intracellular inside than intercellular outside a When the Ca moves in the ACh moves to the outside membrane and a hole forms only for ACh to move outside the neuron n ACh is now in the space between neuron and muscle membrane Binds to a receptor on the skeletal muscle membrane and creates a channel for Na to come into the cell 0 When Na moves into the cell the charge of the cell membrane changes its now positive on the inside and negative on the outside 0 Remember when Na moves in K always moves out Sarcoplasmic Reticulum n Structure inside the cell that stores Ca TTubule n Dips down into muscle causes a change in the membrane a When an action potential goes into the Ttubule it dips down close to the sarcoplasmic reticulum which then releases Ca On actin there are two proteins located a Tropomyosin protein where myosin in going to bind a Troponin has a receptor on the surface for Ca n Ca is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to receptor on surface of Tryponin when Ca hits that receptor Tryponin rolls out of the way changes the structure of the protein and when it moves it exposes a location on tropomyosin for myosin to bind a Myosin binds to Actin through tropomyosin D To undo this action we have to have ATP Removes Ca from tryponin tryponin moves back over myosin gets knocked out of the way u Acetylcholinesterase AChe causes ACh to come off of the receptor at the surface of the receptor muscle and the ACh then gets recycled Synaptic Cleft the space between the neuron and the skeletal muscle NeuromuscularJunction the end of the neuron the synaptic cleft and the surface if the muscle 0 Immunology function and study of the immune system These 2 systems work together a Acquired you were born with Macrophages immune cells 0 Not speci c 0 When you re a newborn not the greatest immune system a Adaptive is created or developed in each mammalian species 0 Can be speci c 0 Two branches o Humoral Circulates all over 0 Cellular Cell to cell contact 0 White blood cells leukocytes lymphocytes Bcells n matured in bone marrow n activatedplasma cells can be activated anywhere when it encounters an antigen its considered activated I produce proteins antibodies secreted throughout entire species through bloodstream humoral Tcells n matured in the thymus n activatedeffector cells helper T 0 killer T cytotoxic a direct cellcell activation cellular Cancer that affects the bone marrow has an effect on immune system The younger you are the better your ability to ght off disease antigen foreign substance germ microbe something that doesn t belong in the body a will bind to other molecules in the body the body has to gure out what to do with it 0 called nonself some called self Antibody AKA immunoglobulin lg n 5 different classes MADGE o lgM o the rst antibody produced from an activated Bcell o Primarily found highest level in bodily secretions mucus tears breast milk 0 lgD 0 Never circulates always bound to a B cell 0 lgG o The most abundant and the one lg that has the ability to cross the barrier so That when a female is pregnant the offspring can receive some sort of immune system 0 most common with allergies High amount indicates an allergic reaction 0 Each cell can produce approx 2000 antibodies per second for 25 days I Some memory cells can last a lifetime some can last only a few years Tetanus shots have short memory a Secondary exposure to an outside foreigner has a bigger faster longer response a once released reach foreign antigens antibodies don t kill but tag foreign antigen for destruction n a lot of antibodies can stick tag to where there is a lot of foreign antigens ie a mass tumor 0 Immune System Cont Bacteria comes in macrophages pacman engulfs it Humoral Immune system a Bcells tag the foreign moleculeantigen n Tcells TH amp Tc Antigen Presenting Cells a present antigens self and non self a MHC amp major histocompatible complex a MHC I can present self or nonself on the surface a Gets the antigen fragments from intracellular n MHC II can only present nonself on the surface a Gets the antigen fragments from extracellular a Only a section of the overall moecue will be presented on the surface of MHC and II a TC present receptor on the surface 0 CD8 name of the receptor 0 CD28 another receptor a TH present receptor on the surface 0 CD4 name of receptor 0 CD28 another receptor a Communicator between all cells will go get the B cells or the Natural killer cells NK to wipe out the infection On APC there is a receptor called B7 a B7 and CD4 bind Mount an immune response against that speci c anUgen If both receptors don t bind then it is said that the animal is tolerant to that antigen TC wont do anything until costimulation both receptors bind Antibodies n Constant region 5 regions MADGE n Variable region unlimited regions a Speci c to the antigen it bonds to I Made up of heavy and light chains a 55 disul de bonds to keep chains together Diagrams from Today I 39 0 a 2 a I w 1h ii hhgnjff Piquot V3v39ji 39ua r f 39AHI I m i xJ v i39 Vq AMA 3 gar r JEWaqadJ f 39Q gum 5394 C0qg mr Diagrams from Monday and Wednesday Neurons and BampT cells J n elmgt131 AC1 2 was he mes ram
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