Unit 2 Study Guide
Unit 2 Study Guide BIOL 190
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Stidham on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by Professor Joseph Velenovsky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 262 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Bio Unit 2 Exam Study Guide Essay structures of a protein The primary structure of a protein is the linear sequence of amino acids The secondary structure of a protein is Alpha helical regions amp beta pleated sheets both of which are held together through hydrogen bonds The tertiary structure of a protein is the three dimensional shape formed by the interactions between R groups The quaternary structure of a protein is an association of multiple polypeptides Primary upon denaturation it stays intact linear sequence of amino acids Secondary backbone of a protein Alpha helixes brous proteins have more beta pleated sheets globular proteins held together by Hydrogen bonds Tertiary 3D shape that determines function of protein interactions of R groups are important and h bonds happen between them Di sul de bonds are covalent bonds that are very important and hold the whole structure together Quaternary 2 or more polypeptide chains make one macromolecule can be the same polypeptides or different ones Denaturation Salt and pH break up R groups which breaks tertiary structure and that creates function so it makes it all fall apart Salt Na Cl dissociate into ions and sodium and chlorine will compete for R groups bond This ill break apart R group39s interactions with one another pH OH and H will compete for R group bonds and will break up R groups interactions Temperature vibrates and breaks apart stuff Short answers Receptormediated endocytosis Very highly selective Receptors for certain solutes only works for certain thing receptors ill bind to solute and it will trigger clathrin coated pit that buds off and formed coated vesicle 3 steps Receptor binding formation of pit vesicle buds off and goes where it needs to go Example cholestrol Signal Transduction get diagram of them and explain Way for cells to talk signaling cell will exocytosis export signal molecule that binds to protein that is receptor for molecule that signal relay proteins to propagate signals Can make transcription factor and make a new protein Hyperactive ras relay protein growth factor ordinarily proteins get secreted but ras relay protein takes over no growth factor no cell talk hyperactive sends its own signal growth shouldn39t be happening proteins made when no signal said it should in the rst place cancer P53 tumor suppressor gene growth inhibiting factor should stop growth but nonfunctional transcription factor doesn39t signal transcription of protein that should stop growth Osmosis Passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane Water molecules readily pass through the cell membrane even though they are polar because of protein channels caed 39 aquaporins Water diffuses until the solute to water concentration is equal on both sides Tonicity Hypertonic Inside LS HW and outsideHS LW and so water moves out shnvel Hypotonic Inside HS LW and outside HW LS and so water moves into cell burst Covalent bonds are the strongest two atoms chare one or more pairs of electrons Nonpolar atoms exert an equal pull on the electrons the electrons are shared equally Polar Unequal sharing of electrons negatively charged electrons get pulled closer to the more electronegative atom an it makes that atom partially negative and the other atom partially positive Chemistry extent be able to draw water determine between covalent polar v nonpolar SHED MCGEL 4 9 H SPACEHm HG MCGEL Polar hydrophilic Nonpolar hydrophobic Functional groups Furrimil 39aqi Elm HunIa PM i T eFnli quota 393 5 i H gr FM 7 Eve39s3 Halmp3 Wigglfrdl r IAI 3 g M warm39 1 V quot t Ell39 l i y39 Eji quot15quot 5quot a 1 97 im i H l Viia Fi emu5 Tli i l39 lllquot iIJ39h ga r oral l raghr a squot u ELIquot W15 m 11 y 7n r if l W l I inal 7 mi ca new mm i if 1 A we El 7 77 a NEW gun Gs H 5 m 535 quot WE massages32 7iHi 777 NC 7 if 7 if La li em La Eli WEE 7 inn31 Proteins carbs lipids All dehydration reactions and hydrolysis a Dehydration synthesis Monomers are joined by removal of Girl from one monomer and removal of H from the other at the site of bond formation Monomers linked by covalent bond b Hydrolysis Monomers are released by the addition of a water molecule adding Oll to one monomer and H to the other H O Mlonome rs l in ked by oovale nt bond Ca rbs glucose Glucose and Fructose are sugar monomers or monosaccharides Maltose GG Sucrose GF hydrophilic or soluble in water Polysaccharide all made of glucose starch storage in plants unbranched Amylase breaks it down glycogen storage in animals branched in liver and muscles cellulose structural in plants for their wall cellulose breaks it down we don39t have but cows and termites have bacteria that break it down highly branched and bonds switch off top to bottom Proteins Made of amino acids H I39 0H Amino Emu H furl ljm i Side Elimin R groups determine what amino acid it is Polar R groups either bc its charged or because of an OH group Lipid no monomer hydrophobic Fatty acid three tails and glycerol Saturated all hydrogens Unsaturated kink poly many kinks in one tail Fatty acid Steroid cholesterol Saturated o a WWWWII x9 F39 9quot F H CHIEF H H H H H H H H l l 39 le CHI Unsaturated 2 43 39 ll i39li39ilil 5H CC CGC CGCH Q I I I I 39 gargmH H H H H H H I H H 1 Phospholipid 2 fatty acid tails Hydrophilic polar head hydrophobic tail choline glycerol phosphate group 2 fatty tails I I I Polar Glycerol Fatty head group backbone acid chains Diffusion tendency for particles of any kind to spread out evenly in an available space molecules in a uid are constantly in motion and they collide with each other and bounce off others and spread into open space If the membrane is permeable to a molecule the molecule can easily pass through membrane Equilibrium when the number of molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number of molecules moving in the opposite direction Concentration Gradient substances tend to move from areas of high concentration where a ton of molecules are to areas of less concentration where fewer are Passive Transport diffusion across a membrane that requires no energy 02 and C02 diffuse easily Facilitated Diffusion passage of a substance through a speci c transport protein across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient Transport proteins help substances that do not diffuse freely across membrane without them certain substances wouldn39t be able to cross membrane or would take too long amp wouldn39t be useful tproteins are speci c for the substance they help No energy is used because it is a type of passive transport and works with the concentration gradient Polar molecules and ions use facilitated diffusion Aquaporin the transport protein that helps move water across membrane bc water is polar Active Transport energy ATP must be expended to move a solute against its concentration gradient toward the side where the solute is more concentrated 1 Solute Binding solute on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane attaches to a speci c binding site on the transport protein 2 Phosphate Attaching Phosporylation ATP transfers one of its phosphate groups to the transport protein 3 Transport Protein changes shape in such a way that the solute goes through and is released on the other side of the membrane 4 Protein reversion Phosphate group detaches and transport protein returns to its original shape Exocytosis export bulky materials ex Proteins and polysaccharides Transport vesicle lled with macromolecules buds from Golgi goes to plasma membrane then vesicles fuse with membrane and vesicle39s contents spill out of cell Tears are when salty solutions get exported through exocytosis Endocytosis cell takes in large molecules Depression in the plasma membrane pinches in and forms a vesicle enclosing material that had been outside the cell Three kinds Phagocytosis quotcellular eatingquot cell engulfs a particle by wrapping extensions called pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membraneenclosed sac large enough to be called a vacuole Pinocytosis quotcellular drinkingquot cell gulps droplets of uid into tiny vesicles not speci c any and all solutes dissolved in the droplets Receptormediated endocytosis highly selective receptor proteins for speci c molecules are embedded in regions of the membrane that are lined by a layer of coat proteins take cholesterol from blood for synthesis of membranes and steroids Signal Transduction pathway a series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell39s surface to a speci c response inside the cell 1 Signaling cell secretes a signaling molecule 2 This molecule binds to a receptor protein embedded in the target cell39s plasma membrane 3 The binding activates the rst in a series of relay proteins within the target cell 4 The last relay molecule in the series activates a transcription factor 5 The factor triggers transcription of a speci c gene 6 Translation of the mRNA produces a protein GVTDSKELETUN Sumo r15 organehlaa Emigmh endoplasmic MUG LEMSE command caniar of ball 39 and oali sh and laws a role in call moron i I 39 m p y I quotEt39 ul39PW 533mm 1 Huclenlus silo where ribosomes are produced Miiclroiulbulla tube of prelim mommas Itquot Fmquot quotlet th mm H pmg l in chfi l gl cilia ag I Q d 39mm m mbf al l 39 1393 39 39 quot 39 39 39 39 quot 39 quot 39 quot m w m l and FINE minibus and the cytoplasm intermediate filament inlaminad a m remain bers mai provide support strength Hagar pare 39DW39WFMWW pmm39 g mm 1 regulnllas passage into out of me nucleus brin illal mem mated prolain bers lhai are responsible 39lor can movement l ouglh endoplasmic quot metiioullun39ll mama naemamas slumad With macawas that carry out protein synthesis WhoaEmacs smalls oompianas of FINA and protein that are the sites or protein ayal eeis if 39 Pemxiaorne 39 39 maicla lhatmmaina lemmas mail carry out parlioular raaiotiona auch ESE dalmiMng portertiially harmliuI molecules Gentri lm bowler mommy of 7 V micrclitubul s Hm mourn in pairs Cytoplaam aamillluijd quot malrix lharl contains the nucleus and othar urganeliaa Miitnchrondrion 7 organe a in which energy is E f l t dl from load during initiative metabolism Secretary vesicle vesicle using With Iha piaam mem brne releasing materials to 7 i 1 Plasma membrane he sacral rd lh oral 39 lipid Mayer in which proteins are ambaddE Lipid bilayer l f twosome 39 quot vesiclethanme Hmquot mmmmhs Membrane protein and alumna mom our ml KNOW ALL CELL PARTS Endomembrane System Nuclear Envelope has two membranes that keep nucleus together traf c cop of nucleus ER Smooth making of lipids rich in ovaries and testes bc they make hormones steroids and livers bc it detoxi es drugs and alc and stores calcium ions in muscle and nerve cells Rough makes phospholipids that help plasma membrane grow bc vesicles go off and add to them bound on rER or membrane or secreted by cell Golgi Comes to receiving end and adds to membrane of Golgi contents move through and then modi cation glycosylation or phosphorylation buds off and vesicles is made from membrane of Golgi Lysosome They digest everything They bind to vacuoles and digest it all and can recycle things to organic parts Plasma Membrane forms a exible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings Phospholipid hydrophilic heads face into the cell exposed to the aqueous solutions on both sides of the membrane and out of the cell while hydrophobic tails point inward mingling together and shielding from water Nonpolar Molecules 02 C02 easily move across membrane lons and Polar Molecules need help getting across Some proteins form channels so the polar molecules can get through the membrane Vacuole big vesicles Not in system but part of cell Ribosomes Make proteins can be free in cytoplasm or bound to rER or nuclear envelope Mitochondria energy processing Chloroplast photosynthesis Cytoskeleton protein bers support and structure need motor proteins Micro laments thinnest globular form 3d network that supports cell bc they don39t have cell walls Intermediate Filaments made of brous supercoil anchor organelles ex Nucleus permanent Microtubules mainly globular act like train tracks for organelles to move along like lysosomes Extracellular Matrix forms tissues and helps protect cell main component is glycoprotein lntegrins transmit signals between ECM and cytoskeleton JuncUons Tight prevents leakage knit together by proteins Anchor strength and stability intermediate laments stretch or mechanical stress Gap communicating Plants cell wall made of cellulose and plasmodesmata that prevents isolation and keeps open channels of water nutrients and helps chemical signals go from one cell to another Plants do not have lysosomes they use contractile vacuoles to digest and to keep things that you don39t want in other parts of the cell like plant pigment and antiherbivore compounds like nicotine or caffeine The small size of cells relates to the need to exchange materials across the plasma membrane Cell must be large enough to house enough DNA protein molecules and structures to survive and reproduce Large cells have more surface area than small cells but much less surface area relative to their volume Bonus What level of protein structure determines function What level of protein structure is considered the backbone of a protein What is a polypeptide Tertiary Secondary A linear chain of amino acids What are transmembrane proteins Transmembrane proteins typically have regions of what two classi cations of amino acids Where are the different classi cations found within the protein What part of the amino acid determines its classi cation Chitin exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans Endosymbiotic theory mitochondria and chloroplast very close to prokaryotes Single circular chromosome ribosomes and reproduce by splitting Made their way into eukaryotic cells and stayed bc aerobic environment These structures helped use oxygen to make energy
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