General Study Guide Up To 10/31/14
General Study Guide Up To 10/31/14 12109
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Popular in Chemistry
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Harrison Hiraki on Sunday November 2, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 12109 at University of Washington taught by Andrea Carroll in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/02/14
General Notes Midterm 1 Friday Oct 17 330420 ALEKS chapters 14 Midterm 2 Friday Nov 7 330420 ALEKS chapters 57 Final Thursday Dec 11 230420 All previous ALEKS chapters ALEKS chapters 811 are content beyond final Be there 5 minutes early Bring pencils calculator photo ID and scantron form All exams are cumulative Chemistry study center BAG 330 Mon Fri 800530 Check slides before class and review after class Lecture Notes Ch apter 2 Metalloids are on the staircase Standard States and Formations of Elements 0 O O O O O Liquids Hg Br2 Sulfur is always S3 s Phosphorus is always P4 s Gases H He N O F Cl and all noble gases Elements in diatomic states H2 N2 02 F2 C12 Br2 I2 Diatomic states denoted by HOFBrINCl hoffbrinkle Metals tend to lose electrons Group 7 tends to gain electrons Ion formation trends picture from lecture Bonds Ionic is non metal amp non metal Covalent is metal amp non metal Energy is released when bonds from less entropy 2 or more covalently bonded atoms is a molecule Nomenclature O Ionic main group metal and non metal I cation name anion name baseide ex BaCl2 9 barium chloride Ionic transition metal transition metal and non metal I cation name oxidation state anion name baseide ex IronIII IronII PbII PbIV Covalent non metal and non metal I cation name prefix anion name baseide ex ZnS 9 zinc sulfide ex C02 9 carbon dioxide Polyatomic ion naming same as binary compound I cation name anion name ex Na2SO4 9 sodium sulphate ex KHSO4 9 potassium hydrogen sulphate ex NH42SO4 9 ammonium sulphate Acids H anion Binary Acid must be in a liquid state in water ex HCl g 9 hydrogen chloride but HCl 1 9 hydrochloric acid I hydro anion non metal root ic acid ex HBr 9 hydrobromic acid ex HF 9 hydro uoric acid ex H2S 9 hydrosulfuric acid o Oxoacids I prefix hydrogen polyatomic ion base I ite 9 ous I ate 9 ic ex HBrO4 9 perbromic acid ex H102 9 iodic acid 0 Any hydrated compound compound in water I compound name prefixhydrate ex MgSO4 7H2O 9 magnesium sulphate heptahydrate Memorize picture 24 ions only systematic names Memorize prefixes for nomenclature Know table 25 polyatomic ions Acids are gaseous compounds dissolved in water apter 3 AMU is defined as 112 the weight of a carbon 12 atom Combustion burning in the presence of oxygen results in CO2 and H20 Hydrocarbons consist of hydrogen and carbon atoms Carbohydrates consist of hydrogen carbon and oxygen atoms Chemistry the study of the rearrangement of matter due to the ow of energy Common molecular forms S3 C60 P4 A reaction is the rearrangement of atoms Molar equivalencies can convert to higher amounts using molecular formula Formula weight molar mass apter 4 Solute is substance being dissolved Solvent does the dissolving Solution is the final combination Water will dissolve ionic compounds and polar compounds Hydration breaks up ionic compounds Electrical conductivity ow of electricity in a solution shows the presense of ions Electrolyte solid substance that conducts electricity in water Ions are Solvated Hydrated when in water fu formula units can be used to denote any compound compound x M 9 concentration of compound is x molar NO339 salts are soluble Na 39 K 39 NH4 salts are usually soluble Ch Clquot usually soluble except when in AgCl S04239 are soluble except when in BaS04 PbS04 CaS04 OH slightly soluble ex NaOH KOH CaOH2 usually insoluble S2quot CO3239 PO4339 only slightly soluble usually insoluble Know table 41 M1V1 M2V2 Morality and Volume are related when diluting ect Solubility of ions in water depends on Electrostatic force between ions and attractive forces between ions and water Acid Base Reaction o Transfer of a proton 0 Usually creates water or a weak acid 0 Forms an aqueous salt Bronsted Lowry acid is proton donor base is proton acceptor H3O hydronium ion Strong acids to know 0 Oxyacids Nitric acid HNO3 Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 0 Group 7 Acids HCl HBr HI o Chlorine Oxyacids HClO3 HCIO4 o All other acids this course are weak acids Polyprotic Acid acids that give up 1 H 39 but hard to loose others Read pages 119123 about titration Oxidation Reduction Reaction transfer of electrons Oxidation Numbers 0 H is 1 when with nonmetals 1 when with metals and boron EH3 Oxygen is 2 in compounds 1 when in peroxides H202 Group 1 elements always 1 Group 2 elements always 2 Group 7 Halogens are 1 except when with O or other halogens Everything else figure out by math and balancing charges OOOOO apter 5 Manometer operates like barometer measures pressure of isolated gas Change Around PVnRT ex P1V1P2V2 Charle s Law V1T1 V2T2 Avogadro s Law V1n1 V2n2 Amonton s Law P1T1 P2T2 Boyle39s Law V1P1 V2P2 Gas Law PV nRT R 0082057 LatmmolK 83145 ImolK Temperature is measured in Kelvin K C 27315 Sig Fig Rules 0 Addition Subtraction is to decimal places I Ex 1404 12035 2005 0 Multiplication Division is lower number of sig figs I Ex 1234 x 123 1520 Ideal gas means molecules do not attractrepel each other volume of a single molecule is negligible
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