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Week 1-Week 6

by: Ashley Thompson

Week 1-Week 6 UAPP225

Ashley Thompson
GPA 3.2
Crafting Public Policy
Freel, Edward

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About this Document

The exam is going to be short answers and definitions. This is all the notes from the semester with definitions for terms discussed in class and not on the slides formally.
Crafting Public Policy
Freel, Edward
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Thompson on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to UAPP225 at University of Delaware taught by Freel, Edward in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Crafting Public Policy in Child Development at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Crafting Public Policy 10815 937 AM Policy 0 Plan or course of action taken by government to address a problem or to pursue goals Governance 0 Make and administer public policy 0 Policy to exercise authority in order to realize agreed upon goals Politics 0 The art or science of government process by which public decisions are made The Crossroads of Politics and Policy Carper Administration Case Study 0 The Arc The Campaign The Transition once you win the election you have a certain amount of time before you take office You are transitioning from the previous elected to you Year 1 BudgetDon t blow up Year 2 Priorities are clear Year 3 Deliver the goods Year 4 Coast to reeIection o This was a campaign paper 0 Why do position papers 0 Newspapers expect you to do them Want an editorial Newspapers write their OPINIONS Opinion leadersmakers read ALL of these a You want to influence people 0 What determines the issues 0 Poll gives you a starting point 0 What is important to the candidate 0 What process do you put in place 0 These just don t appear 0 Why write the position papers 0 Stakeholders media etc o How much effort do campaigns put into them 0 Varies 10815 937 AM When people help write these position papers they get to be known by that candidate 0 If that candidate wins they have to appoint people They ve already gotten to know you Congrats you ve won 0 Now what 0 Transition time 0 Will need to put together a transition team Well spoken connected smart Hopefully well diverse group 0 What do we hope to accomplish with transition Put team in place Are there problems that the previous person left behind a Identify problems and issues Want people to know we made promises and we are going to keep them Smooth service delivery Align with campaign promises o How can the political exercise play a role in the development of policy and governance strategies 0 Is the transition a political governance or policy issue All three 0 When elected for governor you go to New Governor School Talk about issues in transition Life changes Spouses talk 0 After the team was made they were give two committee s and their jobs were to look into those departments Crafting Public Policy 10815 937 AM When is a problem a policy 0 Key Words in Politics 0 O O O generally when you think of politics you think of government trying to accomplish something and achieve some end two sides of an issue you re going to have to debate in it was set up to encourage debate because that means people have different ideasstances strategic planning of how to go about things9being good at politics doesn t mean you are dishonest getting reelected influencing policies When does Policy Become Public 0 Refers to the actions of government and intentions that determine those actions The outcome of the struggle over who gets what Whatever government chooses to do or not to do Political decisions for implementing programs to achieve societal goals Sum of government activities whether acting directly of indirectly through agents as it has an influence on the life of citizens Another Perspective 0 The Nature of the Problem may determine whether it rises to the level of a public problem may not rise to be a public problem but the impact is so intense that it affects political decisions I Ex 911 or a disease been a problem for such a long time its become a big issue a Ex global warming where it s a problem a problem will get to the level of a public issue a What is a problem 0 What are Policies 0 Results of policy determination Law general laws Executive order done just by executive Regulations Ordinances tend to be more local level Rules Taxes a way of implementing a policyto discourage or encourage behavior Services providing services Indecision 0 Two Other Terms 0 O Anecdotes personal story or experience Evidence empirical stories 0 Case Study of the DARE Program 0 Reduce drug use among adolescentsMechanism educating on drug abuse prevention options Anecdotal because the satisfaction survey was your opinion Reasonable yes but they also give options for already effected Stakeholders employees police officers teachers school board parents students most important stakeholder group interests are similar outcome is always the sameYes their interests should be the same Yes continuation because all of us remember what they taught us however some kids may have never heard of any drugs but now they know AS A POLICYMAKER need to be able to sort all this out looks at all the players evidence and make judgments The Policy Process amp Professional Policy Analysis 10815 937 AM The Policy Process amp Professional Policy Analysis 0 1 Agenda Setting Define the problem 0 2 Formulating Alternatives Conduct analysis and identify alternatives 3 Legitimate Alternatives Give legal force 4 Evaluate the Policy Is it working 5 Policy Change Essential Features of PolicyMaking 0 Problems motivate players to adopt policies that affect the problem 0 Public Problems refers to conditions the public widely perceives to be unacceptable and therefore requiring attention or intervention 0 Unacceptable for a condition to become a problem it must be of such concern to warrant attention Policy Analysis is a PART of the Process 0 Policy analysis more science than art 0 Usually involves collecting and interpreting information that clari es the causes and e ects of public problems and the likely consequences of using one policy option or another to address themquot Kraft amp Furlong p98 Analysts provide information government officials make decisions Two Variations of Policy Analysis 0 Analysis FOR Policy 0 Looking forwards anticipating future 0 Intended to inform policy debate 0 Analysis OF Policy 0 How policy was selected who wielded power etc 0 Looking backwards How amp why the policy developed amp changed over time o Intended to understand how and why policy was crafted Eight Step Path 0 Define the Problem Think about causes and consequences 0 What is the problem 0 Where does the problem exist 0 Whowhat is affected 0 How did it develop or change over time 0 Major causes 0 Why is it a public problem Assemble Some Evidence Start with what you know you have to start somewhere 0 Locate relevant sources library journals government reports public officials o Summarize information Construct the Alternatives List all options that tell you how to fix the problem 0 Use action language pass law repeal law regulate inform 0 Start broad with as many reasonable options as you can find narrow them down later 0 BE CAREFUL to confront optimism it can make you bias Select Criteria Develop criteria to evaluate the proposed policy 0 Is it effective will it work Is the solution efficient reasonable cost Is the solution fair or equitable Is it feasible political technical administrative ProsCons Policy alternatives is not good or bad the outcomes are good or bad Project the Outcomes Predict the outcomes of your policy 0 People helped s saved etc o Magnitude of change expected Confront the TradeoffsUnintended Consequences Identify the likely consequences usually some good and some bad and highlight them in advance Decide Having looked at the tradeoffs now what 0 Present each option realistically 0 Present what you see as the best option 0 Group best options together Note The analyst usually doesn t make the final decision just provides good information to a policy maker like an elected official Tell Your Story 0 Address your intended audience OOOO Cabinet Secretary Governor Legislator PubHc 0 Provide the Audience with the necessary information to evaluate the policy idea Can you explain your solution in 1min to someone who might not know much about the problem Elevator Speechquot Are We All Small cl Democrats 10815 937AM Are We All Small d Democrats 0 What makes a country a democracy 0 Fair electrons 0 Give people an equal chance 0 Power to the people 0 Fair representation 0 Civil Liberties When we say we want to export democracy to another country what does it mean 0 Are all democracies alike 0 No we have a representative democracy and others have a direct democracy 0 Egypt election better turn out then we do yet the countries didn t do things we thought they would do when they got a democracy The Basic Principles 0 PreAmble to the US Constitution quote9preamble is almost like a mission statement 0 Constitution is like a contract between the people and the government Federalism Federal State and Local government Separation of Powers Separates powers between Executive Legislative and Judicial branches Checks and balances Way of making sure one branch doesn t get too much power Rule of Law Nobody is above the law Popular Sovereignty Government is subject to the will of the people Protection of the minority 1St Amendment Freedoms Freedom of speech press and assemble Representative Democracy What Kind of Democracy Do We Have 0 Direct democracy small towns like in VT and NH people decide and vote directly on topicpolicyinitiatives Indirect democracy we vote for a representative to rule in our interests How do you balance majority rule v the principle of protection of minority rights 0 Electors are picked by the political party Unfaithful electors are electors that vote against their own political parties What kind of Representatives do you want Delegate Someone who goes and votes the way their constituents want them to vote Trustee We elect them and say go ahead and cast your vote they way you think is best we trust youquot Politico Combination of a delegate and a trustee Where might we find the reasons for having this government American Political Philosophies Conservative Liberal Libertarianism Socialism Moderates 23 of people in politics can be trusted 64 political system is basically dysfunctional 10815 937 AM How Did We Come to Have This System 0 1 Magna Carta o Introduced the Rule of Law 0 Notion of Due Process 0 2 Establish Bill of Rights 0 John Locke wrote something theory about colonies when the government doesn t reach its responsibilities the people have a right to rebel English Roots 1 Magna Carta Rule of law and due process 0 2 English Bill of Rights 0 3 Implication for the Colonies On to Philadelphiaquot 0 1 72 delegates will participate 2 Who is not there 0 3 Who is in charge 0 Large states v Small states and representation 0 The Great Compromise o The 35 Compromise Slaves will count as 35 a vote 0 The President and the Supremes Core Principals Indirect democracy 0 National supremacy Federalism 0 Checks and balances 0 Separation of powers The Constitution 0 Article I The Legislative Branch 0 Enumerated powers 0 Implied powers the necessary and proper clause 0 State prohibitions 0 Article II The Executive Branch 0 CommanderinChief Foreign Affairs 0 State of the Union 0 Succession No President VP takes over No Pres or VP Speaker of the House takes over 0 Impeachment Charges are brought against Whoever and then the House of Representatives brings the articles of impeachment charges and the senate sits as the jury in the trial makes the final decision and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presides over the trial acts as the judge Article III The Judicial Branch 0 The Supreme Court 0 Life Tenure Article IV State Relations Article V The Amendment Process 0 Congress 235 of both houses 0 National Convention called by congress at the request of 235 state legislatures o Ratification 345 of state legislatures or special state convenUons Article VI Supremacy Clause Article VII Ratification Process 0 Unanimous Why Not No because its nearly impossible to get everyone to agree and RI didn t even show up The Debate Federalists v NonFederalists o The Federalists Papers Jay Madison and Hamilton Nonfederalists believed we just go out under a king and were scared that Washington would become the new King Henry NonFederalists were concerned that there was no protection from the government a Federalists said you re right lets make the first act of congress be a Bill of Rights 0 The role of the Bill of Rights The Policy Process 10815 937 AM The Stages Model 0 Issue emergence 0 Agenda setting 0 Alternative selection Enactment Implementation 0 Evaluation Systems Model 0 Inputs 0 Election results who gets elected and what matters to them 0 Public opinion polls give you a starting point 0 Constituents call the politicians and say this is a problemquot 0 Media coverage if the media gets engaged it will bring attention to a problem 0 Personal Experiences elected official s experiences 0 OutsidersInsiders The Political System The Black Box 0 The Structural Environment 0 The Social Environment Figure 25 Shows our population is getting older 0 The Political Environment 0 The Economic Environment 0 Outputs 0 Laws Regulations Decisions No actions Taxes Expenditures OOOOO Group Chat 0 1 Primary Goals of ACA 0 Make health care more affordable for people who don t have it and who need it o Expense of health care was increasing they wouldn t be able to handle it o 2 Some inputs Increase in medical billscosts Large amount of unemployed People we sharing their experiences9people who cannot get there family healthcarehospitals who couldn t afford to treat people 0 3 Black Box Impacts O O The social environment Political environment Gridlock very opposite making incremental change hard 0 4 Outputs O 0000 0 Laws and Regulations it being officially a thing Get rid of preexisting conditions rule Can stay on parents insurance until 26yrs Pay fine if don t have insurance Employers must provide some health care to a certain level of employees Tax on health care above a certain level Tax on medical devices 10815 937 AM Do We Agree on the Principles 0 Ideological Stability 0 00000 Liberty and equality Employers v workers Left and right National storylines9not always true but we always buy into it Ideology and the political parties Going forward Political parties are getting more polarized 0 Political Stability O O O O O Electoral collage Legislative representation Change of power Constitutional interpretation Organized vested interests 0 Divided power 17871870 0 O O O Jurisdictional questions where as opposed to whether Gibbons v Ogdenquot national commerce Elastic Clause Slavery and the Civil War 0 State Activism 18701933 Rural to industrial Who will rein in the industrial powers Lochner v New York States more powerful Civi Right Amendments and Acts and Jim Crow Plessy v Ferguson 0 National Activism 19331961 000 Great depression and WWII Post WWII changes and role of government infrastructure National security growth Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas Overrides Plessy v Ferguson ruling Delaware role One of four cases DE was different because the Judge of the Court of Chancery Collins Sights ruled in favor of the black family 0 Another Approach 0 The Relationship of the Citizens to Their Government 19451960 Stability and acceptance of government programs 19601976 Social change and growing skepticism 19762008 The end of big government 2008 A new relationship The Insiders and Outsiders 10815 937AM Brian Stevenson9106 5pm Mitchell hall Official insider Actors and Unofficial outsiders Actors 0 The Legislative Branch 0 Primary activities Make laws Casework work that legislators do n Tasks undertaken by the legislator or the legislators staff Oversight responsibility that legislator s have to oversee how the executive branch is executing things Visibility informal role that actors play they spend a lot of time being visible in their community Politics 0 Legislative Organization Leadership Committees serve on many committees and subcommittees n Selected by the leadership in both houses Caucuses Earmarks pork pork refers to when you get legislation passed that brings money to your state a Saying a chunk of this money will go to this specific thing Legislation and Regulation legislation changes based off of how the regulations are written 0 The Executive Branch 0 Office of the President NSC CEA and DPS Policy Development OMB Office of Management and Budgets Managing the Cabinet How much power does the president have 0 Administrative Agencies amp Bureaucrats Career employees stability or obstruction Political appointees driving policy a Cabinet secretaries n PLUM book list ofjobs the president can fill The friction between career and political appointees a Political appointees need to try and convince the career appointees to agree with them Independence and oversight Independent agencies Federal reserve NLRB etc 0 The Judicial Branch 0 Marburd v Madison judicial review could determine whether constitutional or not 0 Legal v Political Plessy v Ferguson and Brown v the Board 0 Campaigns 2000 Election Valeo v Buckley and United Decision 0 Individual Citizens o Roles Voters Civil Actors Advocatesactivists 0 Interest Groups Types In Institutional In Economic Entity 0 Industry 0 Trade Association NEA national education association 0 Public Interest ottobahn environmental issues a Lobbyists 0 Professional 0 Public Interest 0 Individual 0 Political Parties 0 Political role 0 Policy role 0 Organization National State Local 0 Think Tanks 0 Media Communications 0 Report the newsjust the facts Agenda Setting Power Policies amp Policy Types 10815 937 AM Midterm short essay andor definitions Agenda Setting 0 Process by which problems and proposed solutions gain or loses public or elite attention 0 Sets the stage for what policies get considered or not 0 Problem definitionframing Going into Agenda Setting Differing perspectives Gaining attention and action 0 Fierce competition Levels of Agenda 0 Diagram 0 The Agenda Universe 0 The Systematic agenda groups seeking policy change seek to advance issues closer to the decision agenda proponents o The Institutional agenda groups that oppose change seek to block issues from advancing on the agenda opponents o The Decision agenda How Do Issues Reach the Agenda 0 Leadership activityelite actors 0 Group reactions to other groups actionssuccess 0 Crisis and focusing events 0 Protest movements 0 Media coverage or activity 0 Political changes Groups and Power in Agenda Setting 0 Do some groups have more power than others 0 What is power The ability to get what you want and to prevent others from getting powers 0 Why do some groups have more power than others Information Resources available 0 Why is power so important in agenda setting in particular 0 Power in Policymaking Who and What Controls the Agenda 0 Elite theory small group of the population that controls a lot of the power 0 PluralismGroup theory Competing interests 0 What s on the Natural Agenda Now 0 Gun control Conditions and Problems 0 Conditions something you re kind of stuck with 0 Problems Predicament Why Does All This Matter 0 Powerful groups can shape the agenda 0 Powerful groups can influence the depiction of public problems 0 Powerful groups can influence the nature of alternative solution to problems 0 Powerful groups determine who gets what from out Government through its policies What s Next 0 Need to consider the solution or policy 0 Decision making about which policy designs tools to adopt Policy Types 0 Analysis OF policy 0 Analysis FOR policy 0 They help us understand when there is likely to be more conflict over adoption enactment and implementation of policies 0 Helps us understand the game board the likely players and the ease or difficulty of the process Public Policy Types 0 How its Codified table 71 pg 204 0 Law regulation rule 0 By Domain or Topic Area 0 Don t tell you a lot of the process Typology 0 Type of instrument tool 0 Costbenefit O O Substantive and procedural Endangered species act listing of the Red Knot following the steps of the Administrative Procedures Act to achieve a ESA listing Material and symbolic Delaware s Chronic Environmental Violators Law 2002 Public vs Private good Liberal and Conservative Type of Policy Instrument Distributive Redistributive taking something that already exists and distributing it to someone who doesn t have it or doesn t have access to it 0 Regulatory visible winners and losers Policy Implementation 10815 937 AM What is Policy Implementation 0 Process of putting enacted policies into effect 0 Most often done by the civil servants or street level bureaucratsquot in the executive branch but can include many others Policy Instruments Commonly Used 0 Regulation 0 Government provisions 0 Taxing amp spending 0 Market making economic innovation 0 Education information persuasion Significance of Implementation 0 Policies are generally of no use unless the are implemented 0 Implementation can be contentious just like other phases of the policy process 0 Serious debate occurs and power comes into play Are Goals of Enacted Policies Always Clear 0 Legislative Intent not always clear can t read their minds Discretionary authority if it is unclear you have the power to discretely make a decision on what it means 0 Conflicting Goals 0 Examples 0 US Forest Service 0 Federal Flood Insurance Program 0 CWA9 Waters of Exceptional Recreational of Ecologic Significancequot Approaches of Study of Implementation 0 Case Studies 0 System models 0 Top down model 0 Bottom up model 0 Top downbottom up hybrid model Inputs political system black box9outputs Challenges to Evaluation of Policy Implementation 0 Understanding and translating the legislative intent Often has different values


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