Physiology Midterm 2 Study Guide
Physiology Midterm 2 Study Guide 108
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Date Created: 11/03/14
Physiology Midterm 2 Study Guide Based off the potential exam questions Professor Doohan gave us 4163 1 Describe the path of blood as it passed through both the pulmonary and systemic circuits Begin and end at the right atrium Include in your discussion the chambers of the heart heart valves and 02C02 status of the blood Blood that is high in CO2 and low in 02 gets sucked into the right atrium When the pressure inside the atria exceeds the pressure in the right ventricle blood is pushed through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle As the ventricle fills and the pressure inside it becomes greater than the pressure in the atria the tricuspid valve snaps shut so backwards ow of blood is stopped The heart beats and blood is pumped out of the right ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary circuit where the blood exchanges its CO2 for O2 and is pumped back to the left atria When the atrial pressure exceeds the left ventricular pressure blood passes through the mitral valve into the ventricle When pressure within the left ventricle exceeds that of the atria the mitral valve snaps shut and blood is pumped out the aorta into the systemic circuit In this circuit blood travel throughout the body from arteries to arterioles to capillaries the smallest vessel in the body the site of exchanges of nutrients and wastes Blood then ows through venules which combine to form veins which return blood back to the right atria The left and right sides of the heart are separated by the septum and the atria is separated from the ventricles by the fibrous skeleton of the heart made of tough connective tissue that has valves in it that allow blood to ow from one chamber to the next 2 Describe the exchange of 02 and CO2 between the pulmonary and systemic circuits Blood is pumped through the pulmonary circuit before it is pumped out to the rest of the body via the systemic circuit This is when the exchange of O2 and CO2 occurs Blood that is high in CO2 and low in 02 passes through capillaries in the lungs where the exchange of gas happens easily The CO2 passively diffuses out while the O2 passively diffuses into the capillaries and the blood is returned to the heart were it is pumped out to the rest of the body As blood travels throughout the body it passes from arteries to arterioles to capillaries within the different systemic tissues of the body It is in capillaries that the exchange of gas and nutrients occurs between the tissues and the systemic circuit In this case there is a high concentration of 02 which easily diffuses out into the surrounding cells and a low concentration of CO2 which allows for easy absorption of CO2 into the circulatory system 3 Name the 4 heart valves and state which chambers and arteries are separated by these valves Tricuspid valve Separates the right atria from the right ventricle Mitral valve Separates the left atria from the left ventricle Pulmonary valve Separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery Aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta 4 What causes heart valves to open or close Differences in pressure between the atrium and the ventricles cause the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve to open and close high pressure in the atria opens each valve and high pressure in the ventricle closes each valve Differences in pressure between the arteries and the ventricles cause the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve to open and close high pressure in the ventricles opens the pulmonary and aortic valves high pressure in the arteries close the pulmonary and aortic valves 5 What causes heart sounds The closing of the valves causes the heart sounds 6 Which valves close at the start of systole Diastole The first sound is associated with the closing of the atrial ventricular valves AV valves at the onset of systole The second sound is associated with the closing of the semilunar valves at the onset of diastole I 5 quotY T 39 li393A 392 P X 39 w I Y 0 39 NY ml quot 4 I P Y 9 Ir Sgt39 soquot quot M V 0EX V W Vuno 39 quot W 2 quot0 ya ov quot W t Lktqk h1 Yo1 u 3 V e to39t om um I l 1v 3 4 391 cl all T J 45 aY K770 lQVC xx MSW quot 39 Nbn 01 Ms 5 f Iii u l tecum V Kt I P 39T UAv l 39 vowe R p k39 L 39Qlquotj VQ VC4e mu39CA lt3 xi 4 5395 7 What are heart murmurs Heart murmurs occur when blood ow through valves is turbulent This produces an abnormal sound causes a murmur Murmurs are caused by defective valves or a hole in the septum the strip of connective tissue that divides the right half of the heart from the left 8 What39s the difference between an insufficient valve and a stenotic valve An insufficient valve is a leaky valve that allows blood to ow backwards A stenotic valve has an abnormally narrow opening which impedes smooth laminar ow of blood 9 What is the relationship between streptococcus infection rheumatic fever and heart murmurs Rheumatic fever is the number 1 cause of heart murmurs It is an autoimmune disorder initiated by streptococcal bacterial infection In some people antibodies attack the bacteria and the heart valve tissue which causes in ammation and scarring of valves The scarring causes stenosis or insufficiency 10 What is the function of the intercalated discs that connect one myocardial cell to another Intercalated discs connect myocardial cells together and have two types of cell junctions o Desmosomes contain strong protein fibers that act like spot welds that strongly anchor one myocardial cell to another 0 Gap junctions link cytoplasm of one cell with that of another via small connecting tubes called connexons this allows small molecules and ions to ow freely from one myocardial cell to the next I Gap junctions are essential for the electrical synapse of heart cells because Na ions ow 9 action potential 11 What structure in the heart separates the ventricular myocardium from the atrial myocardium The ventricular myocardium is separated from the atrial myocardium by a non conducting fibrous skeleton 12 What characteristic of the ventricular myocardium allows it to act as a functional unit of contraction The ventricular myocardium has a striated appearance caused by intercalated discs that connect one myocardium cell to the next Within the intercalated discs are gap junctions which link one cell to the next chemically by allowing small molecules and ions to pass through the gaps connexons 13 For each of the following conditions state whether it occurs during systole or diastole Atrial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure 9 Diastole The semilunar valves have just opened 9 Systole The AV valves have just opened 9 Diastole Blood is owing from the right atrium to the right ventricle 9 Diastole Blood is owing from the left ventricle to the aorta 9 Systole The first heart sound S1 is heard 9 Systole The second heart sound S2 is heard 9 Diastole The atria are contracting 9 Systole The ventricles are contracting 9 Diastole 14 List the events of the cardiac cycle Begin with systole and end with diastole Include in your answer the contraction state of the chamber the pressure changes in the chambers and arteries the opening and closing of valves and the ow of blood The answer must be chronological and demonstrate cause and effect In systole the ventricles contract which causes the ventricular pressure to exceed the arterial pressure This forces the AV valves closed stopping the blood from owing backward into the atria The closing of the AV valves makes the first heart sound Isovolumetric contraction of the ventricles causes the ventricular pressure to exceed the arterial pressure and the semilunar valves are pushed open Blood is ejected out of the ventricles into major arteries The atria relax and fill with blood In diastole isovoumetric relaxation of ventricles causes the ventricles to relax but no blood ows in yet As ventricles relax arterial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure which pushes the semilunar valves closed again This makes the sound of the second heartbeat Atrial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure which causes the AV valves to open and the ventricles passively fill with blood to about 80 capacity The atria contract and ventricles are filled completely with blood 15 What does it mean that the heart is autorhythmic It means that the heart generates its own rhythmic action potentials independent of the nervous system The heart is innervated by the peripheral nervous system but it does not rely on input from it to maintain its rhythm 16 Explain the function of the conduction system and list its component parts The conduction system of the heart functions to allow the action potential created by the sinaoatrial SA node to travel throughout the ventricular myocardium The conduction system is made of the sinoatrial node the atrioventricular node AV node the bundle of His left and right bundle branches and Purkinj e fibers 17 What part of the conduction system is the pacemaker of the heart and why The SA node located in the right atrium is the pacemaker because it controls the heart rate by continuously initiating action potentials o It doesn39t have a resting membrane potential 9 the cells are always drifting towards threshold pacemaker potential 18 Describe the initiation and spread of the action potential through the conduction system and the atrial and ventricular myocardium The pacemaker potential is a graded potential caused by the opening of HCN channels which are preamble to Na ions o HCN channels open when the SA node cells reach a membrane potential of 60mV 9 Na diffuses into the cell down its electrochemical gradient and depolarizes the cell 0 Cell is brought to threshold and an action potential is initiated Contractile myocardial cells have a resting membrane potential of about 80mV The action potential made in the SA node brings its surrounding atrial myocardial cells to threshold and stimulates action potentials within them via gap junctions The impulse travels to the ventricles via the conduction system because the atrial myocardial cells are separated from the ventricular myocardial cells by a non conducting fibrous skeleton The action potential spreads across the atria to the AV node the impulse delay allows the ventricles to fill with blood before ventricular contraction then it travels to the bundle of His where it moves into the right and left bundle branches of the ventricles When the impulse reaches the apex of the heart it travels into the ventricular myocardium via gap junctions between the myocardial cells which depolarizes the ventricles and causes contraction of the ventricular myocardium tKCi4 C C C Y3 VG 5 T huh owrvquoty Q739 quot Y 0 H lt ltmwc L p l gt i g 5 I I 1 I I s to 7 g 39 I P Qll OK1 qtC39 0 Kw De 5 o I 4 y4 39 ltr lT Rt 9 19 What Characteristics of conduction system cells makes them autorhythmic Conduction system cells are autorhythmic because they do not require the peripheral nervous system to function Conduction system cells receive their rhythm from the pacemaker potential in the SA node 20 Explain how the pacemaker potential stimulates an action potential in the SA node The pacemaker potential is the state of the SA node in which the membrane potentials of its cells are always drifting towards threshold 0 It is a graded potential caused by the opening of HCN channels which are permeable to Na ions 0 HCN channels open when the SA node cells reach a membrane potential of 60mV 9 Na diffuses down its electrochemical gradient 9 depolarization of the cell 9 cell is brought to threshold 9 action potential in the SA node 21 Explain the steps of the action potential in myocardial cells Contractile myocardial cells have a resting membrane potential of 80mV Action potentials from the SA node bring myocardial cells to threshold and stimulate action potentials o Voltage gated Na channels open 9 Na diffuses into the cell 9 depolarizes the cell to 20mV 9 Na channels close 9 Plateau phase in which voltage gated K channels and Voltage gated Ca2 channels open simultaneously allowing K to exit the cell while Ca2 enters the cell without disrupting the polarization of the cell Ca2 channels close and many K channels open 9 rapid efflux of K out of the cell 9 repolarization of the cell to resting membrane potential 1 Ck p7t Q J C H J0139 3 2 39l4 quotu E Q19 Tx L r J d 392 VJ I aLL 22 Explain the process of Excitation Contraction Coupling in myocardial cells It is similar to that of skeletal muscles Ca2 binds to troponin which moves tropomyosin off of myosin binding sites on actin 9 allows cross bridge cycling and muscle contraction The dijference is in how Ca2 is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum During the plateau phase extracellular Ca2 enters the cell through voltage gated Ca2 channels 9 bind and opens Ca2 release channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum 9 allows Ca2 to diffuse out of the SR into myofibrils When the myocardial action potential is over Ca2 pumps transport Ca2 back into the SR and everything returns to its original position 9 muscle relaxes 23 What stimulates the opening of calcium channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of myocardial cells Extracellular Ca2 enters the cell during the plateau phase and binds to receptors on the sarcoplasmic reticulum which opens Ca2 release channels on the SR 24 List the basic characteristics of arteries Blood that leaves the heart passes through arteries Large arteries branch into smaller and smaller arteries 9 arterioles small vessels Arterioles branch into capillaries the smallest of all blood vessels 25 What characteristic of arteries allows them to act as a pressure reservoir during diastole Arteries have large internal diameters that offer little resistance to blood flow which have an elastic layer in the walls made out of elastin 9 efficient movement of blood throughout the body During systole larger arteries distend with blood and during diastole the walls rebound and push blood along 26 Which blood vessels are most important for regulating blood ow to organs and blood pressure within the systemic system arteries arterioles capillaries venules or veins Arterioles regulate the ow of blood into different tissues 27 List the basic characteristics of capillaries They are the smallest and most numerous of blood vessels They are the site of exchange of nutrients and wastes between blood and tissues Walls 1 epithelial cell thick and surrounded by a basement layer of connective tissue 9 easy diffusion of nutrients and waste 28 Describe the transport of nutrients across the capillary endothelium how are 02 and CO2 exchanged What is bulk ow Can plasma proteins be transported through pores CO2 and 02 are nonpolar so they can diffuse directly across the capillary cell membrane fatty acids readily diffuse too because they are nonpolar also 0 CO2 exists in high levels inside the cells so it naturally wants to diffuse into the capillaries o 02 exists in high levels inside the capillaries so it naturally wants to diffuse out of the capillaries into the surrounding cells is the bulk transport of uid and dissolved substances ie glucose amino acids from the blood to the tissues and vice versa through the pores between the cells of the capillaries Plasma proteins cannot be transported through the pores they are too big 29 List the basic characteristics of veins They are larger and more compliant stretchable than arteries 9 they can hold more blood They act as a blood reservoir contain 60 of blood Return blood to the heart with the help of one way valves 9 unidirectional ow of blood 30 What 3 mechanisms increase venous return of blood to the heart Sympathetic nervous system Skeletal muscle pump Respiratory pump breathing helps drive venous blood out of the abdominal cavity because as air comes in the diaphragm descends and abdominal pressure increases 9 puts pressure on the veins and moves blood back towards the heart 31 Explain how sympathetic input to the veins would increase venous return of blood to the heart Sympathetic input 9 vasoconstriction 9 increase blood pressure 9 blood is driven through one way valves back to the heart 32 Explain how the skeletal muscle pump would increase venous return of blood to the heart Veins slide between skeletal muscles 9 contraction of skeletal muscle squeezes the vein The pressure causes the upstream valve furthest from the heart to close and the downstream valve closest to the heart to open 9 unidirectional ow of blood 33 What is atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a progressive degenerative vascular disease that leads to the occlusion of arteries blood ow is severely decreased and eventually completely blocked 34 Describe the structure of a fatty plaque associated with atherosclerosis The plaque is made up of cholesterol rich lipids that infiltrate the epithelium and are deposited into the wall of the blood vessel Abnormal smooth muscle cells migrate to the site of developing plaque 9 a bulge that narrows the lumen Connective tissue scars caps over the developing plaque 9 eventually the plaque becomes hardened by the deposition of Ca2 salts 1kltun LC OWN Ll hltr quot ULquot 39 35 What causes blood clots to form at plaques If the endothelium overlying the plaque becomes damaged via ulceration plaque may rupture 9 exposes blood to interior of plaque 9 stimulation of platelets which form blood clots 36 What39s the difference between a thrombus and an embolus A is a clot that remains in place An embolus is a clot that breaks away and travels to another site 37 What drugs could be used to dissolve the clots that block small arteries Tissue plasminogen activator TPA could be used it39s a human protein that facilitates the breakdown of blood clots recombinant TPA is used as a drug Streptokinase is another enzyme that dissolves blood clots comes from bacteria 0 Cheap and effective but it can only be used a couple of times before the immune system renders it ineffective 38 What is the major risk factor for developing atherosclerosis High blood cholesterol is the highest risk factor for developing atherosclerosis 39 What organ in the body is most responsible for regulating cholesterol levels in the blood The liver 40 What are the roles of HDL and LDL in the trafficking of cholesterol in the body HDLS high density lipoproteins are considered good cholesterol 0 They carry cholesterol FROM cells T0 the liver for excretion 9 decreased blood cholesterol LDLs low density lipoproteins are considered lousybad cholesterol 0 They carry cholesterol FROM the liver T0 the cells 9 increased blood cholesterol 41 Why is HDL considered good cholesterol and LDL considered bad cholesterol High levels of HDLs correlate with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis High levels of LDLs correlate with a increased incidence of atherosclerosis and heart disease the liver is sending too much cholesterol into the blood 42 What is the fundamental defect in coronary artery disease CAD If coronary arteries that feed the heart are partially blocked by atherosclerosis plaques then blood ow to the heart may not be sufficient to supply the level of 02 required 0 Myocardial cells experience inadequate blood ow I 9 inadequate oxygen supply 43 What is angina pectoris What causes it What is used to treat it is pain in the chest due to ischemia In the absence of 02 cardiac cells shift to lactate fermentation which produces lactic acid as a byproduct 9 stimulates pain receptors in the chest 0 Symptoms reoccur whenever O2 demand outpaces 02 Supply Vasodilators Nitroglycerin can be used to treat angina pectoris because they vasodilate blood vessels occluded by plaques Bypass surgery is a treatment for severe coronary artery disease 44 Define the following terms cardiac output heart rate stokes volume end diastolic volume and ejection fraction the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute mL min Increased heart rate and stroke volume directly increase the cardiac output 0 me number of beats per minute beatsmin 0 the volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle with each beat mLbeat the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole the amount of blood ejected by the ventricles under rest conditions 55 of total volume 45 If heart rate is 100 beats min and stroke volume is 100mLbeat then what is the cardiac output Cardiac output heart rate stroke volume 9 100 beats min100mLbeat 9 10000 mLmin 46 What factors cause an increase in stroke volume Increased End Diastolic Volume Sympathetic stimulation of increased ejection fraction 47 How does an increase in sympathetic input to the ventricular myocardium cause an increased stroke volume During exercise the heart fills with more blood and the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart to contract more strongly 9 increased stroke volume 48 How does an increase in enddiastolic volume cause an increase in stroke volume Increased enddiastolic volume 9 would cause the heart fill with more bood and pump more blood per beat 9 larger stroke volume 49 Describe Starling s Law It39s the relationship between the enddiastolic volume and the stroke volume The heart will pump out whatever volume it is delivered 0 If the EDV doubles then the stroke volume will double As ventricles fill with blood during diastole sarcomeres within myocardial cells are lengthened the more they stretch before contraction the stronger sarcomeres become A longer sarcomere 9 a greater stroke volume 50 How would an increase in sympathetic input to veins cause an increase in cardiac output Sympathetic input to veins 9 vasoconstriction 9 increase in pressure 9 blood is driven through one way valves back to the heart at a greater rate 9 more blood enters the heart 9 increase in stroke volume 9 increase in cardiac output 52 What causes water to filter out of capillaries pores and into the interstitial uid Plasma makes up 20 and interstitial uid makes up 80 of ECF this balance is IMPORTANT blood pressure generated by the beating heart causes bulk ow of plasma 0L1t of capillaries through capillary pores ii interstitial space Filtration 53 What causes water in in interstitial uid to be reabsorbed back into capillaries caused by the higher concentration of solutes in the plasma vs interstitial uid 9 interstitial uid is reabsorbed back into capillaries by OSMOSIS Absorption 54 What characteristic of blood plasma makes it hypertonic relative to interstitial uid Blood plasma contains plasma proteins albumins clotting factors anitbodies etc which make it hypertonic compared to interstitial uid 55 List the causes of edema Edema too much uid in the interstitial spaces 9 swelling of the tissue Causes 0 Decreased concentration of plasma proteins 0 Increased capillary permeability 0 Increased venous pressure 0 Blocked lymphatics 56 Why would a reduction in plasma proteins result in edema A reduction in plasma proteins would make the plasma less hypertonic and so interstitial uid would be absorbed at a slower rate while the rate of filtration would remain constant 9 build up of interstitial uid 9 edema 57 Why would liver disease result in edema The liver creates plasma proteins which reside in the blood and make the vessels hypertonic compared to the interstitial uid drawing water back into the circulatory system and out of the tissue Liver disease impedes the production of the plasma proteins and the blood becomes less hypertonic compared to the interstitial uid 9 reabsorption happens at a slower rate while the filtration rate remains constant 9 excess uid resides in the tissues 9 swelling of tissues edema 58 Why would blocked lymphatics result in edema If lymph vessels are blocked then lymph uid can39t drain from the effected area and the area will swell 9 edema 60 Would an increase in blood viscosity cause an increase or decrease in blood ow Decrease 0 Blood with a higher viscosity would cause an increase in an increase in the total peripheral resistance between the walls of the vessels and the ow of the blood 9 decrease in blood ow 61 Would an increase in blood vessel radius cause an increase or decrease in blood ow An increase in the radius of a blood vessel 9 decrease in friction 9 increase in blood ow OF ALL FACTORS THAT EFFECT BLOOD FLOW THE RADIUS OF THE BLOOD VESSEL IS THE MOST POTENT 0 If the radius doubles the ow will increase 16 fold Poiseuille s law 62 Would the following conditions cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation of arterioles a Sympathetic neurons secrete norepinephrine onto a1 receptors located on arterioles 9 vasoconstriction Epinephrine binds to al receptors located on arterioles 9 vasoconstriction c Epinephrine binds to b2 receptors located on arterioles 9 vasodilation 63 Describe the process of active hyperemia metabolic control of arteriolar radius Active hyperemia is the increased activity of a tissue 9 more blood ows to the area Metabolic activity 9 production of metabolites increased tissue activity 9 increased production of metabolites Metabolites directly stimulate vasodilation of local arterioles 9 increased blood ow 64 Describe the process of myogenic control in the regulation of arteriolar radius Smooth muscles in blood vessels are directly affected by pressure 0 If the ow of blood is low then adjacent arterioles relax 9 increased blood ow o If blood ow is excessive adjacent vessels vasoconstrict 9 decrease in blood ow 65 When a person begins to exercise activities in the circulatory system change and patterns of blood ow change Predict the changes that would occur in the following parameters at the onset of exercise PV quotquot39F7 quotquotS39 Pf S739P Heart rate increase Stroke volume increase Cardiac output increase End diastolic volume increase Venous return of blood to the heart increase Sympathetic input to the circulatory system increase Parasympathetic input to the circulatory system decrease Radii of arterioles servicing skeletal muscle increase Radii of arterioles servicing the GI tract decrease Flow of blood to arterioles servicing skeletal muscle increase Flow of blood to arterioles servicing GI track decrease 66 Define mean arterial pressure MAP MAP is the average pressure of blood in the arterial system MAP diastolic pressure 13pulse pressure 0 Pulse pressure systolic pressure diastolic pressure 67 Calculate MAP for a measured blood pressure of 11050 50 1311o50 70mmHg 68 How would blood pressure be changed by a rise in cardiac output Blood pressure would be increased Increased ow cardiac output 9 increased pressure MAP 69 Define Total Peripheral Resistance TPR TPR is the sum of total Vascular resistance to the ow of blood in systemic circulation 70 How would blood pressure be changed by a rise in TPR An increase in TPR would cause an increase in blood pressure 71 How would widespread vasoconstriction of arterioles affect TPR and MAP Wide spread vasoconstriction of arterioles would cause a major increase in TPR and therefore an increase in MAP because resistance and pressure are directly proportional 72 What is the function of baroreceptors are specialized stretch receptors that detect changes in blood pressure and are located in the walls of arteries veins the heart They constantly communicate with the cardiovascular control center CCC in the brainstem and inform it of any changes in blood pressure 73 How do baroreceptors detect changes in MAP Increases and decreases in blood pressure cause a change in the frequency of action potentials in baroreceptors 80mmHg is the baseline MAP for a typical person 12060 9 constant baseline frequency of action potentials If BP gt 80 mmHg baroreceptor increases its frequency of action potential 0 output If BP lt 80 mmHg baroreceptor decreases its frequency of action potential output oxs emamp quotquot P x ch N 2 2 W E K I S 1 av 5 5 k K 4 74 What re ion of the brain is in communication with baroreceptors The CCC located in the brainstem 75 Describe how baroreceptors would detect a drop in MAP and then initiate compensatory responses to restore MAP to normal A decrease in MAP would cause a decrease in the frequency of action potentials sent to the CCC 9 increased sympathetic input 9 vasoconstriction 9 increased cardiac output 9 increase in blood pressure MAP 76 Describe how baroreceptors would detect a rise in MAP and then initiate compensatory responses to restore MAP to normal An increase in blood pressure would increase the frequency of baroreceptor action potentials sent to the CCC 9 CCC would decrease the sympathetic input and increase the parasympathetic input to the heart 9 decrease in heart rate and decrease in stroke volume 9 decrease cardiac output 9 decrease MAP CCC also would decrease sympathetic input to blood vessels 9 vasodilation 9 decrease resistance TPR 9 decease MAP 77 How does retention of water and sodium by the kidney result in an increase in MAP BLOOD VOLUME IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO BLOOD PRESSURE If blood volume increases venous return of blood to the heart increases 9 stroke volume increases 9 cardiac output increases 9 blood pressure increases If kidneys retain H20 then the volume of the ECF will increase and the blood volume will increase 9 increase in MAP 78 What is circulatory shock a sudden severe drop in blood pressure 9 poor blood delivery to all organ systems 9 all tissues hypoxia lack of O2 9 wide spread tissue damage 79 List the causes of circulatory shock Large loss of uid 9 small volume of blood Heart failure 9 shock cardiac output falls so low that adequate blood pressure cannot be maintained Extreme widespread vasodilation 9 major drop in TPR and adequate blood pressure cannot be maintained 0 Caused by infection of the blood with bacteria 0 Caused by allergic reaction to a substance that has gained access to the blood ie bee venom 80 Why would severe diarrhea result in circulatory shock Severe diarrhea results in a massive amount of loss of uid which would put the person into hypovolemic shock The volume of blood would decrease severely and the blood pressure would also drop 81 Define hypertension chronic high blood pressure 14090mmHg 82 List the causes of hypertension Primary hypertension essential hypertension elevated TPR due to an abnormally decreased arteriolar radius Renal hypertension occlusion blocking of a renal artery 9 decreased blood ow to the kidneys 9 kidneys will try to increase blood ow by increasing blood pressure OR kidney disease 9 decreased ability of kidney to excrete Na 9 increase blood volume 9 increased blood pressure Endocrine hypertension caused by an over secretion of hormones 83 What is the most common cause of hypertension Elevated total peripheral resistance TPR due to an abnormally small arteriolar radius 84 Why would oversecretion of renin cause hypertension 2 is a hormone that is secreted by the kidneys and causes an increase in blood pressure Excessive renin 9 hypertension 85 Why would a pheochromocytoma cause hypertension is a tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes excessive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine 9 increased cardiac output and TPR 9 hypertension 86 Why would Conn s syndrome cause hypertension 9 a tumor in the adrenal cortex causes excessive secretion of aldosterone 9 Na retention 9 increased blood volume 9 hypertension 87 List the problems associated with hypertension Left ventricular hypertrophy Increase risk of atherosclerosis Kidney damage Stroke 88 List 4 treatments for hypertension Low sodium diet Diuretics ACE inhibitors Beta Blockers and Alpha Blockers 89 Explain how diuretics would function as a treatment for hypertension Diuretics increase urine output which causes a decrease in water and sodium retention in the blood 9 decreased blood volume 9 decreased blood pressure 90 Explain how well ACE inhibitors would function as a treatment for hypertension ACE inhibitors are drugs that inhibit activities of it is responsible for converting angiotensin Ito angiotensin II a powerful vasoconstrictor by inhibiting this enzyme it won39t be able to cause arterial system to vasoconstrict and blood pressure will stay lower 91 List all the characteristics of erythrocytes are red blood cells RBCS and their function is to transport 02 in the blood They are circular biconcaved discs that are very efficient at diffusing 02 out of cells and C02 into cells They have a exible plasma membrane that allows them to squeeze through small capillaries They contain hemoglobin the protein that binds to 02 They have no nucleus or other organelles so there is more room for hemoglobin 92 What organ produces erythrocytes They are made in bone marrow 93 What is the function of hemoglobin Where is it located Hemoglobin lies within RBCS and it functions to bind O2 and carry it within the blood cell throughout the circulatory system 94 Describe the process of erythropoiesis Include in your answer the roles of the kidney erythropoietin and the bone marrow is the regulation and production of erythrocytes The kidney monitors the level of 02 in the blood of 02 levels are low kidneys secrete hormone 9 it enters the blood stream and travels throughout the body 9 red bone marrow cells with erythropoietin receptors respond to the hormone by creating more erythrocytes 95 What triggers the secretion of erythropoietin If the kidney detects low 02 levels in the blood it will secrete erythropoietin 96 Define the term hematocrit Hematocrit is the percentage of blood occupied by erythrocytes 97 What are typical values of the hematocrit for males and females Males typically range from 4050 hematocrit Females typically range from 3045 hematocrit Athletes tend to have higher than 50 hematocrit 98 What factors would raise the hematocrit Any activity condition that consistently lowers 02 levels in the blood 9 increase in erythropoiesis 9 increase in hematocrit Exercise living at a high altitude Injection of recombinant erythropoietin 99 What is polycythemia is a condition that is characterized by an excess of circulating erythrocytes and an elevated hematocrit 100 Why dies polycythemia decrease blood ow It decreases blood ow because the blood has an extremely high viscosity which causes it to be sluggish in circulation 9 decreased blood ow 101 Define anemia is characterized by a reduction in 02 carrying capacity of the blood 102 List the signs and symptoms of anemia Fatigue because 02 is necessary to metabolize fuel molecules Increased heart rate to compensate for low 02 carrying capacity of blood Shortness of breath to compensate for poor delivery of O2 to tissues Low blood pressure viscosity drops as hematocrit drops 9 low blood pressure Pale skin hemoglobin is less red without 02 103 List the causes of anemia Dietary deficiency lack of iron or vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency Hemorrhage blood loss greater than blood can be replaced Hemolysis as seen in sickle cell anemia 104 Why does an iron deficiency cause anemia Iron is required for the production and function of hemoglobin 105 What is the relationship between the intrinsic factor vitamin B12 and pernicious anemia and Folic acid are required for DNA synthesis prior to cell division absence of these nutrients 9 decreased production of erythrocytes B12 deficiency can be caused by a lack of which is produced in the stomach and is required for efficient absorption of B12 out of the small intestine and into the blood 9 106 Describe the process of platelet plug formation in response to a break in a capillary wall Platelet are small cellular fragments without a nucleus that are derived from large cells megakaryocytes When a blood vessel is damaged blood is exposed to collagen fibers in the basement membrane of vessels 9 platelets stick to the collagen and become activated 9 release chemicals ie ADP and thromboxane that cause the aggregation of more platelets to the site of the injury Platelet aggregation is caused by the formation of a platelet plug that acts to seal the break and sop the ow of blood Activated platelets can activate clotting factors that form fibrin a fiber that reinforces the platelet plug 107 What is another name for platelets Thrombocytes 108 How are platelets initially activated Platelets are initially activated when they come in contact with the collagen fibers of the basement membrane of the broken vessel 109 How do activated platelets stimulate the activation of more platelets Activated platelets release chemicals ADP and thromboxane that attract other platelets to the site 110 What is thrombocytopenia What are the signs and symptoms of this condition Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low levels of platelets in the blood Small tears of capillaries and arterioles happen constantly and platelets are responsible for quickly sealing the tears before clotting completes the job In an absence of adequate numbers of platelets micro tears allow blood to seep into tissues 9 purple blotches that are visible on the skin 111 Describe the process of clot formation Begin with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin The activation process is sequential and the first factor activates the second factor etc 9 clotting cascade Thrombin is the key to the clotting mechanism 0 If thrombin is present then clotting will happen if thrombin isn39t present clotting can39t happen o Thrombin is derived from its inactive precursor prothrombin Factor X activated by tissue damage converts prothrombin to thrombin Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin monomers 9 polymerize into fibrin fibers Fibrin fibers form a lose meshwork that is stabilized by crosslinks created by factor X111 0 Stabilized meshwork of fibrin is now a clot that stops blood ow P Ck39vgt1 quot 7 C39Or1ltquot 339 9 F39 JrrL 339 J Xb n39 PGt L L t39 quotV3L t H kl vs a cc 5 we nc3lt V 13 c K JxLuse tr 39s Cf E we lti 39 l xJ quot39tquot I 39 1 3 AL Q Hf H M Vcwgxu A V Jf YI39 39lt E l lt K03 t CK C ltr1r3opU Kr LLuc usLu34 j CxAC kvd r id 3999 39I mo gt LL39 bJ Fibrinogen T Fggxxtr Kllf W G L A 1kLer l 112 What factor converts fibrinogen to fibrin Thrombin 113 What ion is required for polymerization of fibrin monomers into fibrin fibers Calcium 114 What factor crosslinks fibrin fibers to form a stronger clot Factor XIII gt quotVV p tV um Jh f39v J V51 l 39V quot V z Ll Y L I l Lquot J K L 0 vx v quot7 4 L A m K J p 9 I L 39 xJ J y 39 J 0 a N I 391 J x f1w5 ltc 39 k L 39 H3 Kl l quot3 I39JJlquot39 quotquot 39A 115 What factor converts prothrombin to thrombin Activated factor X 116 How is factor X activated Damage to the vessel wall stimulates the activation of a cascade of clotting factors 9 activation of factor X Damage to tissue stimulates activation of tissue thromboplastin an enzyme that catalyzes activation of factor X 117 What mechanisms inhibit excessive clotting at the sight of injury Clotting factors are rapidly inactivated many enzymes in the blood function to inactivate clotting factors 9 as clotting factors are taken away from the sight of injury by the blood stream they become inactivated by enzymes Fibrin fibers inhibit the activity of thrombin Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin BUT fibrin fibers have an inhibitory effect on the activity of thrombin 0 As the clot grows inhibition increases 118 What effect does fibrin within a clot have on the activity of thrombin Fibrin fibers have an inhibitory effect on the activity of thrombin 119 What is the relationship between TPA plasminogen plasmin and clot removal Blood clots are temporary and after a clot is made the vessel begins to repair itself while the clot stimulates the secretion of TPA from surrounding vascular epithelium is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin o Plasminogen an inactive precursor molecule o Plasmin an enzyme that dissolves clots dissolves blood cots o Plasmin levels are not high 9 clot removal is slow and the blood vessel is able to heal itself by the time the clot is removed 120 Heparin is an anticoagulant How does it inhibit blood clotting It inhibits blood clotting by inhibiting the activity of THROMBIN 121 Coumadin is an anticoagulant How does Coumadin inhibit blood clotting Coumadin inhibits the processing of vitamin K which is required for the synthesis of clotting factors including prothrombin 122 What clotting factor is lacking in people with Hemophilia A Most people with Hemophilia A lack Factor VIII 123 What effect does Vitamin K deficiency have on the efficiency of blood clotting and why Vitamin K is essential to the maturation of many clotting factors including factor X and prothrombin Without vitamin K clotting factors are defective 9 inhibit the clotting mechanism People with a vitamin K deficiency experience excessive bleeding 124 What are the major functions of the kidney The kidney is the primary organ in the urinary system It eliminates metabolic waste maintains water balance and regulates ion concentration 125 What organ transports urine from the kidney to the bladder Ureters 126 What organ transports urine from the bladder and out of the body Urethra 127 What is the function of a nephron Nephrons independently filter blood and produce urine which is dumped collectively into common collecting ducts 128 List the component parts of the nephron The nephron is basically a tube and the structures functions along the tube vary Open ended region Bowman39s capsule 9 proximal convoluted tubule 9 loop of Henle 9 the distal convoluted tubule 9 collecting duct xampo3939Iquot t1L Lt39 quot 4 ll r quotl 5quot 1 1 39 3939 139 i W 4 l 1 quotquot Q I L ltkt393939 R Q u 4 U5 omu L39Y 39 V l quot sv L V quot quot ax Q I K nA Du A LL kamp1 l g I 129 Describe the ow of blood through the glomerulus Blood enters the glomerulus via the afferent arteriole and leaves the glomerulus via the efferent arteriole 9 blood enters peritubular capillaries which service the needs of the nephron tubules 130 List the 3 major steps in the formation of urine Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion 131 Define glomerular filtration the movement of water and small dissolved molecules out of glomerular capillaries and into the Bowman39s capsule 132 Plasma that filters out of the glomerulus next moves into what part of the nephron Plasma moves from the glomerulus to the Bowman39s capsule9 the proximal nephron tubule and loop of Henle where uncontrolled reabsorption of water an many ions occur 9 distal tubule Na is reabsorbed controlled by aldosterone 9 collecting duct water is reabsorbed controlled by ADH 133 List the typical components of the glomerular filtrate as it enters Bowman39s capsule Water Ions Na K H Cl etc Nutrients glucose amino acids etc Wastes urea creatinine etc Protein free plasma 134 What substances in the blood are excluded from the glomerular filtrate and why Blood cells Proteins Fats which are bound to proteins These are excluded because they are too big to fit through the pores in the capillaries 135 What characteristics of the glomerulus favor a high glomerular filtration rate Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole entering the glomerulus 9 increased glomerular filtration rate 0 Controlled by I Autoregulation nephron regulates its own blood supply I Sympathetic input afferent arteriole is innervated by sympathetic fibers 9 decreased sympathetic input 9 vasodilation 136 Are the glomerular capillaries more or less permeable than other capillaries of the body They are considerably MORE permeable then other capillaries 137 Describe how the sympathetic nervous system can in uence the glomerular filtration rate GFR Input from the sympathetic nervous system causes vasoconstriction which decreases the GFR 138 Explain how a rise in GFR could result in a drop in blood pressure If the GFR is high then there will be an increased production of urine and water will be excreted from the body which will decrease the blood volume and consequentially decrease blood pressure 139 Explain how a decrease in GFR could compensate for hemorrhage A decrease in the GFR would cause an increase in blood pressure that will help balance out the initial drop in blood pressure caused by the hemorrhage Ex A person in a car accident loses a large amount of blood due to a hemorrhate 9 decrease in blood pressure 9 increased sympathetic input to afferent arterioles of glomeruli constriction of afferent arterioles 9 decreased GFR 9 decreased urine production 9 H20 is retained 9 blood volume increases 9 blood pressure increases r e 4 l t v 39s V 3 1 g 139i x D O I 3939 wk y ga lt39 3939 r 39a 4 w x pV 140 Define Tubular Reabsorption the reabsorption of water nutrients and most ions back into peritubular capillaries 141 Explain in detail the reabsorption of glucose by tubular cells Nephron tubules are made of one layer of simple cuboidal epithelial cells tubule cells Nutrients must pass through tubule cells to be reabsorbed out of the filtrate into the blood oThis is done via CARRIER MEDIATED TRANSPORT Through primary active transport NaK pumps maintain low concentrations of Na within tubule cells Na and glucose are co transported out of nephron lumen and into the tubule cell together via secondary active transport the Na gradient is steeper than the glucose gradient due to the activity of the NaK pumps Glucose is transported into the interstitial space via facilitated diffusion 9 glucose enters peritubular capillaries vie simple diffusion through pores C QC x k x 0 Cu mg C L r 39 rJJquotk 1 142 Explain why untreated diabetics have glucose in their urine Untreated diabetic have glucose in their urine because their blood has extremely high levels of glucose The glucose gets filtrated out of the blood at the Bowman39s capsule and it travels through the nephron tubule getting reabsorbed into the blood stream However there is too much glucose and the transport maximum for the reabsorption of glucose is exceeded so a lot of glucose stays in the filtrate and end up in the urine 143 Define Tubular Secretion active transport of toxic substances out of peritubular capillaries and into the lumen of nephron tubules 144 What substances are commonly secreted by tubular cells in the process of Tubular Secretion H organic acids K pollutants drugs 145 Summarize the 3 steps of urine formation Filtration occurs on a basis of size Reabsorption occurs on a basis of need Secretion occurs on a basis of toxicity 146 The majority of filtered sodium is reabsorbed by which region of the nephron The proximal tubule and the ascending loop of Henle 147 What is the function of aldosterone regulates the reabsorption of Na at the distal tubules and collecting ducts 148 What land secretes aldosterone The h 149 What region of the nephron is subject to regulation by aldosterone The distal tubes and the collecting ducts 150 By what mechanism does aldosterone increase sodium reabsorption It stimulates the synthesis of new Na channels and pumps 9 more pumps are inserted into the cell membranes of tubule cells that make up the walls of the distal tubules and collecting ducts 151 Explain how the secretion of 2 results in the secretion of aldosterone Renin is secreted by the Kidneys and it catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin to angiotensin 1 As angiotensin 1 travels through the capillaries of the lungs it is converted to angiotensin II by ACE Angiotensin II is an active molecule that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secret aldosterone into the blood 152 Explain how angiotensin II increases blood pressure Angiotensin II a powerful vasoconstrictor 9 increased TPR 9increased blood pressure Angiotensin II interacts with the hypothalamus to induce thirst 9 uid intake 9 increased blood volume 9 increased blood pressure Activation of renin angiotensin pathway 9 secretion of aldosterone 9 kidneys retain Na 9 increased Osmolarity of ECF 9 increased H20 retention 9 increased blood volume 9 increased blood pressure 153 What structure secretes renin The located between the afferent arteriole and the efferent arteriole regulates the secretion of renin 154 What are the three major stimuli that increase renin secretion Decrease in ECF concentration of Na Decrease in blood pressure Increase in sympathetic output 155 A drop in blood pressure is sensed by the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the nephron Explain in detail the compensatory responses of the kidney that would act to restore blood pressure to normal Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus form part of the wall of the afferent arteriole which can directly sense blood pressure 9 granular cells secrete renin when blood pressure is low 9 increased sympathetic input to that arteriole 9 vasoconstriction 9 increased TPR 9 increased MAP Renin is also used to convert angiotensin to angiotensin 1 Angiotensin 1 gets converted to angiotensin 11 active form by ACE angiotensin converting enzyme found mostly in the bronchioles oAngiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor 9 increased TPR 9 increased MAP and it also induces a sensation of thirst increased blood volume 9 increased cardiac output 9 increased MAP Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone Aldosterone signals the cells at the distal tubulescollecting ducts to pump more Na out back into the peritubular capillaries 9 increased MAP 156 What effect does aldosterone have on K secretion Aldosterone stimulates K secretion 157 What is the function of antidiuretic hormone ADH ADH is a peptide hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that stimulates the reabsorption of water at the collecting ducts 158 What region of the nephron is subject to regulation by ADH The collecting ducts 159 What gland secretes ADH The posterior pituitary gland secretes ADH 160 Explain the mechanism by which ADH increases reabsorption of water ADH induces the insertion of aquaporins into the membrane of collecting duct cells 161 What are aquaporins What effect do aquaporins have on the permeability of the nephron to water Aquaporins are channels that significantly increase the permeability of collecting ducts to water and facilitate efficient transport of water out of the filtrate into surrounding tissue Aquaporins drastically increase the permeability of the nephron to water 162 What is the role of osmoreceptors in the secretion of ADH Osmoreceptors regulate the Osmolarity of the ECF 9 control the secretion of ADH and thirst behavrio 163 Explain how osmoreceptors detect dehydration and initiate compensatory mechanisms to restore blood volume to normal Dehydration 9 high Osmolarity in ECF 9 increased frequency of action potential generated by osmoreceptors 9 secration of ADH from posterior pituitary and sensation of thirst ADH 9 reabsorption of water by the kidney 9 less water is lost to the urine and thirst 9 water intake 9 rehydration 164 What is the function of the loop of Henle The loop of Henle uses a counter current multiplier system that establishes and maintains the vertical osmosis concentration gradient via electrolyte pumps 9 reabsorption of water at the collecting ducts and a high concentration of urea at the collecting ducts 165 What is a pathogen A is bacteria viruses or protozoa 166 How does the innate immune system fundamentally differ from the adaptive immune system The innate immune system is your first line of defense against infection by pathogens you are born with this system includes external and internal defenses The adaptive immune system is acquired by exposure to different pathogens throughout life it has memory 167 What physical and chemical barriers protect you from pathogens The skin is a relatively impermeable physical barrier that prevents pathogens from freely entering the body Mucus membrane secretions inhibit microbial growth secretions of a variety of mucus membranes have an inhibitory effect on growth of microorganisms Normal resident bacteria out compete pathogens bacteria that normally live in on your body can combat pathogens 168 List the mucus membrane secretions that inhibit microbial growth Sebum an oil secreted by sebaceous gland in hair follicles contains lactic acid and fatty acids 9 maintain a low skin pH 35 9 inhibitory to many microorganisms Lysozyme an enzyme found in mucus tears saliva kills bacteria by dissolving cell walls Gastric juice secreted by the stomach contains HCl and pepsin which can destroy many strains of virus and bacteria 169 E coli live in the human colon and lactobacillus live in the human vagina How is the presence of these bacteria useful E coli bacteria out competes other pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus secretes acid 9 other microorganisms can39t tolerate it 170 What stimulus initiates the in ammatory response The failure of the first line of defense physical and chemical barriers 9 initiation of the in ammatory response 171 What are the sign and symptoms of in ammation Redness swelling heat pain 172 Describe in detail the events of an in ammatory response to bacterial infection Bacteria enters through a break in the skin 9 colonizes in the dermis Antibodies produced during previous encounters with the same bacterial species bind to the bacteria 9 activate compliment proteins Some compliment proteins stimulate mast cells to secrete histamine Histamine stimulates local arterioles to vasodilate 9 more blood comes Histamine also causes capillaries to open pores 9 movement of phagocytes out of he blood to in amed tissue extravasation Phagocytes destroy bacteria by using toll like receptors to bind to bacterial surface molecules and recognize bacteria that are decorated with antibodies the secrete interleukin 1 IL1 9 fever drowsiness 9 slows bacterial growth and increases the effectiveness of the immune system 173 What is the role of histamine in the in ammatory response Histamine stimulates local arterioles to dilate and it causes capillary pores to open which allows for more movement of phagocytes out of the blood and into the in amed area 174 What cells secrete histamine and what stimulates them to do so Mast cells secrete histamine They are stimulated by compliment proteins activated by antibodies which bind to the bacteria 175 How do phagocytes find the site on infection during an in ammatory response Phagocytes find the site of in ammation by chemotaxis they follow a trail of chemicals that lead to the site of in ammation 176 What is extravasation the movement of neutrophils through pores 177 What is the role of neutrophils in an in ammatory response Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria and cellular debris 178 What molecules secreted by macrophages cause fever Interleukin I causes fevers 179 What is the role of cell adhesion molecules CAM in neutrophil chemotaxis CAM signals to neutrophils that they have reached the site of infection 180 What is the compliment system The complement system is made of many plasma proteins that usually circulate in the blood in an inactive state At the site of bacterial infection compliment proteins enter tissues and become activated 9 destroy bacterial cells 181 What two types of stimuli activate the compliment system Classical complementary system The binding of compliment protein C1 to two adjacent antibodies initiates a cascade of activation that culminates in the fixation of membrane attack complexes MACS into the cell membrane of bacteria Alternative complementary system triggered when the C3b protein directly binds the microbe 182 How does the compliment system kill bacteria The compliment system kills bacteria by forming membrane attack complexes MACS that insert themselves into the cell membranes of invading bacterial cells oMACs channels that poke holes in the cell membrane 9 water ows in 9 the cell bursts 183 What stimulates a cell to secrete interferon Interferon is a cytokine signaling molecule that can be secreted by all cells in the body Cells secrete interferon when they become infected by a virus 184 How do cells respond to interferon Adjacent cells respond by beginning production of antiviral proteins so that they will be ready to combat the virus when it spreads 185 How does interferon benefit the body Interferon slows the replication of viruses and it gives the immune system more time to gear up for complete eradication of the virus by other means 186 State the function of the following lymphocytes B cells Cytotoxic T cells Helper T cells B cells secrete antibodies Cytotoxic T cells kill virus infected cells and cancerous cells T Helper cells help other immune cells by secreting interleukins cytokines that stimulate cellular division and differentiation 187 What is an antigen Provide examples of antigens An 2 a foreign structure living pathogens or inanimate chemicals that look different at the molecular level than structures of the body any structure that elicits an immune response on itself Antigens tend to be small molecules ie surface proteins found on bacteria and viruses 188 Describe the characteristics of antibodies Antibodies are producedsecreted by B lymphocytes They bind specifically to antigens 9 immune response They are protein molecules that have constant regions Fc regions which signals the immune system to attack and destroy and variable regions Fab regions that bind specifically to one type of antigen They are bivalent 9 they each can bind to two antigens 189 Which region of the antibody binds to the antigen The Fab variable region binds to the antigen 190 Antibodies are bivalent What does that mean That means that each antibody has two binding sites each attaches to one antigen 191 Can a single antibody bind to any antigen Why or why not No antibodies are made specifically to bind to one type of antigen They cannot bind to other antigens oThis is caused by shape complementarity the shape of the binding sight is complementary to the shape of the antigen 192 What is the function of the constant region Fc of the antibody The Fc region signals other components of the immune system to attack and destroy the antigen 193 The immune system has millions of different B cells How does one B cell differ from another B cell B cells differ based on the type of antibody it produces Each B cell produces a uniquely shaped antibody that will recognize a particular antigen 194 Describe in detail the process of AntibodyMediated Immunity Include in your answer the three major phases of this process activation proliferation and differentiation Activation o Requires antigen binding to B cell receptor 0 Requires stimulation with IL4 from a T Helper Cell Proliferation clonal expansion Cellular differentiation 9 most become plasma cells and some become memory cells long lived 0 Plasma cells change shape growing a larger ER so they can produce thousands of antibodies proteins very rapidly 0 Memory cells are long lived they wait to be stimulated by the same antigen After proliferation differentiation you have much more memory cells that will mount a much more aggressive attack on the antigen when exposed to it again o Primary response is weak and short o Secondary response launched by memory cells is strong and lasts a long time 9 no symptoms of what has infected you 195 What stimuli are required to activate a B cell B cells are partially activated by antigens They require stimulation by interleukin 4 IL4 secreted by T helper lymphocytes for full activation and cell division 196 What is the role of plasma cells in AntibodyMediated Immunity Plasma cells change and make develop mass quantities of antibodies that work to fight the infection 197 What is the role of memory cells in AntibodyMediated Immunity Memory cells remain inactive in the lymph nodes until future exposure to the same antigen then they will mature divide differentiate and attack the antigen rapidly 198 What is the role of Helper T cells in AntibodyMediated Immunity Helper T cells fully activate B cells by secreting interleukin 4 this allows them to divide and differentiate 199 Compare and contrast the primary and secondary responses to antigen exposure The primary response relatively slowweak because there are few lymphocytes capable of recognizing the antigen it takes a while before the population is big enough to eradicate the antigen The secondary response mounts a much faster larger response to the same antigen because there are many long lived memory cells that are capable of specifically recognizing the original antigen 9 strong rapid response Both require the presence activation and division of B cells to fight off the antigen 200 What cells are responsible for launching a secondary response to antigen exposure Memory cells are responsible for launching a secondary response 201 Which response would produce more antigenspecific antibodies the primary response or the secondary response Provide an explanation for your answer The secondary response would produce more antigen specific antibodies because there are many more B cells for that specific antigen in storage in the lymphocytes This storage of memory cells allows for a massive response against the antigen once those cells are activated 202 Define opsinization is the marking of pathogens with antibodies making them more visible to macrophages which engulf the antigen via phagocytosis 9 destruction by lysosomal enzymes 203 Do antibodies directly destroy antigens NO they mark them for destruction 204 How do antibodies and macrophages cooperate to clear antigens from the body Antibodies bind to antigens and the Fc region of the antibody changes its shape making it recognizable by macrophages Receptors on macrophages bind to the Fc region of antibodies and engulf the antigen via phagocytosis 205 Describe the process of CellMediated Immunity When a cell is infected with a virus some viral proteins antigens are mixed with human class I MHC proteins major histocompatibility proteins and are presented on the surface of the infected cell oThis is a signal to the immune system that it is infected by a virus 0 Cytotoxic t cells have receptors that bind to antigen MHC complexes oA given Cytotoxic T cell can only recognize 1 type of viral antigen Binding of Cytotoxic T cells to antigens 9 MHC complex 9 activation of T cells 9 T cells secrete perforins chemicals that punch holes in cell membranes that kill the virusinfected cell 9 limits the spread of infection 206 What is the role of MHC1 in CellMediated Immunity MHC1 activates T cells which secrete perforins that kill infected cells 207 How do cytotoxic T cells kill virusinfected cells They secrete perforins that puncture the cell membranes of virusinfected cells and kill them 208 What are perforins chemical that are secreted by cytotoxic T cells and punch holes in cell membranes 209 Describe the process by which Helper T Cells become activated Macrophages recognize engulf and digest antigens 9 proteins from antigens are complexed with Human Class II MHC molecules 9 antigen MHC complex is presented on the surface of the cell This shows the immune system that it has captured antigens and shows T helper cells what antigens of invader look like 9 T helper cells bind to antigen MHC2 complex and become activated 9 secrete interleukins that activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells 210 Lit the primary and secondary lymph organs Primary 0 Bone marrow o Thymus Secondary o Spleen o Tonsils 0 Lymph Nodes 211 Immune cells originate from what organ All immune system cells originate from immortal stem cells located in RED BONE MARROW 212 What is the immune function of lymph nodes spleen and tonsils Lymph nodes are packed with B cells T cells and macrophages oThey screen the lymph uid for presence of foreign antigens 0 Interaction between antigen and immune cells 9 immune response Spleen contain immune cells and it functions to screen blood for the presence of foreign antigens Tonsils are packed with lymphocytes and macrophages oThey are exposed to the air and ingested food9 they screen it for foreign antigens 213 What is a vaccine A vaccine typically a killed weakened for of the pathogen itself and is introduced to the body via injection ingestion 214 How are live attenuated vaccines killed vaccines and subunit vaccines different from one another Live attenuated vaccines a weakened form of the pathogen it looks like the disease causing stain 9 provides immunity but doesn39t cause serious disease 0 It is the most potent form of vaccine oAdvantage you only need a small amount of it because it will replicate inside the host to a high concentration 0 Disadvantage it could possibly mutate into a virulent strain Killed vaccines the pathogen killed with heat or chemicals but retains its overall shape oAdvantage it can39t mutate into a more virulent stain o Disadvantage mass quantities of vaccine are required because it39s dead and can39t replicate within the host 9 more expensive to make Subunit vaccines a surface protein derived from the pathogen oAdvantage it is SAFE because it39s only part of the pathogen 9 it can39t mutate and it can39t come alive 0 Disadvantage it must be injected in large amounts 9 expensive and strength of the immune response is lower than in live attenuated vaccines 215 How did Dr Edward lenner prove that cowpox could be used as a vaccine against small pox He injected cowpox into a child and let the child39s immune system fight off the virus Then he injected the child with small pox and the child survived with no major symptoms of contracting the virus he was immune to the virus 216 What is small pox an incredibly virulent disease that killed half of the people it came in contact with The WHO s small pox vaccination project successfully eradicated the small pox virus off the planet 217 What is an allergen An an antigen that causes an allergic reaction 9 strong immune response 218 What are the two types of responses observed in allergic reactions Immediate hypersensitivity happens immediately Delayed hypersensitivity can take hours or days to appear 219 Describe the process of immediate hypersensitivity in response to an allergen It is a B CELL response First exposure The first time a person encounters an allergen they are sensitized without a reaction Sensitization 9 production of IgE antibodies that don39t circulate but bind to the surface of mast cells Second exposure allergens bind to IgE antibodies on mast cells 9 exocytosis histamine prostaglandins and other chemicals from mast cells 0 Histamine and prostaglandins mediate an allergic response 220 What is the role of the mast cell in Immediate Hypersensitivity The mast cell holds and releases histamine prostaglandins and other chemicals that control the allergic response 221 Does a person experiencing an allergic reaction the first time they encounter an allergen to which they are sensitive Explain No The first time a person encounters an allergen they become sensitized to it but they do not have an allergic reaction
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