Final Comprehensive Study Guide
Final Comprehensive Study Guide ANT 220
Popular in Intro to Cultural and Linguistic Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael McDonald on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 220 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Dr. Bridget Hayden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural and Linguistic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Southern Mississippi.
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ANT 221 Final Comprehensive Study Guide Questions wDetailed Answers ch 1 Culture and Meaning 1 What do you learn about anthropology from the discussion of chairs and classrooms How do arrangements of time and space order behavior and act as a form of discipline or control That the arrangements our based on cultural decisions The chairs force student to sit in an upright position and therefore forces the to sit up and pay attention Depending on how the chairs are arranged they may all point to one specific spot the teacher It also describes a learning environment where the students focus on the teacher the majority of the time rather than hold discussion or work together 2 All humans experience certain events e g birth death eating How do we differ in these What does it mean to say humans are cultural animals 6 While some cultures view death as the end other cultures view it as part of a cycle of birth death and rebirth Same thing goes for the way different cultures grieve In some cultures such as our own people restrain from grief while in others grief is not spared In different parts of the world different foods may be in abundance This is possibly one of the reason dieting habits differ between cultures Drinking sour milk is looked down upon in disgust in America whereas it is considered a delicacy in others cultures Humans are cultural animals because like all animals we need basic necessities to survive such as food water sleep etc however we have found meaning through our own creations and events in life This meaning is known as culture 3 Compare the ways in which some different societies understand and react to death While some cultures view death as the end other cultures view it as part of a cycle of birth death and rebirth Same thing goes for the way different cultures grieve In some cultures such as our own people are expected to restrain from grief while in others grief is not spared For example the Wari of Western Brazil feast on the meat some organs and sometimes even bones of the deceased out of respect and compassion for the deceased on their loved ones In Southen Europe women were required to shave their head whereas in traditional India widows threw themselves on top of their deceased husband s pyre 4 What is ethnocentrism and why is it a fallacy How must we understand a behavior or belief according to relativism Why does relativism sometimes lead to problems Ethnocentrism occurs when a person condemns or rejects the beliefs or behaviors of another culture based on our own beliefs This causes a fallacy because believing that one culture is better than all others prevents us from learning more about a culture The alternative is relativism in which we must try to understand a culture in its own terms and understand behaviors and beliefs in terms of its purpose function and meaning However there is a moral dilemma The idea that it is impossible to place moral judgments gives other cultures permission to commit genocide or mutilate young females because it is seen as okay in some societies 5 How do anthropologists understand virginity testing in Turkey and Wari cannibalism What is sati How do these examples enrich your understanding of relativism In the case of the Wari who practice Cannibalisms as a form of grievance and show of respect to the deceased it is easier to view with relativism as no living being is harmed by the practice The Wari did this to attempt to obliterate the pain caused by losing a loved one While western societies may have viewed this practice as repulsive the Wari were horrified by the fact that western societies bury their loved ones in the cold ground When it comes to virginity testing in Turkey it had been condemned as abusive towards women However when looking through the lens of relativism we see that it occurs based on the way Turkish people view the reproductive system Seed and Soil Sati involves the death of the widow by suicide when her husband passes Though we may understand that it is perceived as morally sane in traditional Indian culture it involves the harm or death of a living being and should therefore be considered from an ethnocentric view as morally incorrect This is some of the rare cases in which ethnocentrism and relativism balance out 6 What is ScheperHughes alternative to objectivity or cultural relativity in anthropological work Humanitarian Anthropology where the anthropologist is concerned with how people treat one another In this case moral relativism is no longer appropriate and anthropology must be critically grounded if it is to have any worth Anthropologists must serve as witnesses and reporters of human rights abuses and human suffering 7 How can awkward or embarrassing moments be useful in anthropological research Sometimes especially when enveloped within a new or foreign culture Anthropologists are bound to make a mistake or two which leads to embarrassment or awkwardness However it is this embarrassment or awkwardness that will allow Anthropologists to not soon forget the lessons learned 0 EX 1 Hattiesburg 0 Preparation I Research history of the community I Language Talk to locals Participant Observation Get involved in activities within the community relevant to what you want to 00 learn 0 Types of Research 0 Participant Observation I Can gather information so you know which questions to ask Interviews and Oral History Timeuse Studies Archival research and previously published studies Mass Media Maps censuses photography 0 Can also come up with new ways I Triangulation use of multiple methods and sources to increase reliability 00000 0 Ethnographic method to try to understand how people understand their own lives 0 What can we learn from awkward and embarrassing moments 0 Why might marginal people be best able to teach us about their culture 0 What is the role of serendipity in anthropological research 0 Why do anthropologists use this method 8 What do you learn from Kearney s experience on page 15 The systems of beliefs that may seem alien to us at first should be considered eminently reasonable when we participate in the lives of the people who hold those beliefs 9 Why are anthropologists sometimes endangered Why would anthropologists do research in those places What do the examples of anthropological danger teach you about anthropological research 17 As anthropologists do work when human rights Violations are common danger increases The do this research in order to try and grasp the cause for tension in Violence in the culture as well as understand how it affects the culture as a whole Sometimes it takes risk in order to see the world through different eyes The intensity of some situations may make that sensation or realization even more powerful 10 Robbins quotes a Sherlock Holmes story In what ways are anthropologists like detectives What does he mean when he says culture can be read as a text Anthropologists like detectives base their findings much on material remains With these remains anthropologists deduce and describe the culture or preVious owner of the object He says read culture as a text of symbols drawings objects etc Then decipher the meaning of the symbols within the cultural text which will enable us to interpret meaning 11 What are some key features of the Balinese cockfight and how do anthropologists understand them 0 Language cockfighting O cock rooster hero warrior bachelor dude politician O cockfight trial war election disputes 0 Bali is cock shaped 0 What is at stake O 2 rings 39 Outer money I Inner status 0 What happens in the ring stays in the ring 0 Larger Context 0 Hierarchical Society 0 Cultural value of harmony O A story they tell themselves 12 What are key cultural lessons of football according to the text It is a competition in which spectators separate themselves based on who they support Language similar between football and war Feel the same about football as war Men attacking one another Contrast between male and female 13 What do you learn about our society by considering the hamburger and cola of an American meal We take for granted the abundance of meat Our society is based on beef consumption Quick and inexpensive energy boost Busy lifestyle on the go 14 Who is Paco Underhill What is one way that anthropological methods have been useful to business Retail anthropologists who examines the interaction between people and products and people and spaces He helps businesses identify how people experience the act of shopping Chapter 2 1 How did people live for most of human history and when did this start to change 0 10000 years ago 0 Did people just need to learn to do it 0 necessary evil 0 Population pressure and con ict over resources 0 Wherewhat next 2 What is progress and what problems exist for anthropologists with this concept 0 Culturally specific an idea shaped by a certain culture but is not the same within other cultures 0 Book 29 An idea that human history is the story of a steady advance with humans increasing control over natural forces 0 Is this really true or is it an ethnocentric fallacy 0 A history of ideas of development and progress in anthropology O Typologies of cultures 0 Leslie White 0 Origins and consequences of agriculture 0 Political transitions and social complexity 0 Development underdevelopment colonialism and neocolonialism 3 Why did people shift from foraging to sedentary agriculture What were the effects of this shift What are the characteristics of the different types of society e g table p 31 Compare how much work is involved and how many acres are necessary to support a population e g p 367 0 Population pressure and con ict over resources 0 Is it easier less work 0 How many hours do foragers work How many do we work 0 Is it more efficient that is does it produce more with less energy 0 Days laboracre ag 1825 Irrigation ag 90178 0 Book on potato production 4 What were Morgan s and White s understandings of cultural evolution What criticism can we make of their frameworks Leslie White 0 Technology becomes more productive and culture changes 0 Change is not necessarily better 0 Technology does not necessarily mean better 0 Culture evolves as amount of energy per capita per year increases or the efficiency of using it increases 0 Culture vs Culture 0 Lewis Henry Morgan 18181881 stages of culture change w technology and subsistence O Savagery O Barbarism 0 Civilization 5 What have anthropologists learned about foragers to make them question the progress theory of cultural change Give some examples from the Hadza and Juwasi 0 Foragers Hunters and Gatherers O Hadza and Inuit Mobile Low population density Egalitarian informal structure small familybased groups Division of labor Work I Hadza 2 hrday for food 39 JuWasi lt20 hrwk 0 Health generally better than neighbors 00000 6 What is the relationship between population density and the origins of agriculture 0 Pop Growth I pop Density 7 In what ways has food production become more productive but in a way less efficient the history of human existence 8 What do you learn from the comparison of potato production in the US with sweet potatoes in New Guinea New Guinea produce about 5 million calories per acrs where as American produce 12 million However vast amounts of nonhuman energy is expended Chemicals also used 9 Who benefits from modernization Who benefited from the industrial revolution How did colonialism and globalization increase inequality How did the English textile industry link different regions and peoples 0 1830 cultuurstelsel l5 later 13 of land had to be used for export crops as a tax 0 Subsistence I work for whatever wages offered on plantation 0 18301870 about 30 of Dutch budget from Indonesia 0 Used for schools dikes subsidize its textile industry restricting the sale of non Dutch textiles in Indonesia fund wars 0 By the end of the century it was modern rich industrialized and Indonesia was backwards agricultural isolated unindustrialized 0 By 930 84 of the world was controlled by a western country 0 Development 0 Economic growth and integration should solve problems 0 Foreign aid and investment will help 0 Western Countries are able to dictate terms 0 Why I E g World Bank and Loans I IMF and Structural Adjustment Programs 0 Who reaps the benefits of economic growth 10 Where did the idea of economic development come from What is neocolonialism How did economic restructuring affect countries during the 1980s using capitalism business globalization and cultural imperialism to in uence a country 11 How do modern and traditional healthcare compare Is the former necessarily better than the latter Why or why not Medical Anthropology 0 What makes you die from an infectious disease 1 Pathogen 2 Virulence 3 Immune System Response 0 How does inequality impact these 1 Settlement Patterns 2 Access to clean water 3 Overall health 0 Inequality 0 40 of all deaths caused my humans affecting environment We have clean water what about others 12 Why have some cultures died out How does cultural devastation affect people and how do cultures respond What happened in the Great Plains of the United States Indigenous cultures NO match for wellarmed men ch 3 1 What percent of the world s consumption is done by the richest 20 of the world s population What percent is consumed for the poorest 20 0 86 Richest 0 13 Poorest 2 What are some examples of things that represent symbolize what is important in life and will bring happiness in different cultures What is it for contemporary US society 0 Trobriand Islanders Yams and shell necklaces Indigenous peoples of American Great Plains Buffalo Then horse warfare and raiding 0 US Money 3 Why do Malay fishing boats only employ unrelated crew members 0 In order to avoid any con ict between crew members regarding money being spread throughout the family or kinship Money threatens the peace between the kinships so it is spent automatically on goods and shared between the family 4 How do relationships based on monetary exchange differ from other exchanges 0 Monetary exchange shortterm begins and ends with the transaction whereas kin relations longterm and intimate are permanent and enduring 5 How do commodity money and fiat money differ What is credit money What is the history of these in the United States How much of our money is bills and coins 0 Commodity money money that is backed by something of worth such as silver or gold Issues resources backing the money could differ in worth in different areas 0 19th Century 30000 different currencies were in circulation in the US 0 1971 US stops backing its money with anything creating Fiat Money 0 Fiat Money Paper used as a claim to economic value though it was not legally redeemable for anything 6 Why is perpetual growth required in our economy What has to increase along with an increase in money and why 0 Because our economy allows people to make money with money through loans at interest the money supply must grow Thus perpetual growth 0 Consumer goods must also increase or else people will have to pay more resulting in in ation where the value of money decreases 7 What can be bought and sold How does this vary by society and over time What is capital conversion and how does it work What forms of capital can we talk about in this process 0 The more things we buy and sell the greater number of goods and services the better the economy For an economy to grow there has to be a constant transfer of things and activities into the monetary sphere 0 Capital Conversion the transformation of something that has no monetary value into something that can be bought or sold in the market 0 Forms of Capital 0 Political Capital The freedom we have to regulate our own lives and the access we have to societal leaders and decision makers 39 CEOs of powerful corporations can use money to either limit or increases this freedom or access 0 Social Capital Relations of reciprocity and trust that enable people to solve problems collectively Has decreased in most societies over time 0 Economic Money Has increased along with the market exchange over time 0 Natural Selfexplanatory 8 How do things we think of as being outside the market such as love get commodified 0 Marketers employ ads to equate beer with friendship or love with diamonds Travel industries want you to believe a sunset is not enjoyed unless from the bow of a cruise ship or from some far away beach In Japan lonely businessmen can hire families 9 What does Putnam attribute the loss of social capital in the US to 0 Half of the decline is the result of a slow steady replacement of a long civic generation In other words our generation is becoming less involved The introduction of electronic entertainment particularly tv Also the time and money requirements from pressures on twocareer families and the increasing urban communities that lack centers or actual community The attributes of decline in social capital actually contribute to the growth in economic capital by the rules and regulations enacted to encourage the suburban sprawl 10 What is an economic system according to your book 0 Are about the distribution of goods and services that is the rules mechanisms institutions and systems of relations through which people get what they want 11 What are the reasons for and against government regulation of markets What did Keynes argue What do neoliberals argue What neoliberal policies were adopted in the 1970s and why 0 For 0 An unregulated market resulted in abysmal working conditions environmental degradation and wild uctuations that saw people suddenly plunged into poverty 0 Polanyi If unhindered the market would soon destroy the very foundations of society Reduced freedom and degrade environment Extremes North Korea completely staterun 0 Extreme US Capitalist but not free of complete interference O O Keynes Advocated a policy of using government to regulate the economy through spending tax policies interest rates and so on Resulted in rapid economic growth Abandoned in 70 s 0 Against 0 18th century economist claimed government playing a small role would allow the people to supply only what was demanded allowing for a balance Smith by seeking money people would supply what was demanded for the benefit of all 0 Neoliberalism Economic philosophy that argues for minimal government involvement and greatly accelerated economic growth Wellbeing is best served by liberating individual entrepreneurs to operate in a framework of strong property rights free markets and free trade I Policies Privatizing staterun enterprises encouraging exportation and discouraging imports Few positive results 12 What did the feasibility study of a large hog production site in Michigan fail to look at What were the consequences of the plant for the local economy 0 Environmental and local effects 0 The plant resulted in a decrease in local property value population and overall economic health 0 Polluted air and water 13 What is market externalization What are some examples for an automobile and how are different people affected Do consumers pay the real costs of production and consumption for the goods they consume Who does 0 Market Externalization Costs or benefits of economic transaction that are not included in prices these may include the environmental social or political consequences 0 Cars gas possible interest accidents life infrastructure costs 0 Increase in inequality 0 Rarer do consumers pay the real costs rather the future generations must suffer the consequence 14 What is the role of government in the economy even under neoliberalism How is a tshirt an example 0 The government is everything 15 What are the WTO World Bank International Monetary Fund and GATT 0 WTO obtain agreements from countries to remove restrictions to free trade Puts economic growth before everything 0 World Bank Provides loans to developing countries 0 IMF foster global monetary cooperation secure financial stability facilitate international trade promote high employment and sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty around the world 0 GATT substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis 16 What strategies do governments typically use to deal with the dilemma of how to balance public and corporate interests 73 0 Pay lip service to social political and environmental concerns by emphasizing other values such as democracy and freedom while actually doing little about the concern 0 Displace the responsibility on unelected and remote global governance such as the WTO 0 Also free corporations and mass media to spin events and news to allay public fears and interests SNEAKY 17 What is the difference between soft and hard power 74 0 Soft Power Consent through media or other public outlets 0 Hard Power Force Law 18 According to Robbins what might have been the US role in the rising insurgency in Iraq 75 0 Impose a neoliberal regime Turn Iraq into a model of free trade 19 What complex financial arrangement related to loans fed into the financial crisis of 2008 Why did mortgage companies have incentive to make loans without concern for the ability of borrowers to repay 0 Mortages investments and bonds Basically people invested in homes and lost 0 Betting that prices would rise 20 Why does the need for our economy to perpetually grow ultimately cause problems for it 0 The wealthier we become the more difficult it is to maintain the increasing rate Can t real in investments without risking economic growth 21 What are the HDI GDP and GPI Why would gpi have declined even though gdp went up 0 HDI Human Development Index considers quality of life including life expectancy literacy gender equality food and income security 0 GPI Genuine Progress Indicator Subtracts items that diminish quality of life 0 GDP Gross Domestic Product does not consider consequential factors chapter 4 1 How do vocabulary grammar and metaphors of a language relate to how we see the worldperceive things What is the Sapir Whorf hypothesis How for example does the grammar of English in uence how we think of the world 0 Each language constitutes a frame of reference that orders a particular view of the world Vocabulary can change based on social and environmental differences We think of the world as made of objects Time people food things 0 SapirWhorf The idea that there is an explicit link between the grammar if a language and the culture of the people who speak it 2 How do metaphors work to shape how we understand things 0 You can tell how people view things by the metaphors they use For example time is money We value time as an important resource 0 Key Metaphors metaphors that dominate 3 What is the Kwakwaka wakw metaphor of hunger and how does it work in the culture How does it assert moral responsibility to control greed and con ict What does this have to do with children What is the cannibal dance and how might an anthropologist understand it as symbolic action 0 Eating is life it frees souls and provides nutrition 0 Like unrestrained hunger greed causes people to accumulate wealth far beyond what is necessary People who hoard are hoarding souls 0 Hunger is seen as immorality as it is a human desire that creates con ict and destruction 0 Eating is thus highly ritualized and controlled This teaches children to control their hunger Dance is a symbolization of what might happen if greed and con ict are not controlled Taming the Hamatsa 4 How does symbolic action reinforce a particular view of the world Give examples How does the game of chess illustrate this 0 They represent public displays of culture portrayals of meanings shared by the groups 0 Chess Rank is power represents superiority of the aristocracy 5 How does ritual reinforce belief and convince people of the validity of their beliefs e g see p 92 Give examples 0 Simply put it is the excitement of it all The rush the rise in emotion it leaves the people exhilarated These special feelings are placed on belief rather than the event or ritual 6 What is a key scenario and what are examples What did Campbell conclude about myth all over the world 0 Dominant stories or myths that portray the values and beliefs of a specific society 0 They all involve a hero who embodies the most valued qualities of said societies in search of something 7 How do beliefs change and why don t they change in the face of contradictory evidence Know the concepts interpretive drift secondary elaboration selective perception and suppressing evidence being prepared to illustrate with examples 0 Interpretive Drifts The slow often unacknowledged shift in someone s manner of interpreting events as he or she becomes involved with a particular activity The see a bigger picture in a sense 0 Secondary Elaboration Term suggested by E E Evanspritchard for people s attempts to explain inconsistencies or contradictions in their beliefs 0 Selective Perception Tendency of people to see and recognize only those things they expect to see or those that confirm their view of the world 0 Suppressing Evidence Tendency to reject or ignore evidence that challenges an accepted belief 8 What are frames as explained by Lakoff How are they metaphors How does Lakoff see this playing out in politics How according to him do liberal and conservatives use the metaphor of the nation being like a family differently How does this translate into political views on specific issues 0 Mental structures that shape the way we see the world They shape our goals plans and actions 0 Conservative based on a strictfather model Father as the guardian of his family and the leader Founding Fathers Uncle Same Government should be a moral authority that teaches discipline and selfreliance 0 Liberal Emphasize love empathy and nurturance Government should nurture and help people 9 How does the type of society we live in relate to the views we have about the world How did Mary Douglas explain this with grid group theory How might gridgroup theory help us to understand politics in our own society 0 Group the extent to which a person is incorporated into bounded limits 0 Grid Degree to which a person s life is limited by externally imposed prescriptions 10 What is a revitalization movement What was the Ghost Dance and how is it an example What is significant about the Shakers 0 Attempts by a people to construct a more satisfying culture Generally results in a period of upheaval or oppression leads to a new or revised belief system 0 Shakers Faced oppression and persecution 0 Ghost Dance a ritual interpreted to revitalize what was happening to the native americans Spread quickly as their was much unease among all native americans towards the European powers Chapter 5 2 Why would soap operas tell us something about culture and patterns of family relations when we know that they are not realistic They depict individuals with choices to make that affect others Reveal character motivation and development Because in some way people who watch the shows have to be able to relate to one of the characters 0 Look at composition of family 0 How it is formedmaintained 0 How sexuality love and wealth are dealt with what kind of issue and con icts disrupt family life 3 What contrast is there between US and Brazilian soap operas What does this difference suggest about the cultures 0 Brazilian 0 Themes of class mobility such poor marrying rich 0 Love is dangerous and unrequited 0 Family of Orientation Family group that consists of father mother self and sibling 0 US 0 Illicit love incest cheating greed and family con ict 0 Family of Procreation Husband wife and their children 4 What characterizes US kinship How does this contrast with the other cultures discussed 0 Americans consider themselves equally tied to both their mother and father and each of their kin 0 Bilateral kinship tracing their descent through both parents 0 Americans make no distinction between their maternal aunts and uncles and their paternal aunts and uncles Nor do they distinguish between their cousins on each side 0 Nuclear Family Consisting of a father mother and their children whether biological or adopted 0 Other societies Emphasize ties to one parents matrilineal and patrilineal 0 Only people from their mother or father s side are considered family I However rarely is kinship from the irrelevant side ignored Simply labeled differently 5 Use the table below to make sure you know how family and marriage contrast in the three groups discussed JuWasi Trobrianders Chinese Peasants Your Culture Economy Type Political Organization Democracy Family Composition Bilateral Matrilineal Patrilineal Bilateral Men s Marry Age A little older older initiation rite first Women s Marry Age Girls may marry younger very young Marriage 1St marriage is Matchmaker On your own Adopt a boy or girl Arrangements arranged Women to keep name going may resist or so forth Preferred marriage Single man Clan exogamy Wealthy good partner characteristics hunter different Job educatlon and Why responsible matrilineage generous not closely related or same last name Marriage ceremony Eat together Formal Ceremony Formal Ceremony Postmarital Residence Neolocal Household Nuclear come Extended three or Married couple Nuclear Composition and go from more generations married sons camps as please daughter inlaws and unmarried daughters Divorce Feasibility Easy Easy Difficult Complex process Men gain through A lover marriage Women gain through A lover marriage Marriage paymentgift Bride Service Bride Wealth Dowry goods to None Woman s brother exchanges requirements that grooms family gives yams the groom work for the bride s parents Major threat to Name not carrying family Key Relationship HusbandWife Brothersister Fatherson Roles of sexuality love wealth Not worried about Sexuality Other facts as you Pregnancy from Women gain status read eg taboo spirit of lineage through son entering the womb httpswwwumanitobacafacultiesartsanthropologykintitlehtml 7 What does Robbins mean when he says that the Chinese patrilineage exists as much in time as space p 115 Why are sons so important 0 Identity of a male is defined by his relations to the dead as well Social worth is a re ection of his ancestors Sons are a living proof that a man s line will continue 8 Why do health workers combatting HIVAIDS need to understand people s attitudes towards sexuality love and family 0 Families have a code of silence in Mexico about sex Women are also expected to be submissive to the man Request for condom may carry implication of distrust 10 How is the following not illustrating either matrilineal or patrilineal relationships What does it show Chapter 6 1 What are social identities 0 Views that people have of their own and others positions in society Individuals seek confirmation from others that they occupy the positions of the social landscape they claim to occupy 0 Whenever we interact with others we have to be able to distinguish them as from just any other person ie friends 0 We avoid not knowing how to behave by categorizing each other 0 For example you might curse in front of your friends but not your parents 0 2 How can names reveal how people in a culture conceive of themselves and their relationships with others 0 Names can describe how we perceive another 0 In American business culture we greet each other with first names last names and business titles revealing how they are connected to their organization I Believe a person is the same in character no matter their position or age so they keep the same name always resulting in a very individualistic society 0 Moroccans when traveling give their names and hometown as their idea of self is embedded in their origins and family 0 Gitskan of British Columbia name is inseparable from your social position 3 What is the distinction between sociocentric and egocentric senses of self How are the United States and Japan examples How does this difference manifest itself in the ways that we interact with others in those cultures How is it manifested in language Two distinct ways in which a person is conceived in different societies 0 Sociocentric A view of the self that is context dependent there is no intrinsic self that can possess enduring qualities 0 Instead of he is generous you would say he gives money to his friends 0 Egocentric Self that defines each person as a replica of all humanity the locus of motivations and drives capable of acting independently from others 0 US Individual is viewed as the center of awareness a distinct whole set against other wholes 39 Social relations as contracts between autonomous freely acting beings Japan and US 4 Identity tool box What are the most important characteristics How do cultures vary in the traits used to create identity What other traits might you find in the identity tool box 0 Differences and similarities among people are the materials from which we construct social relationships that allow us to distinguish individuals from one to another 0 From these we construct our social identity 0 Toolbox features of a person s identity gender age appearance etc that he or she chooses to emphasize in constructing a social self 0 Family gender and age are used in every society as categories of a social code 0 Others such as skin color ethnicity and wealth figure only in some societies 0 Work ethic willingness to achieve health grade behavior dress 0 Kinship In traditional societies kinship is central organizing principle the main determinant of one s social identity ie anthropologists are adopted by a family therefore assigning them a social identity through which others can approach them 0 To have no kinship or designation is to have no place within that society 0 Language essential for the maintenance of a group identity 0 Even the way the same language is spoken can say a lot ie southern Mississippi vs Englanders 0 Religious Affiliation In Northern Ireland being protestant or Catholic is the most important defining feature of social identity 5 Positive and negative identity what are they Come up with your own examples 0 In two separate groups the things group 2 does becomes negative attributes to group 1 0 Positive Identity attribution to people of personal characteristics believed to be desirable 0 Negative Identity Attribution of personal characteristics believed to be undesirable 6 Why do we say gender is a cultural creation or construct How do we socialize children into gender 0 Gender Construction different standards apply to being male and female It is a construct based on the roles behaviors activities and attitudes specified for each gender in US only man and woman 0 US Gender assignment begins at birth with the determination of boy or girl then the baby is given a genderspecific name and dressed in genderappropriate clothing 0 Language diminutives and innerstate words more common with baby girls cutie happy sad sweeties I More prohibitives No No with boys 0 Teach children that is manly to be tough I Boys discouraged from expressing emotions and encouraged when they can withstand it I Girls comforted when they re hurt Taught to be caring and helpful encouraged to take part in feminine behavior 7 What are third genders Why does Whitehead think that Americans have a hard time recognizing a third gender 0 Native Americans Berdache and Nadle O Berdache Cheyenne and Lakota I Lakota males learned that they could choose the dress and work of a women and even have sex with men 0 Nadle Navajo O A biological male who does not fill the standard male roles Sometimes revered I In US such people seen as deviant abnormal nonconformist O Whitehead suggests that Americans have difficulty because they make ethnocentric assumptions about what characteristics are most important in defining gender roles I Define gender largely by sexual preference whether a person prefers to have sex with a make or female 0 Cisgender assigned sex and felt gender line up 0 Transgender O Intersex 8 How can people use language to create social identities and boundaries What does Lakoff suggest about how women in our society often speak How can language be used to construct the identities of other people 0 Children unconsciously lower or raise the pitch of their voice to conform 0 Feminity O Lisp no profanity 0 Lakoff says women are encouraged to suppress their expression of opinion with very linguistic devices 0 Tag questions this is terrible isn t it 0 Kinda probably hedges O Represent the relative powerlessness of women To speak as a woman requires avoiding firm commitment or expressing strong opinions and in general being constrained to use a powerless language 0 Identity judgements about race are coded in the way we speak 0 Black typically have a negative meaning 0 rivalries 9 What is a rite of passage and what are the stages identified by Van Gennep Come up with examples Why might it be that there are more marked and difficult ones for boys than girls as they become adults in many cultures 0 Rite of passage rituals that mark a person s passage from one identiy or status to another 0 Ritual separates the person from their existing identity I Typical with funerals 0 Transition phase I Childhood to adulthood I Puberty 0 Changes are incorporated into a new identity I Marriage ceremonies 0 Manhood 0 Test of courage 0 At beginning of life there is a subliminal identification with the mother and men must make greater strides to differentiate themselves from this connection 10 What three things stand out in Sanday s study of one fraternity What does she conclude that fraternity initiation rituals do Why would people who are decent on their own sometimes do things even they might think objectionable when in a group or in the context of an initiation 1 There is a heavy emphasis in frats on male bonding behavior selfesteem and identity are dependent on entry into a frat and being accepted by the brothers Provides reassurance security and a readymade identity 2 Sex constitutes a major status and identity marker Masculinity demonstrated through sexual conquest Even arranged for brothers to watch them 3 Attitudes towards women women were seen as sex objects to be abused Female s identity among the frat was based on her sexual interactions with them frigid cockteasers sluts One reason males bond is to achieve power and domination males feel are owed to them Wroonnng 4 Phallocentrism deployment of the penis as a concrete symbol of masculine social power and dominance In the context of the frat gang rape is the outcome of a process of identity formation Rituals cleanse the frat brothers of their nerd sin or innocence Prove trust Solidifies a frat guy s identity by separating him from his previous identity as a member of a family and perhaps separating him from his mother Degradation of female identity through sexual conquest and physical abuse of women leading to male bonding 11 How do we communicate identity through things 0 Are interactions with others by making statements about who we think we are or who we want to be The clothes we wear cars we drive and people we re friends with are all used to display an identity that we think we have or desires If gender distinguishes individuals there must be way to display sexual differences 12 Principles of exchange reciprocity how the production and distribution of commodities in the market creates different relationships than reciprocity and redistribution What is the difference between a commodity and a gift How do we deal with this when we give mass produced commodities as gifts in our society I Principle of reciprocity Social princippl that giving a gift creates social ties with the person receiving the gift who eventually is obliged to reciprocate 0 If of equal value equality 0 Who gives better gift higher status than receiver I Production and distribution of goods have become impersonal that has alienated objects and relations 0 Commodities goods that carry little personal meanings O Possessions associated in a personal way with their producer 0 Difference A sells to B and exchange is over vs gift exchange a permanent link is established between giver and receiver They are bound to each other in some way I We appropriate the commodity What is right for them Marketers label products with distinct identities 13 What is the kula ring What is making moka I Kula ring circulation of gifts among the Trobriand Islanders Serves as a concrete representation of the ties between individuals Any changes in the pattern of gift giving re ects a change in the nature of social ties O Necklace moves clockwise armbands the opposite 0 Making Moka is a form of ceremonial gift exchange in which a man makes an initial gift to a trading partner and then receives in return more than he gave 0 Establish and maintain inks between individuals and groups as well as rank 14 Identity struggles and come up with your own example 0 What is it I Discrepancy between identity a person claims and the one attributed to that person 0 Positive I Self Esteem I No I Attribution of positive traits I Yes 0 Negative I Attribution of negative traits to a group or individual Because you don t a lot of money they must be in expensive stores to steal 15 What is fat talk Is it the same for everyone I Thinness is good fatness is bad and dieting is the way to get in shape Northern Ireland I The Troubles 0 Late 1960 s to 1998 I Sectarian ie Catholic vs Protestant identity I Social Divisions 0 Different neighborhoods social networks schools 0 Economic aspect discrimination against Catholics unemployment I Social Cues for people to identify each other 0 E g name residence school attended I Stereotypes O Protestant military triumph Great Britain neat clean 0 Catholic true Irish decency 1 How is inequality most commonly measured Through income distribution 0 Income I In US income gap has increased drastically between the bottom 10th percentile and top 90th percentile O Gini Coefficient I Based on Lorenz Curve I Larger Number More Unequal 2 What has been happening to inequality in the United States in recent decades 3 What is the Gini coefficient and What does it mean if it is 0 or 1 What is a Lorenz curve How does the Gini coefficient for the US compare to other countries and What kinds of factors affect it 4 Is hierarchical ordering of people and groups unavoidable Why or Why not 5 What dimensions do social hierarchies vary by p 155 6 What are some criteria used by different societies to create social hierarchies 7 How are caste and class different from each other 8 What similarities did the Comaroffs find among youth all over the world What is the nightmare image of young people that is sometimes found in the media 9 How do incarceration rates for white and minority youth compare Why 10 Why does Milner say that high school youth obsess over status Why does this mean that they might put down other students Why might sexism be prevalent in schools according to studies 11 What did Willis learn about how class is reproduced in schools 12 What is the basic contradiction regarding inequality in our society What three structural features of our society result in maintaining inequality 13 What is the new racism 14 What is Ideology of class and what is it in the United States 15 How did some people claim that race was natural instead of socially and culturally constructed justifying racial hierarchies Who are Morton and Gould and what did they do 16 How is the idea of intelligence socially constructed and why is it important for understanding inequality in the US What are the five key assumptions behind our concept of intelligence and why are they problematical 17 How has gender stratification been linked to biology in our society What did assumptions in the language of textbooks Martin discover and what does this tell us about an ideology of gender stratification in our society 171 18 What is culture of poverty and what should it not be understood to imply 19 What are some adaptations to poverty 20 What are the three kinds of reciprocity 21 What does Bourgois identify as the root problem for people in East Harlem Why is it not drugs 22 How do the studies of Stack and Bourgois show that poor people do not simply accept their position but instead have the same aspirations as people in higher positions Why don t they advance more often 23 Who are the Hutterites Ch 8 9 Does the evidence seem to suggest an innate aggressive impulse is the cause of collective violence for humans Even if there is one why does that not explain acts of violence How do societies either encourage or discourage ie encourage peace collective violence Answer this specifically with the ethnographic examples from the text as examples of the more general principles See if you can come up with other examples of those general principles e g do they play a role in wars you studied in HIS 102 the news etc Watch also for examples of concepts and principles from earlier chapters for example p182 references a myth What does anthropology show regarding Hobbes beliefs about human nature What conditions give rise to violent con ict among the Yanomamo and some gangs btw what does this suggest might be true about how the cultures became violent in the first place and what it might be possible to do to end violence in the future How were the conditions for violence among the Yanomamo created according to Ferguson 10 ll 12 13 14 How do gender relations seem to be different in peaceful and violet societies What might be the relationship between sexism and violence What are the effects of war on population levels How might it be different in different societies What is meant by human terrain What is the HTS project in the military Why was it controversial in anthropology How might violent con ict have contributed to the rise of states How can collective violence be related to male solidarity How have societies justified weapons of mass destruction What did Gusterson learn about how nuclear weapons scientists understood their work How did critics of nuclear weapons understand the world differently How did nuclear weapons scientists come to share a set of beliefs In what way was the security clearance process a rite of passage What did secrecy do for the scientists What role did testing a weapon play What did Cohn learn about the language of nuclear destruction How does it hide the realities of violence What was the role of metaphors How did the language of technostrategy shape what could be said What does the author of the textbook consider the most important implication of Cohn s work
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